Diabetes Insipidus Sodium Levels

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Diabetes Insipidus

wikipedia diseasesdatabase A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute urine, and excessive thirst. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or vasopressin) secreted by the neurohypophysis, impaired kidney response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst. EPIDEMIOLOGY Diabetes insipidus is uncommon disease with a prevalence of 1 case per 25.000 population. Incidence is similar in men and women. ETIOPATHOGENIC CLASSIFICATION The etiopathogenic classification includes several forms of DI:  DIABETES INSIPIDUS NEUROGENIC OR CENTRAL: is due to a lack of ADH production in the brain, that causes increased urine production and dehydration. It is suddivided in two types: Primary: Idiopathic It is the most common form, in fact in at least 25% of cases of diabetes insipidus neurogenic is idiopathic, meaning that the lack of vasopressin production arose from an unknown cause. Idiopathic DI can be associated with destruction of cells in the hypothalamus, often as part of an autoimmune process. This is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the stalk and posterior pituita Continue reading >>

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  1. TAAOM

    I am getting confused between primary polydipsia also known as psychogenic polydispia and Diabetes insipidus ...can anyone clearly explain the difference between them?

  2. AlieuBarry70

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  3. pakbrain

    Psychogenic polydipsia is an excessive water intake seen in some patients with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, and/or the developmentally disabled. It should be taken very seriously, as the amount of water ingested exceeds the amount that can be excreted by the kidneys,and can on rare occasions be life-threatening as the body's serum sodium level is diluted ( in other words dilutional hyponatremia ) to an extent that seizures and cardiac arrest can occur.
    The excessive levels of fluid intake may result in a false diagnosis of diabetes insipidus since the chronic ingestion of excessive water can produce diagnostic results that closely mimic those of mild diabetes insipidus
    Excessive urination and extreme thirst (especially for cold water and sometimes ice or ice water) are typical for DI. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus are quite similar to those of untreated diabetes mellitus, with the distinction that the urine does not contain glucose and there is no hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose). Blurred vision is a rarity. Signs of dehydration may also appear in some individuals since the body cannot conserve much (if any) of the water it takes in.
    In order to distinguish DI from other causes of excess urination, blood glucose levels, bicarbonate levels, and calcium levels need to be tested. Measurement of blood electrolytes can reveal a high sodium level (hypernatremia as dehydration develops). Urinalysis demonstrates a dilute urine with a low specific gravity. Urine osmolarity and electrolyte levels are typically low.
    Habit drinking (in its severest form termed psychogenic polydipsia) is the most common imitator of diabetes insipidus at all ages. While many adult cases in the medical literature are associated with mental disorders, most patients with habit polydipsia have no other detectable disease. The distinction is made during the water deprivation test, as some degree of urinary concentration above isosmolar is usually obtained before the patient becomes dehydrated.

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