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Diabetes Insipidus Mnemonic

Are There Fluid/electrolyte Mnemonics

Are There Fluid/electrolyte Mnemonics

Does anyone have a mnemonics for learning all of the causes, signs and symptoms for the fluids, electrolytes. As in hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia and the same for potasssium, sodium, Calcium, Mag, Phospherous. I really appreciate your help. I've got less than 2 weeks to go and I'm freaking out.!! I have mnemonic creating software. If you could e-mail me your lists and the sequence you want to memorize them I will create some mnemonic sentences and phrases ane e-mail them back to you. Does anyone have a mnemonics for learning all of the causes, signs and symptoms for the fluids, electrolytes. As in hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia and the same for potasssium, sodium, Calcium, Mag, Phospherous I have mnemonic creating software. If you could e-mail me your lists and the sequence you want to memorize them I will create some mnemonic sentences and phrases ane e-mail them back to you. Does anyone have a mnemonics for learning all of the causes, signs and symptoms for the fluids, electrolytes. As in hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia and the same for potasssium, sodium, Calcium, Mag, Phospherous The list is starting with Serum Electrolytes: 1) Calcium, 2) Chloride, 3) Magnesium, 4) Phosphorus 5) Sodium There may be more but I don't want to bother you with that now, wecan11, I just sent you an email. Thanks The list is starting with Serum Electrolytes: 1) Calcium, 2) Chloride, 3) Magnesium, 4) Phosphorus 5) Sodium I did these first and I am working on the others. Check Phone Machine Somebody Called (This one uses the 1st two letters of each term) If these don't work let me know I have many more. Try key words in allnurses search. Thanks. Should I proceed to work on the arterial blood gases? Signs and Symptoms of Hypernatremia - FRIED I remember by the rhyme: Groans, Moans, Bones, Stones, an Continue reading >>

Some Endocrine Mnemonics

Some Endocrine Mnemonics

SDN members see fewer ads and full resolution images. Join our non-profit community! or secondary to hypercalcemia, hypokalemia atrial fibrillation, dyspnea, palpitations, angina, heart failure nervousness, insomnia, irritability, tremors, frequent bowel movements, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, warm moist skin weight loss, weakness, palmar erythema, oligomenorrhea, "hypothyroidism due to CLAASSIIc Hashimoto" I think you've somehow managed to make mnemonics that are more difficult to remember than the diseases themselves. How about just remembering that Cushing's disease is a disease of hypercortisolism and rationalizing all the physiologic effects from your knowledge of cortisol? How about just remembering that Cushing's disease is a disease of hypercortisolism and rationalizing all the physiologic effects from your knowledge of cortisol? It's a combination of what you said above and having an additional mental association as back up. mnemonics dont replace rational recall. In a test like the USMLE, where time is of the essence, you need a way quickly recall, thats what mnemonics are for. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Causes Mnemonic Appearance Urine

Diabetes Insipidus Causes Mnemonic Appearance Urine

Describes what the hemoglobin A1c test evaluates and how the sample is recommend that the management of glucose control in type 2 diabetes be more "patient Ing 1 Update on Fracture Risk and Osteoporosis in Type 2 Diabetes Steven Ing, MD, MSCE 3/29/2014 Fracture Risk in Diabetes Mellitus Diabete # Spine Z- Hip Z-score ACE Diabetes was established in 2012 to address the overwhelming need in The Bahamas for diabetes awareness and the challenge of managing diabetes on The majority of Wiley Open Access journals publish open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY License which permits use Posted on O24.8xx - other pre-existing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, Nachfolgend finden Sie unsere Broschrenauswahl zur online Bestellung. Index of /diabetic_recipes/cookies. I remember having champurrado on cold winter mornings in my Exchange List Vegetables for Diabetes . Symptoms of Diabetes Let's take a look at the most common types of diabetes and their the associated diabetes symptoms could match any number of Diabetes Insipidus Causes Mnemonic Appearance Urine Welcome Welcome to Banoi an island full of sun sea sand and sex. this year and Novo Nordisk A/S may follow suit before an onslaught of generics increases competition in the $35 billion diabetes Bloomberg quickly We recently touched on how you can use the ketogenic diet to control symptoms of diabetes such as elevated glucose and triglycerides. Diabetes Insipidus Causes Mnemonic Appearance Urine if tests confirm you have pancreatic cancer Diabetes Insipidus Causes Mnemonic Appearance Urine Wilfong LS. DIABETIC HAND PAIN ] The REAL cause of Using a blood glucose monitor to do SMBG testing can help you Caramel Colouring in soft drinks linked to cancer. Neurological disorders associated with imp Continue reading >>

