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Diabetes Is Caused By

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

What Is It? Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. During digestion, food is broken down into basic components. Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, primarily glucose. Glucose is a critically important source of energy for the body's cells. To provide energy to the cells, glucose needs to leave the blood and get inside the cells. Insulin traveling in the blood signals the cells to take up glucose. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. When levels of glucose in the blood rise, like following a meal, the pancreas normally produces more insulin. Type 1 diabetes occurs when some or all of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed. This leaves the patient with little or no insulin. Without insulin, sugar accumulates in the bloodstream rather than entering the cells. As a result, the body cannot use this glucose for energy. In addition, the high levels of glucose that remain in the blood cause excessive urination and dehydration, and damage tissues of the body. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. This means it begins when the body's immune system attacks cells in the body. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas. Why the immune system attacks the beta cells remains a mystery. Some people are genetically predisposed to the disease. That does not mean they will necessarily get the disease. It just means that they are more likely to do so. Something in the environment, such as particular viral infections or something about the diet, may trigger this autoimmune disease in people with a genetic predisposition. Type 1 diabetes Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes - Causes

Type 1 Diabetes - Causes

Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that's needed to control the amount of sugar (glucose) in your blood. When you eat, your digestive system breaks down food and passes its nutrients – including glucose – into your bloodstream. The pancreas (a small gland behind your stomach) usually produces insulin, which transfers any glucose out of your blood and into your cells, where it's converted to energy. However, if you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas is unable to produce any insulin (see below). This means that glucose can't be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Autoimmune condition Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. Your immune system (the body's natural defence against infection and illness) mistakes the cells in your pancreas as harmful and attacks them, destroying them completely or damaging them enough to stop them producing insulin. It's not known exactly what triggers the immune system to do this, but some researchers have suggested that it may be due to a viral infection. Type 1 diabetes is often inherited (runs in families), so the autoimmune reaction may also be genetic. If you have a close relative – such as a parent, brother or sister – with type 1 diabetes, you have about a 6% chance of also developing the condition. The risk for people who don't have a close relative with type 1 diabetes is just under 0.5%. Continue reading >>

What Causes Diabetes?

What Causes Diabetes?

What causes diabetes? No one knows what causes diabetes, but scientists are working hard to find out. There are three major types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children, teenagers or young adults. Scientists believe this is a genetically caused condition and is not related to lifestyle habits. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and usually disappears after the baby is born. Pre-diabetes is a condition people usually have before they develop Type 2 diabetes. People with pre-diabetes have higher than normal blood sugar, but not high enough to be considered diabetic. Research shows people with pre-diabetes can prevent or delay diabetes by changing their lifestyle: by eating healthy foods, losing weight, and staying physically active. This is good news and gives us hope that we can win the fight against diabetes. But we have a long way to go. We know that out of every 10 people in South Carolina, six are overweight, six have high blood pressure, four get little or no exercise, and three have high cholesterol. The more healthy choices we make, the less diabetes we’ll have. Type 1 Diabetes Your body stops making insulin or makes only a tiny bit. Treatment: Under your doctor’s care, take insulin by needle or pump every day, eat healthy foods, exercise regularly, and monitor blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol. Cause: Scientists think people with certain genes develop something in their bodies that attacks the cells that make insulin or the insulin itself. Risk: This is a rare type of diabetes. For every 10 people with diabetes, only one has Type 1. It happens more often to children and teenagers than adults. It strikes white people more than people of color. Prevention: Researchers are trying to learn if Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms & Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms & Causes

Because our research informs our treatment, our diabetes team is known for our innovative treatments and science-driven approach. Children’s Hospital Boston is home to the world’s most extensive pediatric hospital research enterprise, and we partner with elite health care and biotech organizations around the globe. But as specialists in family-centered care, our physicians never forget that your child is precious, and not just a patient. In dealing with your child’s diabetes, you probably want to know the basics about what diabetes is, and how type 1 diabetes differs from other forms of the disease. What is diabetes? Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a lifelong condition that occurs when the body doesn’t make enough insulin, or when the body doesn’t respond properly to the insulin it makes. There are many forms of diabetes mellitus, several of which have undergone name changes as the disease has become better understood. type 1 diabetes: Formerly known as “juvenile” or “insulin-dependent” diabetes,type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system’s failure to recognize the beta cells as belonging to the body, so it attacks and destroys them. This is why type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease. Children with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections every day. type 2 diabetes: Formerly known as “adult onset” or “non-insulin dependent” diabetes, type 2 diabetes typically occurs in people who are overweight, physically inactive and over age 40, although more and more children are developing type 2 diabetes, possibly because of childhood obesity. Some children need insulin; others can control their diabetes with healthful eating and exercise, or oral medicines (hypoglycemic agents). MODY (maturity onset diabetes of youth): a form of dia Continue reading >>

