diabetestalk.net

Diabetes Insipidus Canine Merck Vet

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus Types Signs Diagnosis Treatment Personal Stories Ziggy, Puff, & Simone the cats Sonny the Samoyed Ferris Resources References What is Diabetes Insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disorder of water balance. The animal is unable to concentrate urine, so the urine volume is very high and the urine is dilute. "Insipid" means tasteless -- referring to the dilute urine. This disease is rare in both dogs and cats. The condition is usually permanent, and the prognosis is good. Without treatment, dehydration leads to stupor, coma, and death. This is a completely different disease from Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin. We include the information here because people are often looking for resources and we had some owners of pets with DM who also have experience with DI. Types of diabetes insipidus Central Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the pituitary gland does not secrete enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) [also called vasopressin]. This type of DI may be the caused by a congenital defect, trauma, a tumor on the pituitary gland, or unknown causes. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the kidneys do not respond to the ADH that is produced by the pituitary gland. This type of DI may be caused by a congenital defect, drugs, or caused by other metabolic disorders polyuria (excessive urination) polydipsia (excessive drinking) Diagnosis includes ruling out other diseases such as hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease), diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism (in cats), renal failure, liver disease, pyometra (infection of the uterus), and other disorders. Images of the pituitary gland may be taken to determine if there is a tumor. A water deprivation test or an ADH trial with DDAVP may be done. These tests det Continue reading >>

Polyuria

Polyuria

Polyuria [pah-lee-YOOR-ee-ah], abbreviated as PU, is excessive urination and may be a sign of diabetes. Proper treatment with insulin and in unusual cases, oral medications, restores proper metabolic function and eliminates the symptoms. Polyuria can also be a signal of other diseases or bodily problems [1][2][3], including urinary tract infections. [4][5] Polyuria in diabetes shows that the body is unable to metabolize carbohydrates properly. Carbohydrates are turned into glucose, which is sent into the blood to feed the cells. The cells, lacking insulin, can't accept the glucose, so it remains in the blood causing hyperglycemia. The extra glucose in the blood accumulates there until the kidneys see it as an impurity to be filtered out and discarded. This point is known as the renal threshold. The canine renal threshold for glucose is 180 mg/dL. [6][7][8][9] or 10mmol/L [10] This is identical to the human renal threshold. When the renal threshold is exceeded, and the excess glucose begins to spill into the urinary tract, the glucose makes the urine attract water in what's known as the osmotic effect. This extra water in the urine causes the excessive urination, dehydrating the body, which in turn causes the excessive drinking of polydipsia. The blood, losing water, becomes more concentrated, leading to worse hyperglycemia and completing the vicious circle. The over-frequent urination also takes with it electrolytes [11] which the body needs to keep itself going--sodium (salt) [12] and potassium [13] among them. This contributes to lethargy and weakness, as the body is not able to keep itself in balance without the proper amounts of electrolytes. [14] Loss of sufficient electrolytes is why many pets and people need intravenous fluids when suffering from DKA; these eleme Continue reading >>

Proceedings Of The 33rd World Small Animal Veterinary Congress

Proceedings Of The 33rd World Small Animal Veterinary Congress

Close this window to return to IVIS www.ivis.org Dublin, Ireland - 2008 Next WSAVA Congress : Reprinted in IVIS with the permission of the Congress Organizers Medicine 18 WSAVA / FECAVA Programme 2008 | 421 WSAVA / FECAVA World Small Animal Congress Introduction Polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD) are frequent presenting complaints in small animal practice. Polyuria is defined as a daily urine output of greater than 50 ml/kg per day, while polydipsia is defined as a fluid intake of more than 100 ml/kg/day. Healthy dogs generally consume between 50-60 ml/kg/day depending on the moisture content of their diets, the ambient temperature and humidity and their level of activity. Normal urine production is approximately 20-40 ml/kg/day or, put differently, 1-2 ml/kg/hour. The balance between water loss and water intake results from interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland and the kidney, and is maintained by thirst and renal excretion of water and salt. Pathophysiology of disorders of water balance Most disorders of water balance are due to the inability of the kidney to conserve water - termed primary polyuria. In these cases, polydipsia represents a compensatory mechanism to maintain total body fluids within normal limits. Much less frequently, polydipsia is primary, with a compensatory polyuria to excrete the excess water load. Primary polyuria is either due to osmotic (solute) diuresis, ADH (antidiuretic hormone) deficiency or renal insensitivity to ADH. Primary polydipsia, in turn, is caused by certain behavioural or neurological disorders with prolonged intake of large amounts of water resulting in renal medullary washout and the production of large amounts of dilute (SG < 1.008), solute-free urine. Renal medullary hypertonicity is maintained by the efflux Continue reading >>

