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Diabetes Khan Academy

Breaking Down Diabetes

Breaking Down Diabetes

- Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome that's caused by improper function of insulin, and, as a result, there's disregulation of the blood sugar levels. This results in high blood sugar, which is also known as hyperglycemia, but what exactly does this all mean? To get a better idea, let's first go over the body's normal regulation of blood sugar. To do that, I'm gonna just bring in a diagram here. In this diagram, you'll see up here, you have the esophagus, that goes into the stomach and into the beginning portion of the intestines. Then, here in pink, represents a blood vessel. In yellow here, is the pancreas. There are three major types of nutrients that your body uses for energy. There's fat, protein, and carbohydrates. We're gonna be focusing on carbohydrates. I'm gonna just abbreviate that CHO, which stands for carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which is the chemical makeup of carbohydrates. The carbohydrates that we eat go through our esophagus and into our stomach and they start to get digested. As they enter into the intestines, they're digested down into glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar, and it's very important in the body because cells throughout the body use glucose as energy. Glucose, like I said, is a type of sugar, so, sometimes, people will refer to it as blood sugar levels, and what they are referring to are the level of glucose in the blood. This glucose is absorbed through the GI tract into the blood vessels here. Once it's in the blood, it then travels to the cells of the body, such as muscle cells, where it can be used for energy, or the glucose in the blood can travel to the liver, where it is stored to be used as energy in the future, so let's see this happen. This is where the role of the pancreas becomes important because glucose, on its own, is not able Continue reading >>

Treating Type I Diabetes

Treating Type I Diabetes

- [Voiceover] Since type one diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of the pancreas, that results in an absolute deficiency of insulin, it makes sense that the treatment of type one diabetes is to give insulin. Now, this is true, but unfortunately it's not quite that simple. So let's talk about treating type one diabetes. And before we get into the specifics of the treatment, let's first briefly review some of the metabolic states in the human body. And there are two general states. You have the absorptive state in which the body takes energy and stores it and you have the post-absorptive state, in which the body takes this stored energy from the absorptive state and utilizes it. Now this absorptive state here is driven by the hormone insulin. Whereas the post-absorptive state is driven by the hormone glucagon. Now throughout the day, the human body will typically fluctuate back and forth between this absorptive state and this post-absorptive state. So to get a better understanding of how this looks, let's draw what I'll call a physiologic timeline. And let's just bring in a graph here to help describe this timeline. Now down here on this x-axis we'll have the time of the day. And right here in the middle we'll have noon, six in the morning, six at night, midnight, and then maybe we'll put three AM, nine AM, three PM, and nine PM. Now as I mentioned before, the body will fluctuate back and forth between this absorptive state and post-absorptive state. So let's see that here. And if you look closely, this fluxuation back and forth makes sense here, and around six AM when you go from this post-absorptive state while you're sleeping, and then you eat breakfast, and then you'll go into an absorptive state because you need to absorb the nutrients from the food in break Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

So, diabetes is a very common disease. It affects nearly 10 percent of the population and more than 25 percent, or one in four people over the age of 65 have diabetes. But what exactly is diabetes mellitus? Let me start by going through a couple of scenarios. Now the first scenario I wanna talk about is that of Joe here. So let me bring in Joe. Now Joe is a 15 year old boy. Over the past few months Joe just really hasn't been feeling well. He says, you know it's hard to kind of put his finger on it, but he's in general been a little bit more tired and fatigued than usual. In fact, it's caused him to lose a little bit of weight and he's already kind of a skinny guy to begin with, so that's definitely something that's abnormal for him. And you know his mother's with him and his mother says you know "Joe's been, it's kinda been odd, "Joe's been carrying around this water bottle "with him everywhere for the past few months. "He seems to just be drinking "liters upon liters of water a day." And when asked about it Joe acknowledges this, he says "Yeah, I have been a little bit "more thirsty than usual." and because of this, he says, "You know, I've been going to bathroom, "I've been needing to urinate all the time." Now, let's contrast Joe to Bruce here. Now, Bruce is very different than Joe. Bruce is a 45 year old gentleman. And he's come in to the doctor for his annual physical and when he goes to the doctor he says, "You know doc, I've been feeling pretty good. "I mean, yeah, maybe I've packed on "a few extra pounds around the waist, "but in general I'm feeling pretty healthy." Now, say both Joe over here and Bruce are seeing the same family practice doctor. You know for Joe, he says "Yeah, I am worried "about this thirst and urination and the losing weight. "I think we sh Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is a common disease where there is too much sugar (glucose) floating around in your blood. This occurs because either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or the cells in your body have become resistant to insulin. When you eat food, the amount of glucose in your blood skyrockets. That’s because the food you eat is converted into glucose (usable energy for your cells) and enters your blood to be transported to your cells around the body. Special cells in your pancreas sense the increase of glucose and release insulin into your blood. Insulin has a lot of different jobs, but one of its main tasks is to help decrease blood glucose levels. It does this by activating a system which transports glucose from your blood into your cells. It also decreases blood glucose by stimulating an enzyme called glycogen synthase in the liver. This molecule is responsible for making glycogen, a long string of glucose, which is then stored in the liver and used in the future when there is a period of low blood glucose. As insulin works on your body, the amount of glucose in the blood slowly returns to the same level it was before you ate.. This glucose level when you haven’t eaten recently (called fasting glucose) sits around 3.5-6 mmol/L (70-110 mg/dL). Just after a meal, your blood glucose can jump as high as 7.8mmol/L (140 mg/dL) depending on how much and what you ate. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. In both types, your body has trouble transporting sugar from your blood into your cells. This leads to high levels of glucose in your blood and a deficiency of glucose in your cells. The main difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the underlying mechanisms that cause your blood sugar to stray from the normal range. T Continue reading >>