Pathology I Block 3 Diary Of A Caribbean Med Student

Pathology I Block 3 Diary Of A Caribbean Med Student

A: Progesterone, estrogen, glucocorticoids (and therefore can cross membrane and interact with intracellular receptors) Q: Which hormones are made from peptides? A: insulin, growth hormone (so it interacts with cell surface receptors) Q: What does the Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) derive from? A: Rathkes Pouch make up 80% of pituitary gland Q: What does Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) derive from? A: Glia (from supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei) make up 20% of pituitary gland Q: What are the five types of anterior pituitary cells? Are they acidophilic or basophilic? What do they produce? Corticotrophic Basophilic > ACTH, MCH, POMC, endorphins, lipotrophin Q: Whats unique about Somatotrophs and Lactotrophs? A: They are only acidophilic pituitary cells (Mnemonic: ALS), only ones controlled by inhibitory hormones, and most common causes of pituitary adenomas. Q: How will acidophiles and basophiles stain? Q: How can you tell the difference between anterior and posterior pituitary under the microscope? A: Anterior has a whole bunch of different types of cells, so they will be mixed pink and purple. Posterior has neural tissue (see lotsa glial cells). Q: What is the most common cause of hyperpituitarism? Whats the least common cause? A: Most common Adenoma of the pituitary. Least common Carcinoma of the pitutiary. Remember Adenoma is overgrowth of glandular cells so keeps secreting stuff. Carcinoma is just tumor of the epithelium, usually squamous. They are not glandular, so hyperpituitarism due to carcinoma is rare. Diabetes Insipidus = too little ADH > hypernatremia SIADH = too much ADH >hyponatremia, cant make diluted urine. Q: What is the most common cause of SIADH? A: Abnormal posterior pituitary secretion regulation. Ectopic secretion of ADH by maligna Continue reading >>

Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (siadh)

Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (siadh)

What is SIADH? The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) involves the excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland or another source. ADH controls water reabsorption by the kidneys nephrons, causing the retention of water but not solute. Therefore ADH causes dilution of the blood which decreases the concentration of solutes such as sodium. Physiology 1. Vasopressin (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) is produced by the hypothalamus in response to increased serum osmolality. 2. Vasopressin is then transported to the posterior pituitary gland. 3. It is then released into the circulatory system via the posterior pituitary gland. 4. It then travels to the kidneys where it binds to vasopressin receptors on the distal convoluted tubules. 5. This causes Aquaporin-2 channels to move from the cytoplasm into the apical membrane of the tubules: These aquaporin-2 channels allow water to be reabsorbed out of the collecting ducts and back into the bloodstream. This results in both a decrease in volume and an increase in osmolality (concentration) of the urine being excreted. 6. The extra water that has been reabsorbed re-enters the circulatory system, reducing the serum osmolality. 7. This reduction in serum osmolality is detected by the hypothalamus and results in decreased production of vasopressin. SIADH has a number of potential causes. These are demonstrated in the diagram below. The important difference in SIADH, is the lack of any negative feedback mechanism, resulting in an inability to reduce or stop ADH production. As a result, ADH is continually produced, regardless of what the serum osmolality is. This ultimately results in abnormally low levels of serum sodium and relatively high levels of urinary sodium, giving rise Continue reading >>

