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Diabetes Is A Major Health Problem

5 Health Conditions That Are Caused By Diabetes

5 Health Conditions That Are Caused By Diabetes

Source: Web exclusive: May 2011 If you’ve got diabetes, that’s not the only disease you should be concerned about. Diabetes is linked to a host of other health problems. But it’s not all doom and gloom, since there are ways to reduce your risk. Number one is blood glucose control. "If you can control your diabetes, then your risk of developing those complications and secondary conditions goes down," says Karen McDermaid, a diabetes educator in Moosomin, Saskatchewan. These five conditions are the big ones to look out for if you’re prediabetic or have diabetes. 1. Heart disease and stroke Cardiovascular disease is the leading causing of death for people who have diabetes. That’s because high blood sugar can cause a gradual buildup of fatty deposits that clog and harden the walls of blood vessels. And when blood vessels are partially blocked or narrowed, it can lead to a stroke or heart attack. Not everyone faces the same risk. You’re more likely to have cardiovascular disease if you’ve been living with diabetes for more than 15 years. Same applies if you’ve already had diabetes complications affecting your eyes, kidneys or nerves, or if you’ve noticed problems with circulation, like chest pain when you’re physically active, or leg pain when you spend time walking. Cardiovascular risk factors for people without diabetes also apply to you: If you smoke, have high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels, or have close relatives who have had heart attacks or stroke, your odds are higher of developing the disease. Reduce your risk: If you smoke, quit. Increase your level of regular physical exercise. And stick to a well-balanced, heart-healthy diet. 2. Kidney disease Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure. At least half of all people with diabetes Continue reading >>

Diabetes Is A Serious Illness

Diabetes Is A Serious Illness

Sorting facts from fiction is important About one in seven U.S. adults has diabetes now, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But by 2050, that rate could skyrocket to as many as one in three. Many of us don’t understand diabetes. To help contain this leading cause of disability and death, it’s important to separate fact from fiction. FICTION: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. FACT: Many factors lead to the development of diabetes. Genetics, nutrition, exercise and lifestyle all play a role. Sugar may contribute to type 2 diabetes if it leads to weight gain, but it doesn’t cause the disease. “A diet high in calories — whether they’re from sugar or fat — raises your risk for type 2 diabetes,” said Mounaf Alsamman, MD, a family medicine doctor with Allina Medical Clinic – Brooklyn Park. “In this disease, your pancreas makes little or no insulin or your body’s cells don’t use it well. As a result, blood sugar can’t move from your bloodstream into the cells that need it for energy.” Alsamman tells his patients that sugar does not cause diabetes but it still needs to be monitored or reduced. “You just have to make sure to build your sweet treats into a healthy eating and exercise plan,” he explained. A healthful, balanced diet as well as regular exercise and maintaining a healthy weight can help prevent diabetes. Go for gradual, achievable changes to your sugar intake, such as cutting back on sweetened beverages. FICTION: Only people who weigh far too much will develop type 2 diabetes. FACT: People of all ages and body types can develop type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is just one of the risk factors. Many people with type 2 diabetes are at a healthy weight or just moderately overweight. Excess weight increases yo Continue reading >>

Diabetes A Major Public Health Problem

Diabetes A Major Public Health Problem

1. Diabetes- A Major PublicDiabetes- A Major Public Health ProblemHealth Problem Dr. Nayyar Raza KazmiDr. Nayyar Raza Kazmi 2. Diabetes mellitus is a chronicDiabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that characterised bycondition that characterised by raised plasma glucose levels. raised plasma glucose levels. Diabetes, results from the body’sDiabetes, results from the body’s inability to produce or use insulininability to produce or use insulin properly, resulting in high levels ofproperly, resulting in high levels of blood sugar. blood sugar. 3. • Type 2 diabetes is caused by aType 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of insulin resistancecombination of insulin resistance and some degree of insulinand some degree of insulin deficiency.deficiency. • Type 1, the body produces noType 1, the body produces no insulin. More than 80% ofinsulin. More than 80% of recognised diabetes is Type 2 andrecognised diabetes is Type 2 and most of the remainder is Type 1.most of the remainder is Type 1. 4. • WHO defines Diabetes as Fasting BloodWHO defines Diabetes as Fasting Blood Glucose more than 126 mg/dL on oneGlucose more than 126 mg/dL on one single occasionsingle occasion OROR • Random Blood Glucose of 200mg/dL orRandom Blood Glucose of 200mg/dL or more on 2 and/or more occasions.more on 2 and/or more occasions. 5. Magnitude of the ProblemMagnitude of the Problem 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 millions 1995 2000 2025 • The number ofThe number of people withpeople with diabetes willdiabetes will nearly doublenearly double within the firstwithin the first quarter of thisquarter of this millennium.millennium. World Health Report, 1997;World Health Report, 1997; Geneva: WHO.Geneva: WHO. 6. WHO estimate: prevalence of diabetes for all age-WHO estimate: prevalence of diabetes f Continue reading >>

