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Diabetes Insipidus Merck Vet

Polydipsia In Dogs And Cats (increased Drinking)

Polydipsia In Dogs And Cats (increased Drinking)

For Pet Owners Referral process Meet our team How to find us? Our facilities About your first visit Factsheets Bert's story Testimonials Help page FAQ page Local information Feedback Glossary of qualifications Glossary of terms Terms and conditions Referring practices If you need to visit us with your pet there are some things you may like to know. We have put all things together in one easy page. More Read a brief explanation of what happens if your pet needs to be referred on our Referral process page. Print view When a pet starts drinking more than usual, there may be serious underlying disease. What is the normal amount for a dog or cat to drink? Textbooks reference normal water intake for dogs as 20-70 ml/kg body weight per day. Marked variation may be seen between individuals and the amount of water taken in food, and water lost through activity and/or panting etc., will be a major influence. Intake is considered definitively increased at over 100 ml/kg/day, but some pets will have notably increased drinking whilst still drinking less than this amount; the pet always has to be considered as an individual. Why might my pet be drinking more? Water balance is tightly controlled by the body through regulation of water intake and water loss in urine. In health, lack of water intake or excessive water loss means the pituitary gland in the brain releases 'anti-diuretic homone' or ADH. ADH tells the kidneys to conserve water and make concentrated urine. In these circumstances, the thirst centre in the brain is also stimulated and this stimulates drinking. Increased drinking can occur either because the concentrating mechanisms of the kidney fail, because the kidneys do not respond to ADH, because ADH is not produced or released, or because there is an excessive stimulus t Continue reading >>

Practical Matters: Desmopressin Is Safer Than Water Deprivation To Identify The Cause Of Polyuria And Polydipsia In Dogs

Practical Matters: Desmopressin Is Safer Than Water Deprivation To Identify The Cause Of Polyuria And Polydipsia In Dogs

Polyuria and polydipsia have many causes in dogs (Table 1). Obtaining a thorough history and performing a physical examination, a complete blood count, a serum chemistry profile, a full urinalysis including urine bacterial culture, and imaging (e.g. ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys, liver, and adrenal glands) will help rule out many of the common causes. Measuring the basal serum cortisol concentration may help rule out hypoadrenocorticism since this disorder is unlikely if the value is > 2 μg/dl (~70 mmol/L). If the value is ≤ 2 μg/dl, hypoadrenocorticism must be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. If hyperadrenocorticism is suspected, perform ACTH stimulation and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests, imaging, and other diagnostic tests as needed. If these test results are inconclusive or within the reference range, the remaining differential diagnoses include central diabetes insipidus, psychogenic polydipsia, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and early-stage chronic kidney disease. A congenital form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus exists, but it is rare and manifests in puppies. Most causes of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are among the listed differential diagnoses in Table 1 and need to be definitively diagnosed. A water deprivation test can be used to differentiate central diabetes insipidus from psychogenic polydipsia; however, this test involves intentionally dehydrating a patient. Ideally, the glomerular filtration rate should be evaluated before water deprivation testing is considered in a polyuric, nonazotemic patient for which the remaining differential diagnoses are central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, psychogenic polydipsia, and early-stage chronic kidney disease. But evaluating the glomerular filtration rate is not Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Diabetes Insipidus Observed In Swiss Duroc Boars