Breaking Down Diabetes - Khan Academy

Breaking Down Diabetes - Khan Academy

A series of talks by Khan Academy with fairly scientific overview of diabetes. Khan's Academy walks you through how a body uses glucose and insulin, and how this is different in diabetes. This is quite scientific but excellent for those who want to know the nitty gritty. This is a really good overview of what type 1 diabetes is. It's very easy to follow, understand and learn from. Keywords:education, video, animation, pathophysiology, what is diabetes, science, USA, glucagon, insulin, pancreas fucntion Please note you need to log-in or register to post a comment or rate this resource. 186867186264186207186208186868 186869 186781 Your comment will be a reply on the following comment: We try to ensure that all of the resources we feature are helpful and up to date, but we need YOUR help. If you have a problem with this resource, or the link doesn't work please let us know via email. The links and information on this website are provided in good faith, but should not be relied upon as medical advice. Please consult your doctor, clinic or healthcare professional before making any changes to your diabetes management. More . 2016-present. This website was developed with the support of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care South London at Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed are those of the author[s] and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. The contents of this website are copyright of the respective authors. Links and resources are provided in good faith, T1 Resources is not responsible for the content of external sites. Please read our disclaimer . Continue reading >>

Treating Type Ii Diabetes - Pharmacology

Treating Type Ii Diabetes - Pharmacology

- [Voiceover] Type II diabetes receives a lot of attention in the laypress as a public health threat, as it affects about 10% of the global population, and is currently the eighth most common cause of death worldwide. As such, understanding how to treat type II diabetes is very important because if it's treated properly, one can avoid nearly all of the complications of type II diabetes and live a happy and healthy life. Now before we dive into the specific treatments, let's first discuss the glucose regulation pathway as it will help us to better understand the pharmacokinetics or the mechanisms of action for the different treatments of type II diabetes. Now in the center here is the blood glucose level, and as blood glucose levels increase, say after eating a meal, this is sensed by the pancreas, and the beta cells within the pancreas secrete insulin which acts on cells throughout the body to lower the blood glucose level. Then as blood glucose levels decrease, this is also sensed by the pancreas, and then the alpha cells secrete glucagon which acts to raise the blood glucose levels. And one of the mechanisms by which it does so is by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver which is then released into the blood stream. Now diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders that's caused by dysfunction of the insulin pathway resulting in an inability to lower blood glucose levels. And as you can see by this diagram, there are two main steps that must occur for this pathway to work properly. First, insulin must be secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. Then second, the cells throughout the body must respond to insulin for it to have an effect. And this glucose regulation pathway can be thought of as similar to that of the temperature regulation in a buil Continue reading >>

Treating Type Ii Diabetes - Pharmacology | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Treating Type Ii Diabetes - Pharmacology | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Treating type II diabetes - Pharmacology | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy Visit us (for health and medicine content or (for MCAT related content. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video. Created by Matthew McPheeters. Watch the next lesson: Missed the previous lesson? NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academys NCLEX-RN channel: Subscribe to Khan Academy: I shared amazing fivu com to Type two diabetes patients. The person has been able to cure his diabetic issues as well as achieved a 5.9 HA1c. The health of the other Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Types Of Diabetes | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Types of diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy Visit us (for health and medicine content or (for MCAT related content. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video. Created by Matthew McPheeters. Watch the next lesson: Missed the previous lesson? NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at READ: Healing after a heart attack (myocardial infarction) | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. Weve also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academys NCLEX-RN channel: Subscribe to Khan Academy: This entry was posted in KhanacAdemyMedicine and tagged Diabetes Mellitus (Disease Or Medical Condition) Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology - Type I Diabetes