Diabetes Remains Major Health Challenge In The Pacific

Diabetes Remains Major Health Challenge In The Pacific

A recent study has identified methodological errors in the surveys conducted through the World Health Organization’s (WHO) STEPwise approach to non-communicable disease (NCD) surveillance (STEPS) in some Pacific Island countries. The study is published in the Journal of Diabetes and summarised in this Devpolicy post. The error stemmed from a change in the technology for blood glucose testing for type 2 diabetes. In early STEPS surveys conducted in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga between 2002 and 2004, glucose meters reported glucose levels in whole blood. In later surveys conducted between 2011 and 2013, the glucose meters reported glucose levels in plasma. However, the researchers found that when WHO analysed the later surveys, the incorrect whole blood glucose cut-off (6.1 mmol/L) was used instead of the correct plasma glucose cut-off (7.0 mmol/L). When the data were re-analysed using the correct cut-off point, the rates of diabetes were lower than previously reported. This means that results from STEPS surveys carried out in 2011 (Fiji), 2012 (Tonga) and 2013 (Samoa), showing that type 2 diabetes rates had doubled, are not accurate. Instead it appears that when compared with STEPS surveys conducted in these countries 10 years earlier, diabetes prevalence had actually decreased by 0.4% in Fiji and 3.4% in Tonga, and increased by 2.8% in Samoa. The researchers warn this methodological error may also have implications for STEPS results in other countries, both in the Pacific and globally. It appears only two additional Pacific countries – i.e., Niue and Vanuatu – may be affected by this methodological error. WHO is yet to issue an official response to the research findings at this stage. Nonetheless, these revised statistics do not change the fact that diabetes is still a m Continue reading >>

Overview

Overview

The importance of both diabetes and these comorbidities will continue to increase as the population ages. Therapies that have proven to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications will need to be assessed in light of the newly identified comorbidities. Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program research trial demonstrated that lifestyle intervention had its greatest impact in older adults and was effective in all racial and ethnic groups. Translational studies of this work have also shown that delivery of the lifestyle intervention in group settings at the community level are also effective at reducing type 2 diabetes risk. The National Diabetes Prevention Program has now been established to implement the lifestyle intervention nationwide. Another emerging issue is the effect on public health of new laboratory based criteria, such as introducing the use of A1c for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or for recognizing high risk for type 2 diabetes. These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health level. Several studies have suggested that process indicators such as foot exams, eye exams, and measurement of A1c may not be sensitive enough to capture all aspects of quality of care that ultimately result in reduced morbidity. New diabetes quality-of-care indicators are currently under development and may help determine whether appropriate, timely, evidence-based care is linked to risk factor reduction. In addition, the scientific evid Continue reading >>

World Health Study Diabetes A ‘defining Issue For Global Public Health’

World Health Study Diabetes A ‘defining Issue For Global Public Health’

The number of adults with diabetes has quadrupled worldwide in under four decades to 422 million, and the condition is fast becoming a major problem in poorer countries, a World Health Organization (WHO) study showed on Wednesday. In Switzerland, where an estimated 500,000 of the 8.3 million total population have diabetes, more than 1,000 people die each year from diabetes and around 3,000 deaths are attributable to high blood glucose, the study found. Nevertheless, northwestern Europe has the lowest rates of diabetes, with age-adjusted prevalence lower than 4% among women and at around 5-6% among men in Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands. In one of the largest studies to date of diabetes trends, the WHO researchers said ageing populations and rising levels of obesity across the world meant diabetes was becoming a “defining issue for global public health”. Type 2 diabetes is a long-term condition characterised by insulin resistance. Patients can manage their diabetes with medication and diet, but the disease is often life-long and is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterised by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves. The most common is type 2 diabetes, usually in adults, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t make enough insulin. In the past three decades the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically in countries of all income levels. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itse Continue reading >>

Diabetes Remains A Major Health Concern In The U.s.

Diabetes Remains A Major Health Concern In The U.s.

Nearly half of American adults have diabetes or are at risk for developing this disease. There’s no question that diabetes is a major public health concern in the United States. Diabetes has become increasingly common throughout the past few decades and currently affects an estimated 29 million Americans. But with prevention and treatment efforts, experts hope we’ve made some progress in slowing or reversing national trends. To learn more, researchers analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which collects detailed health information from a representative sample of the U.S. population. Data was analyzed from 1988 through 2012 and included nearly 26,500 U.S. adults. The findings were recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Based on the most recent data from 2011–2012, researchers found that diabetes affects 12–14% of U.S. adults. Yet more than one-third of adults with diabetes don’t know they have it. Equally as concerning is the proportion of adults that are at risk for diabetes but have not yet developed the disease. As of 2012, it’s estimated that 38% of U.S. adults have prediabetes and are likely to develop full-blown diabetes, unless steps are taken to improve their health. Diabetes continues to affect certain populations more than others. Adults who are black, Asian or Hispanic are more than 20% more likely to have diabetes than whites. Among those with diabetes, roughly half of Asian and Hispanic adults don’t know they have it. However, the good news is that diabetes trends have slowed in recent years. Overall, the frequency of diabetes increased from 9.8% to 12.4% between 1988 and 2012. Diabetes prevalence only increased by 1.6% over the last ten years. Study findings suggest that preven Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