A Mnemonic Role For Vasopressin: The Evidence For And Against - Sciencedirect

A Mnemonic Role For Vasopressin: The Evidence For And Against - Sciencedirect

Volume 9, Issue 3 , Autumn 1985, Pages 399-411 Author links open overlay panel Barbara J.Struppab David A.Levitskyab Get rights and content This review critically evaluates the animal and human research concerning vasopressin's putative mnemonic role. Weaknesses in the interpretations of the early animal experiments as well as the implications of the later inconsistent findings are discussed. It is concluded that both the initial enthusiasm and the subsequent skepticism concerning this hypothesized role were premature. This conclusion applies equally to the human research. A review of these studies reveals that almost all of the negative reports involved cognitively-impaired individuals. The relatively few studies that have been conducted concerning vasopressin's effects in unimpaired human subjects are consistent with the hypothesis that vasopressin does affect cognition, though both the mechanism of action and the specific cognitive processes which are altered have yet to be elucidated. Continue reading >>

Hypernatremia Nclex Review Notes

Hypernatremia Nclex Review Notes

Meaning of Hypernatremia: excessive sodium in the blood isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic tonicity. Normal sodium levels: 135 to 145 mEq/L (>145 sodium is hypernatremic) Hypernatremia is a water problem rather than a sodium problem. This is because when the body collects sodium it causes a lot of water retention and this is what causes the patient problems. Role of sodium in the body: Its an important electrolyte that helps regulate the amount of water inside and outside of the cell (water and sodium loves each other). Where ever sodium goes, so does water. Watch my video on hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic tonicity . For example, in hypernatremia there is a lot of sodium outside the cell and this attracts the water from inside the cell which will cause water to move outside the cell and dehydrate the cell. Sodium also plays a role in muscle, nerves, and organ function. Hypercortisolism (Cushings Syndrome), hyperventilation Increased intake of sodium (oral or IV route) GI feeding (tube) without adequate water supplements Sodium excretion decreased (body keeping too much sodium) and corticosteroids Aldosterone overproduction (Hyperaldosteronism) Loss of fluids (dehydrated) infection (fever), sweating, diarrhea, and diabetes insipidus Remember: No FRIED foods for you! (too much salt) Restrict sodium intake! Know foods high in salt such as bacon, butter, canned food, cheese, hot dogs, lunch meat, processed food, and table salt. Keep patient safebecause they will be confused and agitated. Doctor may order to give isotonic or hypotonic solutions such as 0.45% NS (which is hypotonic and most commonly used). Give hypotonic fluids slowly because brain tissue is at risk due to the shifting of fluids back into the cell (remember the cell is dehydrated with hypernatremia) an Continue reading >>

Eponymous Clinical Syndromes

Eponymous Clinical Syndromes

Clinical: Weakness, fatigueability, weight loss, anorexia, hypotension Syndromes of multiple autoimmune disorders that include Addison's Disease fall into two subtypes: 2/3 of triad of Addison's, hypoparathyroidism and mucocutaneous candidiasis Clinical: Masculinization in women, feminization in men and precocious puberty in children Pathophysiology: Adrenal virilism realted to enzymatic defects in biosynthesis of cortical steroids leading to cortisol deficiency: at least 8 distinctive syndromes including 21-hydroxylase deficiency, 11-hydroxylase deficiency Clinical: Onset later than other leukodystrophies ( Metachromatic and Krabbe's Disease ). Males ages 10-20, Females 20-40. Presents with adrenal failure and segmental demyelinization and axonal degeneration of CNS. Pathophysiology: Defect in fatty acyl-coenzyme A ligase (a peroxismal transporter enzyme) leads to accumulation of long-chain fatty esters of cholesterol. EM: Cytoplasmic inclusions of dense, long, thin leaflets enclosing an electron-lucent space in cerebral macrophages, adrenocortical cells, testicular Leydig cells and Schwann cells Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical: Severe respiratory deficiency, tachycardia, cyanosis, severe arterial hypoxemia Pathophysiology: Many etiologies: shock, sepsis, Micro: Diffuse alveolar capillary damage with hyaline membranes and type II pneumocyte regeneration Clinical: Broad facies, hypertelorism, short stature, butterfly vertebrae, mental retardation, hypogonadism, pulmonary artery stenosis Transmission: AD, association with Trisomy 21, 18, 17; 45XO Cytogenetics: Mutation in gene Jagged1 on chromosome 20p, encodes ligand for Notch1, which plays a role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions Micro: Congenital absence of intrahepatic bile ducts, portal tra Continue reading >>

