Diabetes Risk Factors
Diabetes is a condition that affects the body’s ability to use blood sugar for energy. The three types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in childhood, although it can occur in adults also. Type 1 diabetes affects the body’s ability to produce insulin. This hormone is vital to helping the body utilize blood sugar. Without enough insulin, the extra blood sugar can damage the body. According to the American Diabetes Association, 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a condition that affects a body’s ability to use insulin properly. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes make some insulin. However, they can’t make enough to keep up with rising blood sugar levels. Doctors associate type 2 diabetes with lifestyle-related factors like obesity. Gestational diabetes is a condition that causes women to have very high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This condition is typically temporary. Having risk factors does not mean that someone will get diabetes. Doctors don’t know the exact cause of type 1 diabetes. Family history of type 1 diabetes is considered a risk factor. According to the American Diabetes Association, the child of a man with type 1 diabetes has a 1 in 17 chance of developing type 1 diabetes. If a woman has type 1 diabetes, her child has a 1 in 25 chance if the child was born when the woman was younger than 25. Women with type 1 diabetes who give birth at age 25 or older have a 1 in 100 chance of having a child with type 1 diabetes. Having a parent with type 2 diabetes also increases diabetes risk. Because diabetes is often related to lifestyle choices, parents may pass on poor health habits to their children. This increases their risk Continue reading >>
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Environmental Pollutants And Type 2 Diabetes: A Review Of Mechanisms That Can Disrupt Beta Cell Function
, Volume 54, Issue6 , pp 12731290 | Cite as Environmental pollutants and type 2 diabetes: a review of mechanisms that can disrupt beta cell function The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is currently at epidemic proportions and it is estimated that it will increase even further over the next decades. Although genetic predisposition and lifestyle choices are commonly accepted reasons for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, it has recently been suggested that environmental pollutants are additional risk factors for diabetes development and this review aims to give an overview of the current evidence for this. More specifically, because of the crucial role of pancreatic beta cells in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes, the present work summarises the known effects of several compounds on beta cell function with reference to mechanistic studies that have elucidated how these compounds interfere with the insulin secreting capacity of beta cells. Oestrogenic compounds, organophosphorus compounds, persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals are discussed, and a critical reflection on the relevance of the concentrations used in mechanistic studies relative to the levels found in the human population is given. It is clear that some environmental pollutants affect pancreatic beta cell function, as both epidemiological and experimental research is accumulating. This supports the need to develop a solid and structured platform to fully explore the diabetes-inducing potential of pollutants. Diabetes mellitus type 2Environmental pollutantsEndocrine disruptorsInsulin-secreting cellsReview Joint FAO/WHO Meeting of Pesticide Residues The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2109-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised use Continue reading >>
Diabetes And The Environment: Analysis Of The Environmental Impact Of Insulin Infusion Sets Based On Loss Of Resources With Waste
Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Insulin Infusion Sets Based on Loss of Resources with Waste 1IKFE, Institute for Clinical Research and Development, Mainz, Germany 2Danish Technology Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Corresponding Author: Andreas Pftzner, M.D., Ph.D., IKFE, Institute for Clinical Research and Development, Parcusstrasse 8, D-55116 Mainz, Germany; email address [email protected] Copyright 2011 Diabetes Technology Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Insulin pump therapy [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)] requires regular change of infusion sets every 2-3 days in order to minimize the risk of skin irritations or other adverse events. This has been discussed to be a potential burden to the environment. The purpose of this analysis was to perform an environmental assessment of insulin pump infusion sets based on loss of resources occurring during incineration of the discarded products and by means of a lifecycle concept used to weight a material in relation to its rareness on earth and its consumption. In addition to five infusion sets (Inset30, InsetII, Comfort, Quick-set, and Cleo), a patch pump (Omnipod) was also included in this analysis. The annual loss in waste of the so called person reserve of 3 days of catheter use was compared with daily consumption of a cup of coffee in a disposable paper cup and to a soft drink in an aluminum can. The weight-based loss in resources through waste for the infusion sets (except for Cleo) corresponded to 70-200% of the loss of resources for a coffee cup (Cleo, 320%; Omnipod, 1,821,600%) and to 1-3% of the loss from an aluminum soft drink can (Cleo, 5%; Omnipod, 31,200%). The loss or resources by use of infusion sets used in insulin pump therapy appears to be low and is simi Continue reading >>