Pathophysiology - Type I Diabetes

- Now Diabetes Mellitus is a group of disorders that's caused by improper function of insulin which is a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar or blood glucose. And this results in Hyperglycemia. But since Diabetes is a group of disorders there's many different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that can cause the disease. And depending on which mechanism is occurring in someone the presentation of the disease can actually be very different. So before we get started, I want to briefly talk about the Pancreas. Now you can see here we have the esophagus coming down and it dives behind the liver here. And then it goes into the stomach and then the stomach goes back behind the liver and comes out as the small intestine. And in yellow here, nestled in next to the small intestine and behind the stomach is the Pancreas. Now, the Pancreas is frequently referred to as being comma shaped and you can kind of get that. Oh, if you kind of turned it on its side it might look like a comma. But the way I like to remember how the Pancreas looks is by thinking about my favorite professional football team which is the Minnesota Vikings. And I kind of think the Pancreas maybe it looks like the horns on the side of the Minnesota Vikings helmet. So whatever helps you remember what the Pancreas looks like. But regardless, the Pancreas has two main functions. And the first function is Exocrine. What this means is that the Pancreas secretes Enzymes into the digestive tract which then chemically digests food and help your body absorb the nutrients we eat. So it helps with digestion. But the Pancreas also has some Endocrine function. And what this means is that it produces Hormones. And specifically for the Pancreas these Hormones help the body with Metabolism. But what does all th Continue reading >>

Glucose Insulin And Diabetes

Glucose Insulin And Diabetes

Endocrinology and Diabetes Your browser does not support video. Please get the latest version of Google Chrome, Firefox, IE, or Safari. Alternately, you can try the link below if you have VLC or another media player installed. Sorry, no compatible source and playback technology were found for this video. Try using another browser like Chrome or download the latest Adobe Flash Player. If the above player doesn't work, you can try this direct link. Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology - Type Ii Diabetes

Pathophysiology - Type Ii Diabetes

- Diabetes Mellitus is a group of disorders that's caused by improper function of insulin, which is a hormone produced by the pancreas. And insulin is responsible for helping regulate blood sugar, or glucose levels, in the blood. Now since it's a group of diseases, there are actually multiple different underlying causes of diabetes mellitus. And one of these causes is known as Type 2 Diabetes. Now, before we dive into the actual cause of Type 2 Diabetes, let's first get a better understanding of how exactly insulin works. And there are two major steps. So, imagine that you just ate a big meal. Maybe like a bowl of pasta or something. And your body is currently absorbing all of those nutrients from your digestive system into your bloodstream. Now one of these nutrients is glucose, and as your body absorbs it, that glucose starts building up in the blood stream. And in this feeding or absorptive state, your body wants to store this glucose in places like the liver and muscle cells so that it can be used for energy later when the body needs it. But unfortunately, glucose on its own can't get into these cells. In a sense, these cells are locked. But fortunately, the pancreas is able to help with this problem. So there are a couple types of cells in the pancreas that sense blood sugar levels. And these cells are located in the islets of Langerhans. And these green cells here in the islets of Langerhans are meant to represent the Beta cells. And when the blood glucose increases, the Beta cells of the pancreas sense this change, and they secrete a hormone known as insulin into the blood. And what insulin does is it acts like a key that can unlock these cells so that the glucose can be stored in both the liver and the muscle cells. So you can see that there are two steps in ord Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes

Types Of Diabetes

- [Voiceover] Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders that's caused by improper function of the hormone insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas. Now, this results in disregulation of blood glucose levels in the body, specifically resulting in hyperglycemia or high blood sugar, which is the hallmark of diabetes. Now, since diabetes is a group of disorders, this implies that there are multiple different conditions that can lead to diabetes mellitus, which is true. So let's break down diabetes into three major types. Type I, Type II, and a third category which we'll just label as miscellaneous. Now, before we dive into these three types of diabetes, let's briefly review how the hormone insulin works. In response to increase in blood glucose levels, the pancreas produces and secretes a hormone known as insulin into the bloodstream. And this insulin acts on cells throughout the body to remove the glucose from the bloodstream by either taking it up to use it for energy or to store it in the form of glycogen. And as a result, the blood glucose levels decrease. And these decreased blood glucose levels then serve as a feedback mechanism to inhibit the pancreas from secreting more insulin. So you can see that there are two major steps in this insulin pathway. First, insulin must be secreted by the pancreas in response to this increasing blood glucose level. And second, the cells throughout the body must respond to the insulin in order to carry out its metabolic functions in order to lower the glucose levels. Now, this mechanism can be thought of as similar to that of a thermostat in an air conditioning within a home. When the temperature goes up, this is sensed by the thermostat, which then sends an electrical signal to turn on the air conditioner, which will then decrease t Continue reading >>