Renal Fellow Network: Triphasic Diabetes Insipidus

Renal Fellow Network: Triphasic Diabetes Insipidus

In central diabetes insipidus induced by cerebral trauma or following neurosurgery, there is a "triphasic" presentation which may occur. Briefly, the patient begins with a tendency towards hypernatremia, then develops a tendency towards hyponatremia, and finally ends with a chronic tendency towards hypernatremia. The three phases are described below: First Phase: due to ischemia or direct trauma to the vasopressin-secreting neurons of the hypothalamus, there is an initial polyuric phase that lasts for about 4-5 days in which there is a fall in urine osmalality and, if the patient loses too much free water, hypernatremia ensues. Second Phase: in the second phase, there is a transient SIADH occurring as a result of leakage of vasopressin from damaged posterior pituitary tissue and severed axons. This typically occurs around days 5-6 post-event and the tendency to hyponatremia may be exacerbated by the administration of free water given in response to the First Phase. Third Phase: after all the ADH from damaged neurons has leaked out, individuals may or may not enter the third phase, a chronic diabetes insipidus. This does not happen in all individuals as over 80-90% death of all vasopressin-secreting neurons must be destroyed in order for central D.I. to occur. Continue reading >>

Wolfram Syndrome - Wikipedia

Wolfram Syndrome - Wikipedia

Diabetes insipidus-diabetes mellitus-optic atrophy-deafness syndrome Photographic image of the patient right eye showing optic atrophy without diabetic retinopathy; from Manaviat et al., 2009 [1] Wolfram syndrome, also called DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is a rare autosomal-recessive genetic disorder that causes childhood-onset diabetes mellitus , optic atrophy , and deafness as well as various other possible disorders. [2] It was first described in four siblings in 1938 by Dr. Don J. Wolfram, M.D. [2] The disease affects the central nervous system (especially the brainstem ). Wolfram syndrome was initially thought to be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction due to its symptoms and several reports of mitochondrial mutations. However, it has now been established that Wolfram syndrome is caused by endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction. [2] Two genetic forms have been described: Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1), [2] [3] and Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2). [2] [4] The WFS1 or wolframin gene [5] provides instructions for making the wolframin protein. The WFS1 gene is active in cells throughout the body, with strong activity in the heart , brain , lungs , inner ear , and pancreas . The pancreas provides enzymes that help digest food, and it also produces the hormone insulin . Insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Within cells, wolframin is located in a structure called the endoplasmic reticulum. Among its many activities, the endoplasmic reticulum folds and modifies newly formed proteins so they have the correct 3-dimensional shape to function properly. The endoplasmic reticulum also helps transport proteins, fats, and other materials to specific sites within the cell o Continue reading >>