Canine Leptospirosis A Perspective On Recent Trends

Canine Leptospirosis A Perspective On Recent Trends

Kenneth R. Harkin, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM (SAIM) Leptospirosis has been described as a re-emerging disease in both dogs and humans.1,2 Whether or not a true increase in the incidence of canine leptospirosis (Figure 1) has occurred over the past 2 decades is unclear. Increased awareness and vigilance, partly spurred by educational campaigns, have likely increased the number of diagnosed cases. Still, several studies have suggested a temporal trend that is consistent with a re-emergence of leptospirosis.3 In either case, leptospirosis should be recognized as a significant infectious disease in dogs, with variable incidence that is dependent on unpredictable short- and long-term weather patterns and influenced by anthropogenic factors that may affect exposure of dogs to wildlife vectors. Serogroup Prevalence There has been much discussion about the changing face of serogroup prevalence in dogs—from Canicola and Icterohemorrhagiae (1950s to 1970s) to Grippotyphosa and Pomona (1990s to present day). The reality is that serogroups Grippotyphosa and Pomona were well-described in dogs in reports dating back to 1956.4,5 Similarly, Birnbaum, et al, did not see any change in serogroup prevalence from 1980 through 1995, with serogroups Grippotyphosa and Pomona predominating.6 Serogroup prevalence more likely reflects geographic influences on the sampled population. It is important to emphasize that serogroup Icterohemorrhagiae appears to be the most common cause of leptospirosis in dogs and humans in certain cities, such as Baltimore, Detroit, New York City, and St. Louis, where the Norway rat remains the predominant vector. In most other parts of the United States, serogroup Grippotyphosa and, to a lesser extent, serogroup Pomona predominate.7-9 Risk Factors Understanding risk fac Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetes

Canine Diabetes

Introduction Dogs get many diseases or conditions that are the same or similar to diseases caught or developed by their owners. Some of these maladies are genetic; others are acquired through infections or parasites or as a result of other abnormalities, diseases, injuries, or old age. Heart conditions can be inherited in dogs as they are in people. Dogs can also be victims of cancer, tick-borne diseases, autoimmune conditions, arthritis, liver or kidney disease, thyroid disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and even diabetes. There are two canine diseases known as diabetes: diabetes mellitus, similar to the human disease, and diabetes insipidus. Both are endocrine diseases – that is, they result from defects in the body system that produces hormones. Diabetes insipidus is caused by a lack of vasopressin, the antidiuretic hormone that controls water resorption by the kidneys. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a deficiency of insulin, the hormone that plays a critical role in sugar metabolism, and is the most common of the two types. Canine diabetes mellitus can be further divided into two categories: a congenital type that is similar to juvenile-onset (Type I) diabetes in humans; and an acquired type that is similar to adult-onset (Type II) diabetes in humans. Most canine diabetes mellitus is insulin-dependent Type II, also known as IDDM. Insulin is the key Animals eat food that the body changes to energy for growth, maintenance, and daily activity. Digestive enzymes convert food nutrients to chemicals that can be used by the organs to carry on body functions and leave some energy for running, playing, working, and looking for tomorrow’s dinner. The bloodstream then carries these chemicals to the cells for fuel. Glucose, a simple sugar, is the body’s main fuel an Continue reading >>

Cushing Disease (hyperadrenocorticism)

Cushing Disease (hyperadrenocorticism)