Diagnosis Of Diabetes Insipidus Observed In Swiss Duroc Boars

Go to: Abstract Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in humans and animals, which is caused by the lack of production, malfunction or dysfunction of the distal nephron to the antidiuretic effect of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Diagnosis requires a thorough medical history, clinical examination and further laboratory confirmation. This case report describes the appearance of DI in five Duroc boars in Switzerland. Case presentation Two purebred intact Duroc boars at the age of 8 months and 1.5 years, respectively, with a history of polyuric and polydipsic symptoms had been referred to the Swine Clinic in Berne. Based on the case history, the results of clinical examination and the analysis of blood and urine, a tentative diagnosis of DI was concluded. Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed by findings from a modified water deprivation test, macroscopic examinations and histopathology. Following the diagnosis, three genes known to be involved in inherited DI in humans were analyzed in order to explore a possible genetic background of the affected boars. The etiology of DI in pigs is supposed to be the same as in humans, although this disease has never been described in pigs before. Thus, although occurring only on rare occasions, DI should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pigs with polyuria and polydipsia. It seems that a modified water deprivation test may be a helpful tool for confirming a diagnosis in pigs. Since hereditary forms of DI have been described in humans, the occurrence of DI in pigs should be considered in breeding programs although we were not able to identify a disease associated mutation. Keywords: Polydipsia, Polyuria, Hyposthenuria, Pig, Antidiuretic hormone, Vasopressin, Water deprivation test Urine parameters of case #1 Parameter Pat Continue reading >>

About Diabetes Mellitus

About Diabetes Mellitus

If your dog or cat has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it's easy to feel alone—but you're not. It is estimated that 1 out of every 100 dogs that reaches 12 years of age will develop diabetes.1 In cats, it's estimated that between 1 in 50 and 1 in 500 will develop diabetes mellitus.2 Diabetes mellitus occurs when your dog or cat has stopped producing insulin, has inadequate levels of insulin, or has an abnormal response to insulin. Learn more about what insulin is. In dogs, diabetes mellitus is common in middle-aged to older animals, especially in females, but it is also seen in young dogs of both sexes. When seen in younger animals, it can be a sign that your cat or dog is genetically predisposed to diabetes—this can mean that related animals may also be predisposed.3 Certain breeds of dogs also experience above-average rates of diabetes. These include4: In cats, diabetes mellitus is more common in middle- to older-aged animals as well, and also in cats that are overweight. Also, neutered males are at a greater risk than females. Certain breeds, such as Siamese cats, experience an above-average rate of diabetes. Some drugs, when used long-term, may interfere with insulin and lead to diabetes mellitus in your pet. These include glucocorticoids (cortisone-type drugs) and hormones that may be used to control heat cycles in female dogs.3 It is important to note the difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus, also known as water diabetes, occurs when the kidneys are unable to regulate fluids in the body, and large amounts of dilute urine are produced. This condition is far less common than diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems in part of the brain or in the kidneys, and there is no glucose (sugar) present Continue reading >>

List Of Dog Diseases

List Of Dog Diseases

This list of dog diseases is a selection of diseases and other conditions found in the dog . Some of these diseases are unique to dogs or closely related species, while others are found in other animals, including humans. Not all of the articles listed here contain information specific to dogs. Articles with non-dog information are marked with an asterisk (*). Rabies (hydrophobia) is a fatal viral disease that can affect any mammal, although the close relationship of dogs with humans makes canine rabies a zoonotic concern. Vaccination of dogs for rabies is commonly required by law. Please see the article dog health for information on this disease in dogs. [1] Canine parvovirus is a sometimes fatal gastrointestinal infection that mainly affects puppies. It occurs worldwide. [2] Canine coronavirus is a gastrointestinal disease that is usually asymptomatic or with mild clinical signs. The signs are worse in puppies. [3] Canine distemper is an often fatal infectious disease that mainly has respiratory and neurological signs. [4] Canine influenza is a newly emerging infectious respiratory disease. Up to 80 percent of dogs infected will have symptoms, but the mortality rate is only 5 to 8 percent. [5] Infectious canine hepatitis is a sometimes fatal infectious disease of the liver. [6] Canine herpesvirus is an infectious disease that is a common cause of death in puppies less than three weeks old. [7] Pseudorabies (Morbus Aujeszky) is an infectious disease that primarily affects swine, but can also cause a fatal disease in dogs with signs similar to rabies. [8] Canine minute virus is an infectious disease that can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal signs in young puppies. [9] Brucellosis is a sexually transmitted bacterial disease that can cause uveitis , abortion, and o Continue reading >>