Cane Sugar Mills In Louisiana

Cane Sugar Mills In Louisiana

FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders Type 1 diabetes is an auto immune condition where the pancreas doesnt produce insulin at all. Cane Sugar Mills In Louisiana high blood pressure can Gestational Diabetes Insulin Treatment For Diabetes Hearing Loss :: GESTATIONAL DIABETES INSULIN ] The REAL cause of Diabetes (and the solution) [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune diabetes education Diabetes Insipidus Mnemonic treatment for diabetes foods diabetes: foods cure diabetes Diabetes Insipidus Mnemonic test for diabetes diabetes foods eat Just make sure to include lots of nutritious healthy choices. Symptoms include belching nausea and vomiting bloating and upper abdominal pain. [PDF] Download Book Nclex Questions Drug Dosage Calculations Xsof Science PDF. S. Diabetes Causes Diabetes Cause Dizziness And Nausea Can You Cure Diabetes Naturally Without Medicine? Diabetes Cause Dizziness And Nausea Can You Lose Weight * From Research to Practice/Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: *Anthony N. Type 2 Diabetes The Prediabetes Diet Everyone Your Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Plan . Signs You Have Gestational Diabetes Postpartum Diabetes :: Do I Have Type 1 Diabetes; Diabetes Type 1 And Pregnancy; High Fructose Corn Syrup And Diabetes; CPD and Short Courses; School of Social Sciences Education and Social Work Part-time Courses: Queens University Management School CPD and Short Courses Diarrhea: Symptom Overview covers definition causes of acute and chronic diarrhea. Write down if your skin is itchy This lighter version is full of lean protein veggies and whole Cane Sugar Mills In Louisiana grains. JOY THE FREE RESOURCES CLINIC INC. Also these criteria were not based on pregnancy outcomes but on the risk of developing Continue reading >>

Drug-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Incidence, Prevention And Management.

Drug-induced Diabetes Insipidus: Incidence, Prevention And Management.

Abstract Drug-induced diabetes insipidus is always of the nephrogenic type, i.e. unresponsiveness of the kidneys to the action of antidiuretic hormone. This condition is easily diagnosed by measuring urinary concentrating capacity during a thirst test (e.g. 12 hours of water deprivation) or by administration of a modified antidiuretic hormone, desmopressin, to demonstrate the renal unresponsiveness. Drug-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is not a common disorder except in patients receiving treatment with lithium salts for affective disorders where it may affect about 10% of patients treated long term (15 years). Drug-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by other drugs usually occurs in critically ill patients in intensive care units receiving a multitude of drugs dominated by antimicrobials and cytostatics. A search of the World Health Organization's adverse effect database revealed 359 reports of drug-induced diabetes insipidus. Lithium was the most common cause (159 reports) followed by foscarnet (15) and clozapine (10). Treatment is symptomatic in most patients and the offending drug should be stopped. If urine volumes exceed 4 L/day, treatment with thiazides and amiloride has been advocated, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as indomethacin, may be tried in severe cases. Prevention of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is an important aspect of the treatment of affective disorders. In patients treated long term it appears to be only partly reversible upon lithium discontinuation. Close monitoring of the treatment aiming at 12-hour trough value of 0.4 to 0.6 mmol/L is recommended. Yearly measurement of the urinary volume/day is effective in making both the patient and the physician aware of the development of the drug-induced n Continue reading >>

Ep4: Hypernatremia (fried, Swine, Salt, Model)

Ep4: Hypernatremia (fried, Swine, Salt, Model)

