Understanding The Role Of Energy Homeostasis In Diabetes
Introduction The prevalence of diabetes and obesity has been on the rise for several decades and research has demonstrated that other parts of the body, including the cardiovascular system and kidneys, can be affected by diabetes. The key to understanding the relationship between diabetes and these other areas begins with the role of energy homeostasis in diabetes. At the same time, investigators are utilizing various biomarkers that have been shown to help further diabetes and obesity research. The key to understanding the relationship between diabetes and these other areas begins with the process of energy homeostasis and the important biomarkers used in today’s research. Role of Energy Homeostasis in Diabetes Energy homeostasis is a well-regulated process that depends on the coordination between feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The control of energy homeostasis in humans has received much attention in recent years due to alterations caused by the onset of conditions such as obesity and diabetes. A variety of organs tightly control energy homeostasis including the: The pancreas is one of the most important organs involved in maintaining energy homeostasis because it is responsible for the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Insulin and glucagon are two counter regulatory hormones that control the systemic concentration of glucose, a metabolic intermediate used by cells as the primary source of energy. If glucose homeostasis is thrown off balance, a diabetic state develops. What is Diabetes? Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Juvenile Diabetes) Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease that results in the destruction of β-cells in the pancreas1. With the destruction of β-cells, the body cannot produce enough insulin to maintain energy homeostasis. Onset of type 1 diabete Continue reading >>
Glucose Homeostasis, Obesity And Diabetes.
Abstract Plasma glucose levels are maintained within a narrow range in normal individuals. Both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent processes contribute to fasting and postprandial plasma glucose regulation. The brain and nervous system are insulin independent. Muscle and adipose tissue are responsive to insulin and can use either glucose or ketones and free fatty acids as their primary metabolic fuel. The essential components of metabolic syndrome are obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, lipid disturbances, and hypertension. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases exponentially as body mass index increases above about 25 kg/m2. The links between obesity and type 2 diabetes include proinflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, deranged fatty acid metabolism, and cellular processes. Modest weight reduction can improve glycaemic control and reduce diabetes risk. Obesity also leads to hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance, with a progressive decrease in insulin secretory function. Ageing is another important risk factor for metabolic disorders, including obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes. KEYWORDS: glucagon like peptide-1; glucagons; gluconeogenesis; glucose homeostasis; glucose transporter; glycogenolysis; insulin; metabolic syndrome; proinflammatory cytokines; visceral adipose tissue Continue reading >>
Cooperation Between Brain And Islet In Glucose Homeostasis And Diabetes
Although a prominent role for the brain in glucose homeostasis was proposed by scientists in the nineteenth century, research throughout most of the twentieth century focused on evidence that the function of pancreatic islets is both necessary and sufficient to explain glucose homeostasis, and that diabetes results from defects of insulin secretion, action or both. However, insulin-independent mechanisms, referred to as ‘glucose effectiveness’, account for roughly 50% of overall glucose disposal, and reduced glucose effectiveness also contributes importantly to diabetes pathogenesis. Although mechanisms underlying glucose effectiveness are poorly understood, growing evidence suggests that the brain can dynamically regulate this process in ways that improve or even normalize glycaemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here we present evidence of a brain-centred glucoregulatory system (BCGS) that can lower blood glucose levels via both insulin-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and propose a model in which complex and highly coordinated interactions between the BCGS and pancreatic islets promote normal glucose homeostasis. Because activation of either regulatory system can compensate for failure of the other, defects in both may be required for diabetes to develop. Consequently, therapies that target the BCGS in addition to conventional approaches based on enhancing insulin effects may have the potential to induce diabetes remission, whereas targeting just one typically does not. Continue reading >>
Caffeine And Glucose Homeostasis During Rest And Exercise In Diabetes Mellitus.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013 Aug;38(8):813-22. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0471. Epub 2013 May 14. Caffeine and glucose homeostasis during rest and exercise in diabetes mellitus. School of Kinesiology and Health Science and Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, 347 Bethune College, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada. Caffeine is a substance that has been used in our society for generations, primarily for its effects on the central nervous system that causes wakefulness. Caffeine supplementation has become increasingly more popular as an ergogenic aid for athletes and considerable scientific evidence supports its effectiveness. Because of their potential to alter energy metabolism, the effects of coffee and caffeine on glucose metabolism in diabetes have also been studied both epidemiologically and experimentally. Predominantly targeting the adenosine receptors, caffeine causes alterations in glucose homeostasis by decreasing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle, thereby causing elevations in blood glucose concentration. Caffeine intake has also been proposed to increase symptomatic warning signs of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and elevate blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Other effects include potential increases in glucose counterregulatory hormones such as epinephrine, which can also decrease peripheral glucose disposal. Despite these established physiological effects, increased coffee intake has been associated with reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes in large-scale epidemiological studies. This review paper highlights the known effects of caffeine on glucose homeostasis and diabetes metabolism during rest and exercise. Continue reading >>
- Exercise and Glucose Metabolism in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: Perspectives on the Role for Continuous Glucose Monitoring
- Poor sleep can increase risk of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, stroke and more here is why a good nights rest is great for your health
- Caffeine and Diabetes: How Much Is Safe to Consume?