The Clinical And Public Health Challenges Of Diabetes Prevention: A Search For Sustainable Solutions

The Clinical And Public Health Challenges Of Diabetes Prevention: A Search For Sustainable Solutions

Citation: Wareham NJ, Herman WH (2016) The Clinical and Public Health Challenges of Diabetes Prevention: A Search for Sustainable Solutions. PLoS Med 13(7): e1002097. Copyright: © 2016 Wareham, Herman. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: The authors have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts: WHH serves on Data and Safety Monitoring Boards for Merck and Lexicon. NJW and WHH served as guest editors on PLOS Medicine’s Diabetes Prevention Special Issue. Abbreviations: T2D, type 2 diabetes Provenance: Commissioned; not externally peer-reviewed The well-documented rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major global clinical and public health challenge, as described by Juliana Chan and Andrea Luk in their accompanying Perspective article [1]. Somewhat less attention has been paid to the potential for the rising global diabetes problem to widen health inequalities, and for the solutions that are put in place to tackle the problem to worsen or improve those inequalities. Inequity is at the heart of the diabetes problem, since 75% of cases occur in low- and middle-income countries [2]. The impact of diabetes on emerging countries will be particularly severe as the disease is chronic, expensive to treat, and tends to affect economically active people. The economic cost of dealing with the consequences of diabetes is not only a threat to health systems but is a far broader economic and social problem and thus a threat to future long-term sustainable development. Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Complications

Diabetes: Complications

People with diabetes are at risk for long-term problems affecting the eyes, kidneys, heart, brain, feet, and nerves. The best way to prevent or delay these problems is to control your blood sugar and take good care of yourself. Eyes It is recommended that people with diabetes see an eye doctor every year for a dilated eye exam. Eye problems that can occur with diabetes include: Cataracts: a clouding of the lens of the eyes. Glaucoma: increased pressure in the eye. Retinopathy: eye changes with the retina in the back of the eye. Symptoms of eye problems include Blurred vision. Spots or lines in your vision. Watery eyes. Eye discomfort. Loss of vision. If you have any changes in your vision, call your healthcare provider. Have your urine checked for protein at least once a year. Protein in the urine is a sign of kidney disease. High blood pressure might also lead to kidney disease. Your blood pressure should be checked when you see your healthcare provider. Symptoms of a kidney problem include: Swelling of the hands, feet, and face. Weight gain from edema. Itching and/or drowsiness. (This can occur with end stage kidney disease.) Prompt treatment may slow the changes with kidney disease. All people with diabetes have an increased chance for heart disease and strokes. Heart disease is the major cause of death in people with diabetes. It is important to control other risks such as high blood pressure and high fats (cholesterol), as well as blood sugar. Symptoms of a heart attack include: Feeling faint. Feeling dizzy. Sweating. Chest pain or pressure. Pain in the shoulders, jaw, and left arm. Warning signs of a stroke include: Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, usually on one side of the body. Sudden nausea. Vomiting. Difficulty speaking or understanding w Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Reasons Why It's Becoming A Major Health Problem In India, Steps For Prevention

Diabetes: Reasons Why It's Becoming A Major Health Problem In India, Steps For Prevention

Most people with diabetes aren't aware that they have the condition because very often individuals do not develop the charecteristic symptoms even when theit blood sugar levels are in the diabetic range. New Delhi: Diabetes is now considered an emerging global epidemic with the disease making a steep rise in the number of cases worldwide. In India, the trend is overwhelming as the country is home to more than 60 million adults with diabetes - about 7.8% of the population - of which more than 30 million are undiagnosed or untreated, thus increasing the risk of developing complications and premature mortality. Most people with diabetes aren't aware that they have the condition because very often individuals do not develop the characteristic symptoms even when their blood sugar levels are in the diabetic range. This makes it difficult to detect the disease by means of typical symptoms alone. The common signs and symptoms of diabetes are excessive thirst, excessive hunger and frequent urination. The person may also feel weak and exhausted, however, these symptoms are associated with severe diabetes. High genetic susceptibility and rapid change in lifestyle are some main reasons why diabetes is becoming a major problem in India. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence of diabetes in India is as high as 12 to 18% of the adult population especially in urban areas. Making lifestyle changes is a crucial step in diabetes prevention as well management. These steps include - Eating a healthy diet – fruits, veggies, whole grains and fiber. Being physically active Maintaining a healthy weight Getting regular check-ups Knowing your risks and taking actions Taking medicines as prescribed by your doctor. While diabetes can't be cured, individuals can lead a healthy, normal life Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Long-term Effects