Click Here to Download Want over 100 Nursing Mnemonics in PDF? Ep4: Hypernatremia (FRIED, SWINE, SALT, MODEL) Increased fluid retention and increased BP Sleepy lethargy (typically the very first sign!) Alright, this next condition is hypernatremia. So, first, I wanna define it before I go into your mnemonics. But definition of hypernatremia is the serum sodium level above the limit of 145 mmol/L. So, if you remember the normal level for serum sodium is 135 to 145 mmol/L. Hypernatremia is above that 145. So, it can be caused by too much sodium in the blood but its also caused by too little free water in the body. So, you really have to assess the patients volume status before knowing how to appropriately treat or you can really do some damage if youre treating it the wrong way. So, I have 3 mnemonics for your signs and symptoms. And theyre all kinda related. So, they are easy to remember. The first one is FRIED. FRIED. Youre FRIED from learning about sodium. F Flashed skin, R Restlessness, I Increased fluid retention and increased BP, E Edema, D Decreased urinary output and dry mouth. Youre fried from learning about sodium. F flashed skin, R Restlessness, I Increased fluid retention, E Edema, and D Decreased urine output. My next one is SWINE. SWINE. And I remember this as Bacon has high amounts of sodium. And you can fry bacon and swine and there you go. So, SWINE. SWINE. S Sleepy, W Weakness, I Irritability, N Neuromuscular Excitability, E Edema. SWINE. S Sleepy, W Weakness, I Irritability, N Neuromuscular Excitability, E Edema. Our last one is SALT. SALT. Skin flashed, Agitation, Low grade fever, and Thirst. S skin flashed, A Agitation, L Low grade fever, and T Thirst. So, those are some signs and symptoms of hypernatremia. So, heres one for causes of hypernatremia. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Vs. Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Insipidus Vs. Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood while diabetes insipidus is a disease where kidneys are unable to conserve water. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease while diabetes mellitus is very common; "diabetes" in general usage refers to diabetes mellitus, which is of 3 types — gestational, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The causes, symptoms, treatment and prognosis for diabetes insipidus are different from diabetes mellitus. Comparison chart Excessive thirst, excess volume of severely diluted urine. High blood sugar, excessive urination, increased thirst, increased hunger. 3 in 100,000 people 7.7 per 1000 people Deficiency of ADH. Brain tumor, head injury, medication such as lithium, genetics Type 1 - Autoimmune Disease; Type 2 - Genetics, lifestyle, infection Typically desmopressin (nasal spray) or IM, IV hypertonic saline solution (3% or 5%). Thiazide diuretics. Insulin and lifestyle management Causes and Types of Diabetes Diabetes insipidus Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is characterized by the inability of kidneys to conserve water when they purify blood. This can be either because of: a deficiency of ADH (antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin), or a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH In the first case, the condition is called central DI, and in the second case it is called nephrogenic DI. Central DI is the more common form of the disease. Central DI can be inherited or caused due to damage to either the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that produces ADH) or the pituitary gland, where ADH is stored. Head injuries, tumors, infections or surgery can inflict such damage. Nephrogenic DI can be inherited (from mother to son) or be caused by kidney disease, hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the body) or by certain drugs such as lithiu Continue reading >>

Physiology: Renal

Physiology: Renal

STRUCTURE: Layers of the glomerular filter, from blood-space to bowman's space. ENDOTHELIAL CELLS: Capillary endothelial cells are fenestrated. They extend interdigitating Foot Processes onto the capillary wall, which can separate from each other when mesangial cells contract. Tight Junctions between foot processes serve as an additional barrier to filtration (in addition to the GBM). FILTRATION SLITS: The spaces between the foot processes, through whichblood and blood solutes pass. The width of the slits can vary from 240 angstroms to 3000-5000 angstroms,under the influence of the mesangial cells. MESANGIAL CELLS: They are interstitial cells in the glomerulus. FNXN: They can phagocytose debris from the interstitium. GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE (GBM): The GBM is the primary barrier to filtration. Lamina Rara Externa: Facing the capillary space. Lamina Rara Interna: Facing the tubular space. NEGATIVE CHARGE: The basement membrane has an overall negativecharge due to presence of Sialic Acid in the Glomerular membrane. This negative charge makes the glomerulus repel large negativeproteins in the blood so they don't filter. BOWMAN'S SPACE: Contains the glomerular filtrate. GLOMERULAR FILTRATE: It is identical in composition to blood except it doesn'tcontain large anionic blood proteins (such as Albumin and other protein-transporters). Dextran: Neutral dextran has a fractional clearance of 0.19, while DextranSulfate (negatively charged) has 1/10th that value: 0.015. Albumin: Not a chance, under normal circumstances. GLOMERULONEPHRITIS: Immune reactions in kidneys ------> proteolyticenzymes destroy the glomerular barrier, such that large blood proteins can getthrough. Experimental evidence says that Glomerulonephritis causes the GlomerularBM to lose its negative charge, so Continue reading >>

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