How Does Diabetes Affect Homeostasis?
A little Something About Diabetes Diabetes is a health condition that affects the ability of your body to deal with your blood sugar. Your blood sugar comes from the food you eat. To break this sugar into energy, your body needs a hormone called “insulin”. Insulin is a chemical your body produces that helps you break sugar down into energy. What is homeostasis? Homeostasis is a combination of two words: homeo means “similar” and stasis means “stable”. In other words, homeostasis is the ability for something to remain stable. Here is an example for you to understand better. Take your body for example. When you feel hot, you start to sweat. Your sweat is basically a way your body uses to cool you down. This way, your body does not allow your temperature to rise even in summers. In other words, your body maintains a balance or homeostasis. Why Does Diabetes Affects Homeostasis? Your temperature is just one example of how the system tries to maintain a balance of every process in your body. There is so much going on inside your body, if it were not for your closely monitored homeostasis, survival wouldn’t be possible. This is how the human body evolved over thousands of years. But diabetes affects this state of balance in your body. When you have diabetes, it means a lot of extra sugar in your system, which is just there doing nothing. Excess of everything is bad and same is true for excess of sugar. When something disturbs your bodies homeostasis, you should expect some consequences. It’s like you’re crashing your car into something. When that happens, you should expect some damages to your vehicle. Similarly, the following are some outcomes of excess sugar in your body: Extra sugar damages your brain. It hurts your heart. It makes you pee more. You eat m Continue reading >>
L-serine Supplementation Lowers Diabetes Incidence And Improves Blood Glucose Homeostasis In Nod Mice
L-serine supplementation lowers diabetes incidence and improves blood glucose homeostasis in NOD mice Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing review & editing Affiliation The Bartholin Institute, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing review & editing Affiliation The Bartholin Institute, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing review & editing Affiliation Cell Death and Metabolism Unit, Center for Autophagy, Recycling and Disease, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Visualization, Writing review & editing Affiliation Cell Death and Metabolism Unit, Center for Autophagy, Recycling and Disease, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Writing review & editing Affiliation The Bartholin Institute, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Disrupt Homeostasis?