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) results from a deficiency of vasopressin (ADH) due to a hypothalamic-pituitary disorder (central DI [CDI]) or from resistance of the kidneys to vasopressin (nephrogenic DI [NDI]). Polyuria and polydipsia develop. Diagnosis is by water deprivation test showing failure to maximally concentrate urine; vasopressin levels and response to exogenous vasopressin help distinguish CDI from NDI. Treatment is with desmopressin or lypressin. Nonhormonal treatment includes use of diuretics (mainly thiazides) and vasopressin-releasing drugs, such as chlorpropamide. The posterior lobe of the pituitary is the primary site of vasopressin storage and release, but vasopressin is synthesized within the hypothalamus. Newly synthesized hormone can still be released into the circulation as long as the hypothalamic nuclei and part of the neurohypophyseal tract are intact. Only about 10% of neurosecretory neurons must remain intact to avoid central diabetes insipidus. The pathology of central diabetes insipidus thus always involves the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus or a major portion of the pituitary stalk. Onset of central diabetes insipidus may be insidious or abrupt, occurring at any age. The only symptoms in primary central diabetes insipidus are polydipsia and polyuria. In secondary central diabetes insipidus, symptoms and signs of the associated lesions are also present. Enormous quantities of fluid may be ingested, and large volumes (3 to 30 L/day) of very dilute urine (specific gravity usually < 1.005 and osmolality < 200 mOsm/L) are excreted. Nocturia almost always occurs. Dehydration and hypovolemia may develop rapidly if urinary losses are not continuously replaced. Central diabetes insipidus must be differentiated from other causes Continue reading >>

Treating Diabetes Insipidus In Pets | What Is Diabetes Insipidus

Treating Diabetes Insipidus In Pets | What Is Diabetes Insipidus

Dealing With Diabetes Insipidus in Animals Could your dog or cat have Diabetes Insipidus (DI)? If your pet is drinking and urinating excessively, then Diabetes Insipidus might be the cause. This guide will help you learn more about this disease and what warning signs to watch out for. Diabetes Insipidus is one of two types of diabetes that can affect dogs and cats, the other being Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Insipidus, also known as watery diabetes or weak diabetes, is the more rare of the two types, and it can only be diagnosed after performing extensive urine and blood tests. This type of diabetes is known as watery diabetes because it affects a pets water metabolism. It causes the pet to release too much water instead of storing it. Because the pet cant retain the water, the pet will usually exhibit significantly increased thirst and urination. Diabetes Insipidus is seen in dogs and cats in two different forms, neurogenic DI and nephrogenic DI. Neurogenic DI is caused by a lack of the hormone vasopressin, which his crucial for managing the bodys ability to retain water. Nephrogenic DI is caused when theres a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body. ADH is the hormone that stimulates the capillary muscles and reduces the flow of urine. There isnt much a pet owner can do to help prevent their pet from developing Diabetes Insipidus because in most cases, the disease is due to either an inadequate secretion of ADH or a renal insensitivity to the hormone. If you think your dog or cat might have this form of diabetes, you may start to notice several tell-tale signs. Here is a checklist that you can use to monitor your pet so your veterinarian will have the most comprehensive information at their disposal when treating him. Simply check the box beside the symp Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is an inability to concentrate urine due to impaired renal tubule response to vasopressin (ADH), which leads to excretion of large amounts of dilute urine. It can be inherited or occur secondary to conditions that impair renal concentrating ability. Symptoms and signs include polyuria and those related to dehydration and hypernatremia. Diagnosis is based on measurement of urine osmolality changes after water deprivation and administration of exogenous vasopressin. Treatment consists of adequate free water intake, thiazide diuretics, NSAIDs, and a low-salt, low-protein diet. NDI is characterized by inability to concentrate urine in response to vasopressin. Central diabetes insipidus is characterized by lack of vasopressin. Either type of diabetes insipidus may be complete or partial. Acquired NDI Acquired NDI can occur when disorders (many of which are tubulointerstitial diseases) or drugs disrupt the medulla or distal nephrons and impair urine concentrating ability, making the kidneys appear insensitive to vasopressin. These disorders include the following: Acquired NDI can also be idiopathic. A mild form of acquired NDI can occur in any patient who is elderly or sick or who has acute or chronic renal insufficiency. NDI is suspected in any patient with polyuria. In infants, polyuria may be noticed by the caregivers; if not, the first manifestation may be dehydration. Initial testing includes 24-h urine collection (without fluid restriction) for volume and osmolality, and serum electrolytes. Patients with NDI excrete > 50 mL/kg of urine/day (polyuria). If urine osmolality is < 300 mOsm/kg (water diuresis), central diabetes insipidus or NDI is likely. With NDI, urine osmolality is typically < 200 mOsm/kg despite clinical signs of hypov Continue reading >>