Cushing disease (hyperadrenocorticism) may be divided into two broad categories. One category, pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, arises from adenomatous enlargement of the pituitary gland, resulting in excessive ACTH production. The other category, adrenal-dependent disease, is associated with functional adenomas or adenocarcinomas of the adrenal gland. Ectopic ACTH secretion has not been reported in dogs; however, in people, ectopic ACTH secretion is associated with certain lung tumors. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism results from chronic excessive exogenous steroid administration. Clinical Findings of Cushing Disease : Cushing disease is seen in middle-aged to older dogs (7–12 yr old); ~85% have pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), and ~15% have adrenal tumors. Breeds in which PDH is commonly seen include Miniature Poodles, Dachshunds, Boxers, Boston Terriers, and Beagles. Large-breed dogs often have adrenal tumors, and there is a distinct predilection in females (3:1). In cats, hyperadrenocorticism is found in middle-aged to older cats, with a slight predilection in females (60%). Hyperadrenocorticism, Poodle The most common clinical signs in dogs and cats are polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, heat intolerance, lethargy, abdominal enlargement or “potbelly,” panting, obesity, muscle weakness, and recurrent urinary tract infections. The panting and increased respiratory rate may be a result of the enlarged liver pushing against the diaphragm and limiting the depth of respiration. Dermatologic manifestations of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs can include alopecia (especially truncal), thin skin, phlebectasias, comedones, bruising, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, calcinosis cutis, pyoderma, dermal atrophy (especially around scars), secondary demodicosi Continue reading >>

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Water Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus, also called Water Diabetes, is a disease affecting dogs, cats, rats, and occasionally other animals. In this disease, a hormone called ADH is either not secreted in sufficient amounts by the brain, or is not properly recognized by specific cells in the kidneys. This results in extreme thirst and frequent evacuation of very diluted urine. Essentially, the animal’s body is trying to rid itself of more water than is needed for normal urination. This condition is not usually life-threatening, but is inconvenient for the owner and stressful for the animal. However, primary kidney disease, a much more serious condition, may display these same symptoms, and so extreme thirst paired with frequent, lengthy urination is cause for a visit to the veterinarian. Diabetes Insipidus is a disease of the urinary system, where either insufficient amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, or target cells in the kidneys have lost the ability to respond to normal levels of ADH. This lack of communication between the brain and the kidneys results in polyuria with hypotonic urine and extreme thirst. Owners noting frequent urination above what is normal for their pet should monitor the amount of water the animal consumes and the color of their urine. If this pattern of drinking and urination persists, make an appointment with your veterinarian, as the much more serious primary kidney disease could be occurring. The veterinarian will first rule out primary kidney disease, and then evaluate your pet’s ability to concentrate urine with a water deprivation test. This is done by waiting for the pet to empty their bladder, then withholding food and water for 3-8 hours, which often stimulates ADH to be produced. The animal should be carefully monitor Continue reading >>

Canine Endocrine Diseases

Canine Endocrine Diseases

The hormones in Pal's endocrine system are produced by the thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands, and other organs, including his pancreas and testicles -- or ovaries if Pal's a female. Endocrine disease occurs when there are imbalances in the hormone levels. High hormone levels are "hyper" diseases; low hormone levels are "hypo." If Pal's thyroid gland isn't producing enough of the thyroid hormone, T4, he's hypothyroid. Typically, hypothyroidism is a result of damage to the thyroid gland, an immune related disease destroying the thyroid tissue or the gland's shrinkage. Fewer than 5 percent of hypothyroid dogs are secondary hypothyroidism, caused by a tumor on the gland. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lethargy, weight gain and unwillingness to exercise. Hair loss, excessive shedding and skin dryness are common as well. The prognosis for detected hypothyroid is excellent, requiring synthetic hormone replacement for the dog's life. Hyperthyroidism is rare in dogs. If Pal's body isn't making or responding to insulin properly, he's at risk for diabetes mellitus. Insulin channels glucose from the bloodstream into the body's cells. If there's insufficient insulin, the glucose level remains high in the bloodstream, but the cells can't pick up the glucose, starving the cells. The symptoms of diabetes mellitus include increased urination and thirst. Untreated, diabetes can lead to cataracts, pancreatitis, weight loss and recurrent infections. Treatment involves a change in diet and daily insulin injections, resulting in a controllable condition requiring regular vet checks. Diabetes insipidus is caused by the pituitary gland anti-diuretic hormone ADH, which maintains the body's proper fluid level. If Pal has this form of diabetes, he'll urinate in large amounts Continue reading >>