How Environment Affects Diabetes | Diabetes
Continual inhalation of polluted air is majorly responsible for uncontrolled weight gain Inhaling polluted air is also associated with enhanced insulin resistance If you dont smoke, you should avoid secondary smoke as well Diabetes is primarily of 3 types: type 1 diabetes , which is genetic, type 2 diabetes , which stems from insulin resistance and type 3 diabetes or gestational diabetes that occurs in pregnant women. Apart from the fact that diabetes results from high blood sugar levels, it is also known for its associated repercussions on cardiovascular conditions and kidney health that are potentially serious. Apart from managing diabetes with medications, it is also important to understand how environment affects diabetes to counter the ill effects. Continual inhalation of polluted air is majorly responsible for uncontrolled weight gain. Considering that most metropolitan cities are high on pollution levels, urban dwellers are more at risk. Increased weight affects diabetics adversely. Inhaling polluted air is also associated with enhanced insulin resistance. Furthermore, high pollution levels can aggravate cardiovascular problems in diabetics. Hence, they may not be able to control their blood sugar levels effectively thereby, amounting to complication. If you live in an environment thats full of secondary smoke, exposure to it can aggravate your diabetic condition because primary and secondary smoke worsens insulin resistance. Besides, inhaling smoke causes inflammation in the lining of the arteries resulting in cardiovascular complications, which can make the diabetic condition even worse. Therefore, if you smoke, you must quit at the earliest to preserve good health. If you dont smoke, you need to avoid secondary smoke as well. Stress, which is primarily a reac Continue reading >>
Can Living In A Noisy Environment Increase Your Risk Of Diabetes? | Everyday Health
For example, an observational study presented in June 2017 at the 12th ICBEN Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem linked repeated exposure to varying degrees of noise from airplanes, trains, and road traffic in Switzerland to a greater risk of developing diabetes . Another observational study, published in August 2015 in Occupational and Environmental Medicine ,found that people in Sweden who lived in places with louder road traffic noise were 18 percent more likely to have central obesity or fat around their waistlines which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes . The same study drew a link between noise from a combination of road traffic, trains, and airplanes and a nearly doubled risk for central obesity. The Link Between Traffic Noise and Diabetes When someone is under stress from any source, elevated hormones can increase the risk of insulin resistance , the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Stress can also cause sleep disturbances, which may increase the risk for diabetes, according to the National Sleep Foundation . Anytime the body is under a stress response , blood sugars will probably elevate due to elevated cortisol levels, says Ruth S. Pupo, RDN, a certified diabetes educator at White Memorial Medical Center in Los Angeles. Traffic noise may also affect people who already have type 2 diabetes. Emotional stress and physical stress can raise epinephrine and cortisol, and that can cause hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes, says Susan E. Spratt, MD , an endocrinologist at Duke Health in Durham, North Carolina. Because of the limitations of research thus far, at least for now experts agree that traffic noise and diabetes only have an association, not a proven cause-and-effect relationship. In the future, research that analyzes broader geographic areas and Continue reading >>
Five Environmental Causes Of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is usually blamed on people’s genes or their behavior, not on the environment. But diabetes rates are soaring worldwide. Genes could not change that fast. Here are five ways environmental changes are causing diabetes. This information is updated from my book Diabetes: Sugar-Coated Crisis, published in 2007. Since then, things have changed, mostly for the worse. Hopefully, knowing how the environment makes people sick will help you protect yourself against it. Unhealthful food. People were not made to eat large quantities of refined carbohydrates — the “white things,” such as sweets, breads, pastas, etc. These foods don’t occur in nature and do not trigger normal digestion and absorption. Refined carbohydrates. Carbs that have had their bran and germ layers — which contain most of the fiber and nutrients — removed are widely available, cheap, taste good, and may well be addictive. They raise your serotonin and dopamine levels, making you feel good for a short while. Then your blood glucose drops and you feel miserable again, and you need another fix. Barriers to physical activity. People used to move their bodies in the course of work, food gathering, transportation, and recreation. Most of this is now done by machines, so you have to consciously seek physical activity. This is much harder when you have too many other demands, not enough support, and mixed motivation. (“Life is hard enough already without having to exercise.”) Stress. Stress is the body’s response to a threat, often called the “fight-or-flight” response. Stress hormones, particularly cortisol, raise blood glucose levels and blood pressure. They do this so muscles involved in fight or flight will have enough fuel. Under stress, only the cells actually being used to Continue reading >>