Diabetes - Long-term Effects

On this page: Diabetes is a condition in which there is too much glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Over time, high blood glucose levels can damage the body's organs. Possible complications include damage to large (macrovascular) and small (microvascular) blood vessels, which can lead to heart attack, stroke, and problems with the kidneys, eyes, gums, feet and nerves. Reducing risk of diabetes complications The good news is that the risk of most diabetes-related complications can be reduced by keeping blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels within recommended range. Also, being a healthy weight, eating healthily, reducing alcohol intake, and not smoking will help reduce your risk. Regular check-ups and screening are important to pick up any problems early Diabetes and healthy eating If you have diabetes it’s important to include a wide variety of nutritious and healthy foods in your diet, and to avoid snacking on sugary foods. Eating healthy foods can help control your blood glucose and cholesterol levels, and your blood pressure. Enjoy a variety of foods from each food group – be sure to include foods high in fibre and low in fat, and reduce your salt intake. It’s helpful to consult with a dietitian to review your current eating plan and provide a guide about food choices and food quantities. Alcohol intake and diabetes Limit alcohol intake. If you drink alcohol, have no more than two standard drinks per day. If you are pregnant or considering pregnancy or are breastfeeding, then zero alcohol intake is recommended. Diabetes and healthy weight If you are overweight, even losing a small amount of weight, especially round the abdomen, helps lower your blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels. It can be daunting trying to lose weight, so Continue reading >>

State-of-the-art Review Diabetes Care In Malaysia: Problems, New Models, And Solutions

State-of-the-art Review Diabetes Care In Malaysia: Problems, New Models, And Solutions

Abstract Diabetes is a major public health concern in Malaysia, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has escalated to 20.8% in adults above the age of 30, affecting 2.8 million individuals. The burden of managing diabetes falls on primary and tertiary health care providers operating in various settings. This review focuses on the current status of diabetes in Malaysia, including epidemiology, complications, lifestyle, and pharmacologic treatments, as well as the use of technologies in its management and the adoption of the World Health Organization chronic care model in primary care clinics. A narrative review based on local available health care data, publications, and observations from clinic experience. The prevalence of diabetes varies among the major ethnic groups in Malaysia, with Asian Indians having the highest prevalence of T2D, followed by Malays and Chinese. The increase prevalence of overweight and obesity has accompanied the rise in T2D. Multidisciplinary care is available in tertiary and primary care settings with integration of pharmacotherapy, diet, and lifestyle changes. Poor dietary adherence, high consumption of carbohydrates, and sedentary lifestyle are prevalent in patients with T2D. The latest medication options are available with increasing use of intensive insulin regimens, insulin pumps, and continuous glucose monitoring systems for managing glycemic control. A stepwise approach is proposed to expand the chronic care model into an Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions framework to facilitate implementation and realize better outcomes in primary care settings. A comprehensive strategy and approach has been established by the Malaysian government to improve prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes as an urgent response to this growin Continue reading >>

Diabetes The Next Big Health Problem

Diabetes The Next Big Health Problem

No-one, it has been widely observed, should feel worse off for seeing their doctor. But regrettably many do, and increasingly so. Among them is a large tranche of the 3,333,000 currently diagnosed with diabetes (an increase of 1.2 million in just 10 years), the cost of whose treatment - £10 billion pounds a year - “threatens to bankrupt the health service”, it has been claimed. Most, of course, do not have diabetes in the commonly understood sense of that serious condition. They have none of the characteristic symptoms of fatigue, thirst, vulnerability to infections and so on caused by the physiological effects of raised sugar levels in the blood from a relative deficiency of the hormone insulin. “The nurse told me I would go blind and my feet would fall off and then gave me a pile of even more depressing literature” They will, however, at some time have had an HbA1c blood test greater than 7.5, the current arbitrary “cut out” point for diagnosing diabetes, prompting a cascade of encounters with doctors and nurses following which they cannot but feel a lot worse off. “The nurse told me I would go blind and my feet would fall off and then gave me a pile of even more depressing literature,” recalls one reader. The necessity to take blood sugar lowering medication to avoid such hazards (together with several other pills to reduce “cardiovascular risk”) is then emphasised and arrangements made to attend the surgery for the dreary rigmarole of regular check ups. The assumption would be that some, at least, might benefit from having their HbA1c level reduced to less than 7.5. But on the contrary, three major studies over the past decade have not only failed to confirm this but identified an increased incidence of adverse outcomes, especially in the older Continue reading >>

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