Khan Academy- Diabetes

Khan Academy- Diabetes

Sort DM 1 overview: autoimmune, which means antibodies and T cells that destroy beta cell s of pancreas so that pancreas is unable to make insulin resulting in hyperglycemia and its the high blood sugar that results in the symptoms of type 1 diabetes ... what is responsible for filtration in the kidneys are the glomerulus, in the nephron, entering blood comes through the afferent and leaving through the efferent arterial. filtered fluid that exists the blood is know as the filtrate and it collects in the bowmans space before in enters the tubules of the nephron, where it goes through further reabsorption and secretion before the final exit into the uriters as urine ... RAAS renin aldosternone system, - if diabetic patients have an increased perfusion rate, why does this system turn on - how does this relate to nephropathy? - Hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to decreased renal profusion or low blood flow to the kidney, low body fluid volume in the body. It helps to maintain BP, it constricts the efferent arterial. - physiology of diabetes, specifically the hyperglycemia result in a direct intrarenal activations of RAAS, indipendent of the volume status of the individual - mesangial expansion. the increased pressure results in trauma and damage to the mesangial cells, who secrete cytokines to produce inflammation as well as oxygen free radicals, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. The hypertrophy causes the system to be leaky and bigger cells such as protein will leak out as well as decreased surface area for filtration. ISCHEMIA Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology - Type Ii Diabetes | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Pathophysiology - Type Ii Diabetes | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Pathophysiology - Type II diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy Please clear caches on your browser, or switch to Google Chrome for better performances. The video has been removed by the original uploader on YouTube. Please click here to report this video. If the video that youre watching is lagging, try these troubleshooting steps: Check your internet connection. For better playback quality and effect, connect to an internet broadband that is faster than 500kbps. Pause to pre-load video. When the grey bar beneath the video finished loading, play again. If the video still has problem loading, clear caches and cookies on your browser then play again. If no sound can be heard while playing YouTube videos, try these troubleshooting steps: Adjust the volume control located in the lower left corner of the YouTube video player. Adjust volume on the video player (e.g. Quicktime, Realplayer or Windows Media player). If still no sound is available after trying the troubleshooting steps above, these additional tips may help: Update your Flash Player to the latest version. Allow third-party Flash content to store data on your computer: Please visit Adobe main website for more information. Check security settings to see if third-party Flash content is blocked by anti-virus softwares or firewalls. You would only be scored if you've answered correctly on the first try. You will not be scored if the the correct answer has been displayed by the system after one try. We're sorry, video and other related functions are only available with internet connection. Go on to VoiceTube web version > Profile icon > settings , and select "password" to update your password. Go on to VoiceTube web version > Profile icon > settings , and select "upload profile picture" to cha Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Types Of Diabetes | Endocrine System Diseases | Nclex-rn | Khan Academy

Types of diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy video online Types of diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy Types of diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy Visit us (for health and medicine content or (for ... Title : Diabetes - The different types of diabetes and its treatment Summary : Worldwide, 366 million people have diabetes (statistics from 2011). In this animation, we explain what diabetes is and which different types there are, what the ... Title : Types of Diabetes - Hindi- ? Summary : There are three main types of diabetes.Type 1,Type 2 & Gestational Diabetes.Learn about the similarities and differences between diabetes type 1 and diabetes ... Title : Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes || Common Symptoms and Exact Differences Summary : The difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is very important for symptoms. Diabetes is a disease that reasons excessive blood sugar stages. Type 1 ... Title : Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes Medical Course Summary : For Educational Use Only - Fair Use - E.R. physician Dr. Travis Stork explains the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and urges Chelsey to take ... Title : What are the different types of diabetes? Summary : You asked a great question about what types of diabetes there are and how it's diagnosed or what's someone's blood sugar would have to be to actually ... Summary : Please DONATE to DirtyUSMLE: DM1 vs. DM2 with special attention to Pathophysiology (AGE, Polyol pathway, and PKC activation), ... Title : Diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2) & diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Summary : Try free board-style questions and flashcards - Subscribe - More videos - Support us on ... Title : Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology & Nursing Continue reading >>

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