Environmental/lifestyle Factors In The Pathogenesis And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status. In general, these factors promote an increase in body mass index. Since loss of β-cell function is the ultimate cause of developing overt type 2 diabetes, environmental and lifestyle changes must have resulted in a higher risk of β-cell damage in those at genetic risk. Multiple mechanistic pathways may come into play. Strategies of diabetes prevention should aim at promoting a ‘diabetes-protective lifestyle’ whilst simultaneously enhancing the resistance of the human organism to pro-diabetic environmental and lifestyle factors. More research on diabetes-protective mechanisms seems warranted. Background Over the past decades, there has been a major increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence in most regions of the world . After adjusting for the impact of ageing populations, diabetes prevalence in adults (85–95% T2D) almost doubled between 1980 and 2014 worldwide. Increases were more pronounced in low- and middle-income countries and in men compared to women . Recognition of the environmental and lifestyle factors responsible for these changes in theory may lead to the development of strategies to decrease the number of new cases to reach those of 20–40 years earlier. This review presents the current state Continue reading >>
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Is Diabetes Linked To Environmental Pollution?
Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Is Diabetes Linked To Environmental Pollution? Scientists are advocating additional research into the little understood links between environmental pollution and type 2 diabetes. Some recent research has demonstrated a very strong relationship between the levels of POPs in blood, particularly organochlorine compounds, and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Cambridge scientists are advocating additional research into the little understood links between environmental pollution and type 2 diabetes. In the journal The Lancet, Drs. Oliver Jones and Julian Griffin highlight the need to research the possible link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs, a group which includes many pesticides) and insulin resistance, which can lead to adult onset diabetes. In their commentary, Dr Jones and Dr. Griffin cite peer reviewed research including that of Dr D Lee, et al, which demonstrated a very strong relationship between the levels of POPs in blood, particularly organochlorine compounds, and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Of course correlation does not automatically imply causation, says Dr. Jones. But if there is indeed a link, the health implications could be tremendous. At present there is very limited information. Research into adult onset diabetes currently focuses on genetics and obesity; there has been almost no consideration for the possible influence of environmental factors such as pollution. Interestingly, in the Lee study an association between obesity and diabetes was absent in people with low concentrations of POPs in their blood. In other words, individuals were more at risk of diabetes if they were thin with high levels of POPs in their blood than if they were overweight but with low levels of Continue reading >>
How Genes And Environment Conspire To Trigger Diabetes
MORE Diabetes appears to be a disease written deeply in human genes, a feature millions of years old, which can emerge yet also retreat through the influence of environmental forces such as diet, a new study suggests. Researchers looked at how obesity, in particular, can trigger the onset of Type 2 diabetes in both mice and humans by manipulating how genes are expressed. They found that obesity, in effect, can change the chemical tags associated with DNA, called the epigenome. These epigenetic changes modify how genes behave and can alter the production of proteins necessary for proper metabolism and secretion of insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. The good news is that diseases brought on by such epigenetic changes can be reversed, the scientists at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore said in their study, published Jan. 6 in the journal Cell Metabolism. The study may help explain why Type 2 diabetes, a disease that was hardly seen a few generations ago, now affects more than 300 million adults worldwide, with some populations far more affected than others — a conspiracy of both genetic and epigenetic factors. [8 Reasons Our Waistlines Are Expanding] In people with Type 2 diabetes, the body has lost either the ability to produce enough insulin, or the ability to respond to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is the hormone that triggers the body's cells to take up sugar from the bloodstream, so in people with Type 2 diabetes, the level of sugar in the blood rises too high. It is well established that people who are obese are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, so the Hopkins scientists first studied obese mice to understand how obesity is related to the disease. The mice in the study were clones — all had identical genetics. The r Continue reading >>
Can Exposure To Environmental Chemicals Increase The Risk Of Diabetes Type 1 Development?
Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development? Johanna Bodin ,1 Lars Christian Stene ,2and Unni Cecilie Nygaard 1 1Department of Food, Water and Cosmetics, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway 2Department of Chronic Diseases, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway Received 28 June 2014; Accepted 14 September 2014 Copyright 2015 Johanna Bodin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immun Continue reading >>
Is There A Link Between Climate Change And Diabetes?
Is there a link between climate change and diabetes? Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. A study links diabetes and climate change, but researchers say the findings do not imply causation Heat waves, infectious diseases and food shortages are among climate change-related public health concerns Scientists have long warned that rising global temperatures may impact public health in a devastating way because climate change is associated with deadly weather events, the spread of infectious diseases and even food shortages. Now, researchers are looking at whether climate change might be linked to another public health concern: Type 2 diabetes . Between 1996 and 2009, as outdoor temperatures rose across the United States, so did the prevalence of diabetes, according to a study published in the journal BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care on Monday. "We were surprised though by the magnitude of the effect size," said Lisanne Blauw, a researcher at Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands and lead author of the study. "We calculated that a 1-degree Celsius rise in environmental temperature could account for more than 100,000 new diabetes cases per year in the USA alone," she said. "Future research into the effects of global warming on our health status is therefore of great importance." Scientists highlight deadly health risks of climate change However, this observational study simply reveals an association between climate and diabetes, not a causation. Among the factors known to cause Type 2 diabetes are being overweight or obese and having a family history of the disease. "I think calorie consumption and weight are probably the biggest by a country mile," said Dr. Adrian Vella, an endocrinologist who has researche Continue reading >>
Effect Of Air Pollution On Diabetes And Cardiovascular Diseases In So Paulo, Brazil
Braz J Med Biol Res, June 2008, Volume 41(6) 526-532 Effect of air pollution on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in So Paulo, Brazil L.A.A. Pereira1,2,3, F.F. Arbex1, M. Arbex1, G.M. Conceio1, U.P. Santos3,4, A.C. Lopes1, P.H.N. Saldiva3, A.L.F. Braga2,3,5 and S. Cendon1 1Programa de Ps-graduao em Clnica Mdica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de So Paulo, So Paulo, SP, Brasil 2Programa de Ps-graduao em Sade Coletiva, Universidade Catlica de Santos, Santos, SP, Brasil 3Laboratrio de Poluio Atmosfrica Experimental, 4Diviso de Pneumologia do Instituto do Corao, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo, SP, Brasil 5Programa de Pediatria Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Santo Amaro, Santo Amaro, SP, Brasil Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with cardiovascular emergency room visits in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of So Paulo. Using a time-series approach, and adopting generalized linear Poisson regression models, we assessed the effect of daily variations in PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3 on the daily number of emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic and non-diabetic patients from 2001 to 2003. A semi-parametric smoother (natural spline) was adopted to control long-term trends, linear term seasonal usage and weather variables. In this period, Continue reading >>
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Go to: Introduction Multiple studies have documented negative health effects that environmental stressors can have on patients with diabetes. Studies examining the interaction between the environment and a patient with diabetes can be unified under a single discipline termed “geoenvironmental diabetology.” Geoenvironmental diabetology is defined more specifically as the study of how geophysical phenomena impact a patient with diabetes, to include effects on metabolic control, ancillary equipment (e.g., glucometers and insulin pumps), medications, supplies, access to care, and influences on the adaptive strategies employed by patients to care for their diabetes under extreme circumstances. Geological events such as natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes) or extreme weather (e.g., heat waves) are examples of stressors that can be included under