Cushing's Disease

Cushing's Disease

Cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism) may be the most frequent endocrine disease in adult to aged dogs but is infrequent in other domestic animals. The disease is insidious and slowly progressive.2 It results from an overabundance of adrenal hormone cortisol, a form of cortisone. Cortisol helps the body adapt in times of stress, regulate proper body weight, tissue structure, and skin condition Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism) is adrenal hormonal deficiency and is the opposite. Either will cause elimination problems. At risk for Cushing's disease are dogs that have been treated with corticosteroids. These drugs are often prescribed for animals with allergies and inflammatory conditions. This type of Cushing's disease is referred to as iatrogenic, meaning "doctor-caused." Several breeds have a hereditary tendency to develop hyperadrenocorticism including Boxer, various terrier breeds, Dachshund and Poodle. Almost all dogs diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism are older than 6 years of age. Increased thirst and urination are common signs of Cushing's disease. Increased hunger is another sign for many dogs with this illness. When muscular weakness develops, the dog will unavoidable break housetraining if it can't reach its potty area in time. Other signs of Cushing's disease are hair loss on both sides of the body, high blood pressure, thinning of the skin, fat deposits in the liver, calcium deposits in the skin and plugged hair follicles on the underside. Many dogs diagnosed with Cushing's disease also have a history of recurring urinary tract infections. Diagnosis can be difficult with this disease, sometimes requiring analysis of numerous blood samples. In case of pituitary-dependent form of Cushing's disease, medications used for treating this disease inhibit st Continue reading >>

Cat Got Your Tongue? Or Just Your Jaw Muscles?

Cat Got Your Tongue? Or Just Your Jaw Muscles?

Note: This post is NOT anti-vaccine. The initial course of vaccines during the first year of a pet’s life is crucial and can save them (and sometimes us) from fatal diseases. This post simply examines the need for yearly boosters later in an animal’s life. As responsible pet owners, many of us take our animal to the vet every year for their annual check-up. This includes a physical exam, sometimes a stool sample is checked, and of course, the pet’s yearly vaccines. But wait, my pet has to be given vaccines EVERY YEAR?! I certainly don’t need boosters on my human vaccines every year. Shouldn’t the immunity last a little longer? Previously, veterinarians have found that in research, the immunity does last longer than a year in some pets. However, when you bring your animal to your local clinic, they couldn’t look at them and determine if they still had immunity to a disease, or whether they needed a booster shot. So veterinarians have been practicing yearly boosters as a safeguard. Disease cannot spread if most of the animals it contacts are immune, and therefore vaccines keep problems like rabies and parvovirus less wide-spread. New research has shown that vaccines may sometimes cause problems in pets (tumors near injection site, gastrointestinal distress, allergies, seizures, etc.) Even mild reactions like local swelling, low-grade fevers, decreased appetite and activity are beginning to be examined for long-term results. Pet owners are starting to question if yearly vaccines are truly needed, or if this is an easy buck for the vet clinic. Enter titer tests. Titers, in short, are when a blood sample is drawn, and checked for the concentration specific antibodies. This is a way to see if the human or animal is retaining immunity to the disease they were vacci Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a physiologic condition in which the kidneys fail to concentrate urine despite adequate amounts of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Central, or pituitary-dependent, diabetes insipidus develops when there is a lack of ADH production. Animals with central diabetes insipidus can be given desmopressin acetate. The nasal spray formulation can be used, with 1–4 drops administered into the conjunctival sac once or twice daily. Alternatively, the parenteral form can be given at 0.5–2 mcg, SC, once or twice daily. Thiazide diuretics may reduce polyuria by 30%–50% in animals with nephrogenic or central diabetes insipidus. Inhibition of sodium resorption in the ascending loop of Henle leads to decreased total body sodium and contraction of the extracellular fluid volume. The net effect is to increase sodium and water resorption in the proximal renal tubule. Chlorothiazide is given at 20–40 mg/kg, PO, bid. Continue reading >>

Polydipsia In Dogs And Cats (increased Drinking)

Polydipsia In Dogs And Cats (increased Drinking)

For Pet Owners Referral process Meet our team How to find us? Our facilities About your first visit Factsheets Bert's story Testimonials Help page FAQ page Local information Feedback Glossary of qualifications Glossary of terms Terms and conditions Referring practices If you need to visit us with your pet there are some things you may like to know. We have put all things together in one easy page. More Read a brief explanation of what happens if your pet needs to be referred on our Referral process page. Print view When a pet starts drinking more than usual, there may be serious underlying disease. What is the normal amount for a dog or cat to drink? Textbooks reference normal water intake for dogs as 20-70 ml/kg body weight per day. Marked variation may be seen between individuals and the amount of water taken in food, and water lost through activity and/or panting etc., will be a major influence. Intake is considered definitively increased at over 100 ml/kg/day, but some pets will have notably increased drinking whilst still drinking less than this amount; the pet always has to be considered as an individual. Why might my pet be drinking more? Water balance is tightly controlled by the body through regulation of water intake and water loss in urine. In health, lack of water intake or excessive water loss means the pituitary gland in the brain releases 'anti-diuretic homone' or ADH. ADH tells the kidneys to conserve water and make concentrated urine. In these circumstances, the thirst centre in the brain is also stimulated and this stimulates drinking. Increased drinking can occur either because the concentrating mechanisms of the kidney fail, because the kidneys do not respond to ADH, because ADH is not produced or released, or because there is an excessive stimulus t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Overview