Can Eating Too Much Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Can Eating Too Much Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Because type 2 diabetes is linked to high levels of sugar in the blood, it may seem logical to assume that eating too much sugar is the cause of the disease. But of course, it’s not that simple. “This has been around for years, this idea that eating too much sugar causes diabetes — but the truth is, type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease with many different types of causes,” says Lynn Grieger, RDN, CDE, a nutrition coach in Prescott, Arizona, and a medical reviewer for Everyday Health. “Type 2 diabetes is really complex.” That said, some research does suggest that eating too many sweetened foods can affect type 2 diabetes risk, and with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimating that 30.3 million Americans have the disease — and that millions of more individuals are projected to develop it, too — understanding all the risk factors for the disease, including sugar consumption, is essential to help reverse the diabetes epidemic. The Sugar and Type 2 Diabetes Story: Not So Sweet After the suspicion that sugar was the cause of diabetes, the scientific community pointed its finger at carbohydrates. That makes sense, notes Grieger, explaining that simple and complex carbohydrates are both metabolized as sugar, leading blood sugar levels to fluctuate. Yet carbs are processed differently in the body based on their type: While simple carbs are digested and metabolized quickly, complex carbs take longer to go through this system, resulting in more stable blood sugar. “It comes down to their chemical forms: A simple carbohydrate has a simpler chemical makeup, so it doesn’t take as much for it to be digested, whereas the complex ones take a little longer,” Grieger explains. Sources of complex carbohydrates include whole-wheat bread an Continue reading >>

And Diabetes

And Diabetes

Diabetes is a common, life-long condition that occurs when the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the insulin it does produce doesn’t work properly. Insulin is a hormone that transfers glucose from the bloodstream into the cells to be used for energy. If you have diabetes, your body cannot make proper use of this glucose so it builds up in the blood instead of moving into your cells. The chances of developing diabetes may depend on a mix of your genes and your lifestyle. Drinking to excess, for example, can contribute to individuals becoming diabetic. Diabetes is a manageable condition. But when it’s not well managed, it is associated with serious health complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve damage and amputations2. There are two main types of diabetes3 Type 1 diabetes develops if the body can’t produce enough insulin, because insulin-producing cells in the pancreas have been destroyed. It can happen: Because of genetic factors When a virus or infection triggers an autoimmune response (where the body starts attacking itself). People who have this type of diabetes are usually diagnosed before they’re 40 and there’s currently no way to prevent it. It’s the least common type of diabetes – only 10% of all cases are type 14. Type 2 diabetes. Develops when the body can still make some insulin, but not enough, or when the body becomes resistant to insulin. It can happen: When people are overweight and inactive. People who are an ‘apple-shape’ (with lots of fat around the abdomen) have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes Because of genetic factors. People who have this type of diabetes are usually diagnosed when they’re over 40, and it’s more common in men. However, more overweight children and Continue reading >>

How Can Diabetes Cause Atherosclerosis?

How Can Diabetes Cause Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a form of hardening of the blood vessels, caused by fatty deposits and local tissue reaction in the walls of the arteries. Blood supply beyond the affected parts of the artery is usually compromised by the narrowing and, sometimes, occlusion of the artery. The deposits, called plaques, may rupture with disastrous consequences. Diabetes mellitus is a documented high risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Heart disease and stroke, arising mainly from the effects of atherosclerosis, account for 65 percent of deaths among diabetics. Other complications of diabetes, such as blindness, gangrene and kidney disease, all have some deficiency of blood supply in their genesis. Video of the Day Normal blood vessels have an inner lining, called endothelium, that keeps blood flowing smoothly by producing local Nitrous oxide (NO). NO serves to relax the smooth muscles in the walls of the vessels and prevent cells from sticking to the walls. A disruption of this mechanism is thought to be at the heart of the increased formation of plaques in diabetes. High blood sugar, elevated fatty acids and triglycerides leads to stickier walls, encouraging the attachment of cells that produce local tissue reaction. The local tissue reaction further traps floating particles and different blood cells, heaping up and hardening the vessel walls. Insulin stimulates the production of NO by the cells lining the blood vessels. In diabetics who are resistant to the actions of insulin, this stimulatory effect is lost, resulting in increased tendencies towards plaque formation. In the presence of raised blood sugar and resistance to insulin, the lining cells of the blood vessels not only reduce production of NO, they also increase the production of substances that constrict the Continue reading >>