the heading of geoenvironmental diabetology. The proposed concept of geoenvironmental diabetology refers to how events in the physical world affect those with diagnosed diabetes, rather than how environmental factors interact with genetic predisposition to trigger development of disease.1,2 An overview is provided on how various geoenvironmental phenomena affect patients with diabetes. Discussion could also incorporate scenarios where patients voluntarily insert themselves into physically stressful environments, such as traveling to high altitudes (e.g., recreational mountain climbing), or situations that involve increased atmospheric pressure (e.g., scuba diving). Much of diabetology is concerned with teaching patients how to interact with their environment. This article focuses on the unexpected (though in some cases foreseeable) geological disasters and environmental stresses that can impact patients with diabetes. The global Continue reading >>
The Role Of The Built Environment In Reducing The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes
~Written by Joann Varickanickal(Contact: [email protected] ) Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects many people worldwide. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune deficiency that often develops in childhood and impacts about 10 percent of those with the disease (Canadian Diabetes Association, 2009). However, type 2 diabetes develops later in life, is influenced by environmental and lifestyle factors, and is prevalent among nearly 90 percent of those with diabetes. While Type 2 diabetes used to be considered a disease of the West, it has now spread to more countries; thus, more efforts need to be made to reduce the incidence of this disease. As healthy diets and regular physical activity are key components to reducing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the built environment needs to be taken into consideration. The built environment includes all of the aspects of an environment created by humans, such as neighborhoods and cities, and consequently plays an important role in ensuring that people can access healthy food, and increase physical activity. The accessibility of healthy foods can increase with the implementation of community gardens. Preliminary studies reveal several benefits of community gardens, including the associated increased intake of produce. One study examined the benefits of community gardens in South-East Toronto, concluding that those who participated in the maintenance of the garden increased their intake of vegetables and fruits and bought fewer produce from grocery stores (Wakefield, Yeudall, Taron, Reynolds, & Skinner, 2007). While these community gardens were established by non-governmental organizations, city planning officials still have a large role to play, as they could ensure that there is land in urban areas specifically designa Continue reading >>
Are There Environmental Causes For Type 1?
A T1D activist and researcher dives into the available research for clues. Sarah Howard is the national coordinator for the Diabetes-Obesity Working Group of the Collaborative on Health and the Environment. A mom with Type 1 with a child with Type 1, she has dedicated herself to scouring research to study possible environmental factors in rising rates of Type 1 diabetes. With a master’s degree in environmental policy and education from the the University of Michigan’s School of Natural Resources and Environment, she has had eight articles and letters published in peer-reviewed science journals. Sarah shared some of her findings with Insulin Nation. Is Type 1 diabetes all in the genes? No, but genetics do play a role. The incidence of Type 1 diabetes has been increasing in children living in industrialized countries worldwide since the 1950s, on the order of 3% per year. That sort of increase cannot be explained by genetics alone. Certain genes, generally those linked to the immune system, are linked to Type 1 risk, and they can provide a protective effect or increase the risk. Anyone can develop this disease, even with low-risk genes—and not everyone with high-risk genes will develop the disease. What is the role of the environment? Type 1 researchers generally agree that the increasing incidence in Type 1 diabetes must be due to environmental factors. What those factors are, however, remains an area of active debate and research. Some of the top contenders include: viruses (either too many or too few), vitamin D deficiency, the gut microbiota, diet/nutrition (including cow’s milk or gluten), being overweight or obese, and environmental chemicals. It very well could be a combination of factors to blame, with different factors playing different roles in each pers Continue reading >>