Diabetes Overview

Go to site For Pet Owners Introduction Diabetes mellitus is an absolute or relative deficiency of the hormone insulin. Insulin is synthesized and released from beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Insulin assists with cellular uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body for energy. This causes a hypoglycemic effect. Within cells, insulin promotes anabolism, such as the production of glycogen, fatty acids, and proteins, and counters catabolic events to reduce gluconeogenesis and inhibit fat and glycogen breakdown. Insulin lowers blood glucose, whereas opposing hormones including glucagon, cortisol, progesterone, adrenaline, thyroid hormone, and growth hormone increase blood glucose. It’s important to consider these counterregulatory hormones, because changes in their blood concentrations interfere with insulin actions. Changes in these hormones result from natural physiological conditions, disease states, or drug administration. As the blood glucose concentration increases due to insufficient insulin, the kidneys become overwhelmed by the blood glucose concentration and glucose spills into the urine. The osmotic action of glucose leads to polyuria and, through loss of fluid, to polydipsia. In the absence of sufficient insulin, diabetic cats will switch from glucose to fat metabolism for cellular energy. While this is initially beneficial, fat metabolism in unrecognized or untreated diabetics typically causes a deteriorated general condition and progresses to ketoacidosis and ultimately to death. Diabetes mellitus is not related to diabetes insipidus, an extremely rare condition in cats that occurs when the kidneys are unable to regulate fluids in the body. Diabetes insipidus is characterized by a deficiency or inadequate response to a hormone call Continue reading >>

Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a skin symptom of dogs characterized by axillary and inguinal hyperpigmentation, lichenification, and alopecia. Primary acanthosis nigricans is rare, occurs almost exclusively in Dachshunds, and has no sex predilection; it is considered a genodermatosis. This condition is frequently observed secondary to a number of other diseases such as: Clinical signs typically consist of bilaterally symmetric axillary or inguinal hyperpigmentation and lichenification. The edges of these lesions are often erythematous; this is a sign of secondary bacterial and/or yeast pyoderma. With time, lesions may spread to the ventral neck, groin, abdomen, perineum, hocks, periocular area, and pinnae[4]. Primary acanthosis nigricans is not usually responsive to therapy, although topical glucocorticoids may alleviate symptoms. in more aggressive cases, use of parenteral prednisolone and melatonin maybenefit some dogs[5]. Antiseborrheic shampoos are assist in removing excess oil and odor. Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Diabetes Insipidus Observed In Swiss Duroc Boars

Diagnosis Of Diabetes Insipidus Observed In Swiss Duroc Boars

Go to: Abstract Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in humans and animals, which is caused by the lack of production, malfunction or dysfunction of the distal nephron to the antidiuretic effect of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Diagnosis requires a thorough medical history, clinical examination and further laboratory confirmation. This case report describes the appearance of DI in five Duroc boars in Switzerland. Case presentation Two purebred intact Duroc boars at the age of 8 months and 1.5 years, respectively, with a history of polyuric and polydipsic symptoms had been referred to the Swine Clinic in Berne. Based on the case history, the results of clinical examination and the analysis of blood and urine, a tentative diagnosis of DI was concluded. Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed by findings from a modified water deprivation test, macroscopic examinations and histopathology. Following the diagnosis, three genes known to be involved in inherited DI in humans were analyzed in order to explore a possible genetic background of the affected boars. The etiology of DI in pigs is supposed to be the same as in humans, although this disease has never been described in pigs before. Thus, although occurring only on rare occasions, DI should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pigs with polyuria and polydipsia. It seems that a modified water deprivation test may be a helpful tool for confirming a diagnosis in pigs. Since hereditary forms of DI have been described in humans, the occurrence of DI in pigs should be considered in breeding programs although we were not able to identify a disease associated mutation. Keywords: Polydipsia, Polyuria, Hyposthenuria, Pig, Antidiuretic hormone, Vasopressin, Water deprivation test Urine parameters of case #1 Parameter Pat Continue reading >>

More in diabetes