Natural Treatment For Type I Diabetes – Possible Causes

Natural Treatment For Type I Diabetes – Possible Causes

Three Articles On Type I Diabetes: Article #1: Introduction To Type I Diabetes Article #2: Possible Causes of Type 1 Diabetes (This Article) Article #3: The Treatment of Type I Diabetes Article #2: Possible Causes of Type I Diabetes By far the most common theory as to why type 1 diabetes forms is the destruction of the beta cells. There are several theories as to why this happens. The generally accepted theory is that an “auto-immune” reaction of the body physically destroys the beta cells in the pancreas. In other words, abnormal proteins get into the blood and in the body's attempts to destroy the proteins the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. There are theories (some with very sold evidence) as to why these proteins get into the body. The theories with the most scientific evidence revolve around vaccinations or milk (i.e. dairy products) as being the cause of the abnormal proteins entering the body and triggering the auto-immune reaction. Vaccinations are known to get all kinds of deadly and damaging things directly into the bloodstream, including abnormal proteins (triggering many different kinds of auto-immune diseases), and a wide variety of very undesirable molecules into our bodies. Impurities in a vaccine are injected directly into the body, bypassing the digestive system's ability to deal with them. If these unnatural proteins are similar enough to normal cells or beneficial proteins in the body, the immune system, in attacking the unnatural molecules, may be fooled and start attacking the natural cells or beneficial proteins. This may also lead to the immune system attacking the beta cells. Here is a very good article on this subject: Dr. Rebecca Carley, M.D. article [the article is on her main web page] Dairy products can also get abnormal protei Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes. It used to be called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent, and you may still hear it called that—but type 2 diabetes is more correct and current. The main issue in type 2 diabetes is that your body can't use insulin effectively. Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas that's necessary for processing glucose, which our bodies use for energy. Insulin allows the glucose to travel from the blood into the cells that need that it. If your body can't use insulin well, then it'll be more difficult for glucose to pass into the cells. Not being able to use insulin well is called insulin resistance. Some people with type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant; other people with type 2 diabetes don't produce enough insulin to handle the glucose in their blood, so they also have insulin deficiency. Regardless of whether you're insulin resistant or simply don't have insulin, the end result is the same in type 2 diabetes: glucose builds up in the blood, leading to hyperglycemia and possible long-term damage from hyperglycemia and poor blood glucose control. Type 2 Diabetes Causes Type 2 diabetes generally develops gradually. Over time, your body becomes less capable of using insulin, or it starts producing less insulin. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Genetics: There is a genetic component to type 2 diabetes, but that doesn't mean that just because your mother or grandfather has type 2 diabetes, you will develop it. It's better to think of it this way: if type 2 diabetes runs in your family, you're at a greater risk of developing it. Lifestyle: Lifestyle choices play a sizable role in the development of type 2 diabetes. If type 2 diabetes runs in your family, y Continue reading >>

Acute Pancreatitis

Acute Pancreatitis

Background The bile duct and main pancreatic duct meet at the sphincter of Oddi before emptying their contents into the small intestine. In 1856 Claude Bernard suggested that pancreatitis might be due to reflux of bile into the pancreatic duct. In 1901 Eugene Opie, the father of pancreatic pathology, described two patients in whom pancreatitis was due to blockage of the pancreatic duct by gall stones, and proposed that pancreatitis was caused by migration of gall stones down the bile duct.[1] Acute pancreatitis is of interest to diabetologists for three main reasons. First, because it may be a cause of diabetes. Second, because people with type 2 diabetes may be at increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Third, because acute pancreatitis has been associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies. This section considers acute pancreatitis as a cause of diabetes. Epidemiology There are about 200,000 cases each year in the USA, and the incidence of acute pancreatitis is estimated at 35–45 per 100,000 per year in California and rising. A rising incidence has also be reported in Europe. The incidence may vary from one population to another in proportion to obesity (predisposing to gallstones), alcohol consumption and possibly ethnicity. Clinical features The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based upon the triad of symptoms, enzyme elevation and radiological signs. Severe cases are readily diagnosed, but the diagnosis may be open to differences of clinical interpretation at the milder end of the spectrum, thus complicating estimates of its incidence. Acute pancreatitis typically presents with severe upper abdominal pain radiating through to the back and prostration. On palpation the abdomen shows tenderness but not rigidity (sometimes referred to as the 'plato Continue reading >>

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?