Excessive Thirst And Urination? It Could Be Water Diabetes!

Excessive Thirst And Urination? It Could Be Water Diabetes!

Many of us are familiar with diabetes mellitus, which affects the way sugar is processed in the body. While that is definitely more common, there is another rare form of diabetes our pets can get, called diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is completely separate from diabetes mellitus, and affects the body completely differently as well. Diabetes insipidus (DI) affects the way water is processed in the body. It is also known as water diabetes, or even just the “other diabetes”. DI prevents water conservation, causing the body to release too much of the fluids that are being taken in. Symptoms of DI are increased urination, increased thirst and water intake, diluted urine, soiling in the house, poor hair coat, and dehydration. Simply put, no matter how much water your pet drinks, it is just being flushed out; not hydrating the body at all. There are two types of DI, although the external symptoms are the same. The first type is neurogenic, or central DI. This is when there is a lack of the hormone vasopressin, which regulates water conservation. Vasopressin, also known as ADH (antidiuretic hormone), is created and regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. A brain tumor, head injury, or failure of the pituitary gland could all cause neurogenic DI. The second type of DI is nephrogenic, where the failure is not in the brain, but in the kidneys. Plenty of vasopressin/ADH is being produced and transported, but the cells in the kidneys are not responding to it. Kidney problems like cysts or amyloidosis (abnormal buildup of proteins), or kidney failure are often the cause of nephrogenic DI. Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus sometimes requires hospitalization. The vet will collect blood and urine samples to test, and may use imaging (like an MRI or CT scan) to chec Continue reading >>

10 Minute Top Up

10 Minute Top Up

Title Atypical canine and feline endocrinopathies Author Ghita Benchekroun, DVM. Dan Rosenberg, DVM, PhD. Content Atypical canine and feline endocrinopathies Introduction Certain endocrinopathies in the dog and cat are seldom diagnosed. This may be because they are rare, but it may also be due to under-diagnosis; knowledge regarding a disease clearly has an affect on its frequency of diagnosis. This article reviews some of the more unusual hormone disorders. It is not intended to be an exhaustive assessment, but rather a synopsis of some of the so-called “emerging” endocrinopathies, focusing on feline hyperaldosteronism, feline acromegaly, central diabetes insipidus, hypophyseal dwarfism, and primary hypoparathyroidism. The etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of each disease will be discussed. Feline primary hyperaldosteronism Primary hyperaldosteronism is an emerging feline endocrinopathy. Initially described in clinical case reports, it has recently been the subject of retrospective case studies (1-2). Most cases are due to a unilateral adrenal tumor (adenoma/adenocarcinoma), but cases of bilateral tumors, mixed adrenocortical tumors (secreting aldosterone and progesterone) and bilateral hyperplasia have also been reported (1). The symptoms in cats presenting with primary hyperaldosteronism may be frustrating. The most common presenting signs are weakness, ventroflexion of the head and neck (Figure 1), PU/PD and cardiac or ocular disturbances associated with arterial hypertension (1-2). Two paraclinical signs that may suggest hyperaldosteronism are arterial hypertension in conjunction with hypokalemia associated with normal or high serum sodium concentration. It is also common for renal failure to be diagnosed at the same time (2). The defini Continue reading >>