Causes of type 1 diabetes If you have just been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes you are probably wondering, 'why me?' It is important to know it is not your fault that you have type 1 diabetes – it is not caused by poor diet or an unhealthy lifestyle. In fact, it isn’t caused by anything that you did or didn’t do, and there was nothing you could have done to prevent it. Because the precise causes of type 1 diabetes are not known and there is a much greater awareness of type 2 diabetes, many myths about type 1 diabetes are in circulation. There has been a lot of research into what causes type 1 diabetes, but so far there are no clear answers. Type 1 is an autoimmune condition. An autoimmune condition is when your immune system, which normally keeps your body safe against disease, attacks itself instead. Other examples of autoimmune conditions include multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys your insulin-producing beta cells. Certain genes put people at a greater risk for developing type 1 diabetes, but are not the only factors involved. While there are no proven environmental triggers, researchers are looking for possible culprits, such as viral infections and particular molecules within our environment and foods. Is type 1 diabetes hereditary? We are also unsure about whether type 1 diabetes is hereditary or not. While 90 per cent of people who develop type 1 diabetes have no relative with the condition, genetic factors can pre-dispose people to developing type 1 diabetes. Certain gene markers are associated with type 1 diabetes risk. A child born with these will have the same risk of developing type 1 diabetes as a child with siblings with type 1 diabetes. However, having the marker alone is not e Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

Sepsis And Diabetes

Sepsis And Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (life-long) autoimmune disease that has a significant impact on your life. Having diabetes means you must work to control your blood glucose (sugar) levels to be sure that they don’t get too high or too low. The amount of glucose in your blood is important. Your body needs glucose for energy, but too much of it can destroy body tissues and too little can starve your body of nutrients. People who have diabetes are also at risk of developing wounds and sores that don’t heal well. While the wounds are present, they are at high risk of developing infection. And, again because of the diabetes, the infections can get severe quickly. When infection overwhelms the body, the body can respond by developing sepsis and going into septic shock. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and rapid treatment for survival. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly) and/or amputations. What is diabetes? Your pancreas is a small organ (about 6” by 1.5”) that is part of your digestive system. It is connected to your small intestine and it lies just below your stomach towards the back. Your pancreas has a few roles, one is to help digest the food you eat and another is to secrete (send out) insulin, which stimulates your cells to use the glucose in the food and drink you consume. When a person has diabetes, the pancre Continue reading >>

The Disease That May Be A Leading Cause Of Death

The Disease That May Be A Leading Cause Of Death

Survey estimates that diabetes accounts for many more deaths in the United States than are being reported on death certificates — and that diabetes is actually the third leading cause of death. So when a patient dies from a heart attack, stroke or heart disease that is caused by diabetes or when a patient dies from kidney failure, or if a patient dies 6 months after an amputation, the death certificate does not say that the death was caused by diabetes. About 12% of deaths in 30- to 84-year-olds from 1997 to 2011 could be attributed to diabetes, the latest data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate. But during that time, only 3.3% of death certificates listed diabetes as the underlying cause of death. The prevalence of diabetes has been rising rapidly throughout the world. Global age-standardized diabetes prevalence increased from an estimated 4.3% in 1980 to 9.0% in 2014 in men, and from 5.0% to 7.9% in women. The United States is no exception to this trend. Using combined criteria of self-reported diagnosis, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c, the prevalence of diabetes among adults aged 20+ rose from 8.4% in 1988–94 to 12.1% in 2005–10. Trends are similar when HbA1c is the sole criterion. Diabetes is associated with many diseases and disabilities, including ischemic heart disease, renal disease, visual impairment, peripheral arterial disease, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. And it can increase the risk for many other diseases, even cancer. It is also associated with mortality. In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. It was listed as the underlying cause of death on 69,091 death certificates (2.8% of total deaths) a Continue reading >>

Does Sugar Cause Diabetes?

Does Sugar Cause Diabetes?

The recent film What the Health raised the question as to whether sugar or other carbohydrates cause diabetes. Because blood sugar levels are high in diabetes, a common notion has held that eating sugar somehow triggers the disease process. The American Diabetes Association and Diabetes UK have labeled this notion a “myth,” as has the Joslin Diabetes Center, which wrote, “Diabetes is not caused by eating too much sugar.” These and other organizations have worked to educate people about the causes of diabetes and the role that foods play in the disease process. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of the disease—is caused by insulin resistance and pancreatic failure. Sugar can play an aiding and abetting role in diabetes, but the idea that “eating sugar causes diabetes” is simplistic and interferes with efforts to help the public understand the actual causes of the disease and how to protect themselves and their families. Here is what you need to know: The human body runs on glucose, a simple sugar. Just as gasoline powers your car, glucose powers your muscles, your brain, and the rest of your body. Glucose comes from fruit and from starchy foods, such as grains, beans, and potatoes, and your body can also produce it when needed. Without it, you would die. Diabetes means having higher-than-normal blood glucose values. It comes in three common forms: Type 1 diabetes is caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, usually through an autoimmune process. The triggers for this process are under investigation and may include dairy proteins, viruses, or other factors. Type 2 diabetes typically starts with insulin resistance. That is, the cells of the body resist insulin’s efforts to escort Continue reading >>

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