Frequently Asked Questions About Dog Diabetes | Vetsulin

Frequently Asked Questions About Dog Diabetes | Vetsulin

General signs, such as lethargy and poor coat condition What do the terms polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia mean? Polyuria is the production of larger than normal amounts of urine in a given period. Polydipsia is excessive thirst. Polyphagia is excessive hunger. My dog is having problems holding her urine; does that mean she has diabetes? No, your dog could have a bladder or kidney infection, or some other medical problem. If your dog is having problems holding his or her urine, you should schedule a trip to your veterinarian as soon as possible. Your veterinarian will measure your dog's blood glucose and test your dog's urine for the presence of glucose and ketones. Persistently high blood glucose levels along with glucose in the urine usually means that your dog has diabetes mellitus. Dogs of all ages can get diabetes, although it's most common in older dogs. Obesity, genetics, and other conditions can contribute to the development of diabetes. While believed to be underdiagnosed, diabetes mellitus affects an estimated one in 1 in 300 dogs.1 What side effects are associated with diabetes? The most common problems associated with pet diabetes include recurrent infections and cataracts in dogs. Cataract surgery is available for canine diabetics and often can restore vision. What other diseases have the same signs as diabetes? Dogs with diabetes drink and urinate a lot. They may also have a good or increased appetite, but still lose rather than gain weight. To reach a definitive diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, your veterinarian will test your dog's blood glucose levels and urine for the presence of glucose and ketones. No. Diabetes is due to a lack of insulin produced by the pancreas. Diabetes in dogs is thought to be an autoimmune disease. It is not caused by a viru Continue reading >>

Proceedings Of The 33rd World Small Animal Veterinary Congress

Proceedings Of The 33rd World Small Animal Veterinary Congress

Close this window to return to IVIS www.ivis.org Dublin, Ireland - 2008 Next WSAVA Congress : Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Congress Organizers Medicine 18 WSAVA / FECAVA Programme 2008 | 421 WSAVA / FECAVA World Small Animal Congress Introduction Polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD) are frequent presenting complaints in small animal practice. Polyuria is defined as a daily urine output of greater than 50 ml/kg per day, while polydipsia is defined as a fluid intake of more than 100 ml/kg/day. Healthy dogs generally consume between 50-60 ml/kg/day depending on the moisture content of their diets, the ambient temperature and humidity and their level of activity. Normal urine production is approximately 20-40 ml/kg/day or, put differently, 1-2 ml/kg/hour. The balance between water loss and water intake results from interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland and the kidney, and is maintained by thirst and renal excretion of water and salt. Pathophysiology of disorders of water balance Most disorders of water balance are due to the inability of the kidney to conserve water - termed primary polyuria. In these cases, polydipsia represents a compensatory mechanism to maintain total body fluids within normal limits. Much less frequently, polydipsia is primary, with a compensatory polyuria to excrete the excess water load. Primary polyuria is either due to osmotic (solute) diuresis, ADH (antidiuretic hormone) deficiency or renal insensitivity to ADH. Primary polydipsia, in turn, is caused by certain behavioural or neurological disorders with prolonged intake of large amounts of water resulting in renal medullary washout and the production of large amounts of dilute (SG < 1.008), solute-free urine. Renal medullary hypertonicity is maintained by the efflux Continue reading >>

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus, also called Water Diabetes, is a disease affecting dogs, cats, rats, and occasionally other animals. In this disease, a hormone called ADH is either not secreted in sufficient amounts by the brain, or is not properly recognized by specific cells in the kidneys. This results in extreme thirst and frequent evacuation of very diluted urine. Essentially, the animal’s body is trying to rid itself of more water than is needed for normal urination. This condition is not usually life-threatening, but is inconvenient for the owner and stressful for the animal. However, primary kidney disease, a much more serious condition, may display these same symptoms, and so extreme thirst paired with frequent, lengthy urination is cause for a visit to the veterinarian. Diabetes Insipidus is a disease of the urinary system, where either insufficient amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, or target cells in the kidneys have lost the ability to respond to normal levels of ADH. This lack of communication between the brain and the kidneys results in polyuria with hypotonic urine and extreme thirst. Owners noting frequent urination above what is normal for their pet should monitor the amount of water the animal consumes and the color of their urine. If this pattern of drinking and urination persists, make an appointment with your veterinarian, as the much more serious primary kidney disease could be occurring. The veterinarian will first rule out primary kidney disease, and then evaluate your pet’s ability to concentrate urine with a water deprivation test. This is done by waiting for the pet to empty their bladder, then withholding food and water for 3-8 hours, which often stimulates ADH to be produced. The animal should be carefully monitor Continue reading >>

(pdf) Diagnosis Of Diabetes Insipidus Observed In Swiss Duroc Boars

(pdf) Diagnosis Of Diabetes Insipidus Observed In Swiss Duroc Boars

Background: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in humans and animals, which is caused by the lack of production, malfunction or dysfunction of the distal nephron to the antidiuretic effect of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Diagnosis requires a thorough medical history, clinical examination and further laboratory confirmation. This case report describes the appearance of DI in five Duroc boars in Switzerland. Case presentation: Two purebred intact Duroc boars at the age of 8 months and 1.5 years, respectively, with a history of polyuric and polydipsic symptoms had been referred to the Swine Clinic in Berne. Based on the case history, the results of clinical examination and the analysis of blood and urine, a tentative diagnosis of DI was concluded. Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed by findings from a modified water deprivation test, macroscopic examinations and histopathology. Following the diagnosis, three genes known to be involved in inherited DI in humans were analyzed in order to explore a possible genetic background of the affected boars. Conclusion: The etiology of DI in pigs is supposed to be the same as in humans, although this disease has never been described in pigs before. Thus, although occurring only on rare occasions, DI should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pigs with polyuria and polydipsia. It seems that a modified water deprivation test may be a helpful tool for confirming a diagnosis in pigs. Since hereditary forms of DI have been described in humans, the occurrence of DI in pigs should be considered in breeding programs although we were not able to identify a Keywords: Polydipsia, Polyuria, Hyposthenuria, Pig, Antidiuretic hormone, Vasopressin, Water deprivation test Primary disorders of water balance, such as diabetes insipid Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Central diabetes insipidus is caused by reduced secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). When target cells in the kidney lack the biochemical machinery necessary to respond to the secretion of normal or increased circulating levels of ADH, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results. It occurs infrequently in dogs, cats, and laboratory rats, and rarely in other animals. Etiology: The hypophyseal form develops as a result of compression and destruction of the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, or supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. The lesions responsible for the disruption of ADH synthesis or secretion in hypophyseal diabetes insipidus include large pituitary neoplasms (endocrinologically active or inactive), a dorsally expanding cyst or inflammatory granuloma, and traumatic injury to the skull with hemorrhage and glial proliferation in the neurohypophyseal system. Clinical Findings: Affected animals excrete large volumes of hypotonic urine and drink equally large amounts of water. Urine osmolality is decreased below normal plasma osmolality (~300 mOsm/kg) in both hypophyseal and nephrogenic forms, even if the animal is deprived of water. The increase of urine osmolality above that of plasma in response to exogenous ADH in the hypophyseal form, but not in the nephrogenic form, is useful in the clinical differentiation of the two forms of the disease. Lesions: The posterior lobe, infundibular stalk, and hypothalamus are compressed or disrupted by neoplastic cells. This interrupts the nonmyelinated axons that transport ADH from its site of production (hypothalamus) to its site of release (pars nervosa). Diagnosis: This is based on chronic polyuria that does not respond to dehydration and is not due to primary renal disease. To evaluate the ability to concentrate urine, a wa Continue reading >>

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