Diabetes is a chronic illness caused due to the breakdown of the metabolic system of the body. As a result, it is a complicated condition to handle, giving rise to several diseases and adverse health effects. In this article, our subject of study is how can diabetes disturb the normal state of balance or equilibrium in the body of a patient. So, come and join in for the article “How Does Diabetes Disrupt Homeostasis?” What is Homeostasis? Homeostasis is a condition in the body which means the body is in a state of constant equilibrium or balance. Homeo means “similar” and stasis means “stable”. As the name suggests, homeostasis is the ability of the body to remain stable. For example, when you feel hot, your body perspires. The perspiration is a mechanism by which the body is a maintains its stability through different bodily mechanisms. How Does the Body of a Healthy Individual Work? In a healthy individual who is not affected by diabetes, the body keeps the blood glucose within the range through a number of mechanisms. If the body experiences low levels of glucose, the pancreas reacts to the situation by lowering down the total secretion of the hormone insulin. In some other cases, where the level of blood glucose is too low, the pancreas secretes the hormone glucagon in order to enable the liver cells to secrete more of glucose which is then let out in the blood of the body. Apart from that, when blood glucose becomes low, the adrenal in gland also tends to secrete another hormone which is known as epinephrine. The hormone helps in stabilizing the situation in two different ways: It stimulates the liver to increase the production of glucose and Epinephrine prevents the tissues of the body to use more glucose so that enough glucose is remaining for the flo Continue reading >>
Homeostasis Of Glucose Levels: Hormonal Control And Diabetes
Homeostasis According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are almost 26 million people in the United States alone that have diabetes, which is 8.3% of the total U.S. population. With so many Americans suffering from diabetes, how do we treat all of them? Do all of these people now need insulin shots, or are there other ways to treat, or prevent, diabetes? In order to answer these questions, we must first understand the fundamentals of blood glucose regulation. As you may remember, homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment within an organism, and maintaining a stable internal environment in a human means having to carefully regulate many parameters, including glucose levels in the blood. There are two major ways that signals are sent throughout the body. The first is through nerves of the nervous system. Signals are sent as nerve impulses that travel through nerve cells, called neurons. These impulses are sent to other neurons, or specific target cells at a specific location of the body that the neuron extends to. Most of the signals that the human body uses to regulate body temperature are sent through the nervous system. The second way that signals can be sent throughout the body is through the circulatory system. These signals are transmitted by specific molecules called hormones, which are signaling molecules that travel through the circulatory system. In this lesson, we'll take a look at how the human body maintains blood glucose levels through the use of hormone signaling. Homeostasis of Blood Glucose Levels Glucose is the main source of fuel for the cells in our bodies, but it's too big to simply diffuse into the cells by itself. Instead, it needs to be transported into the cells. Insulin is a hormone produced by the panc Continue reading >>
Central Regulation Of Energy Homeostasis
Insulin has two important functions that relate to overall metabolic homeostasis. The phylogenetically oldest is the maintenance of sufficient energy stores to allow for development, growth, and reproduction. The newer is as a feedback regulator of plasma glucose. The key role of the central nervous system in both functions is reviewed from a personal perspective, and the development of the concept that both body weight (adiposity) and plasma glucose are critically regulated by the same hormone is described. The recent suggestion that diabetes and obesity are linked by their common reliance on this central nervous system insulin signaling system is reviewed. Recent efforts to understand the hypothalamic mechanisms involved are described, and the common use of insulin receptor substrate 2 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling mechanism is emphasized. Potential consequences of defects in the secretion of insulin or the action of insulin in the central nervous system are given, and linkage between obesity and diabetes is illustrated with a potential clinical representative. Insulin and insulin-like molecules have played a key role in energy homeostasis throughout evolution. Elegant studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated insulin-like molecules along with insulin and insulin-like signaling systems that, in C. elegans, are crucial to the regulation of body adiposity and nutrient storage, and in Drosophila play a similar role, plus regulate glucose metabolism. These peptides secreted from neurons are also critical for the regulation of reproduction in these organisms and, in relation to nutrient availability, determine lifespan (1,2). Whereas the role of the brain in mammalian glucose homeostasis was Continue reading >>
Targeting Ghrelin Acylation For Control Of Glucose Homeostasis
Type II diabetes arises when the body's ability to regulate glucose uptake through insulin secretion is compromised, leading to elevated blood glucose levels. With rising rates of type II diabetes, new treatment options are needed to address this disease. The peptide hormone ghrelin is a promising new target for drug development, as ghrelin-related signaling appears to block the ability of glucose to raise insulin levels in the bloodstream. Drugs targeting ghrelin could lead to increased insulin sensitivity to blood glucose levels, and could be complementary to current diabetes treatments. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), an enzyme that modifies ghrelin, offers an excellent target for specifically blocking ghrelin signaling. GOAT attaches a fatty acid to ghrelin, with only the modified form of ghrelin able to activate signaling. This fatty acid modification is unique to ghrelin among hormones, making it likely that blocking it with GOAT-specific inhibitors will only affect ghrelin signaling. However, designing inhibitors for GOAT is currently difficult because very little is known about how GOAT binds ghrelin and catalyzes ghrelin modification. To relieve this bottleneck in developing GOAT inhibitors, our research will determine the interactions between ghrelin and GOAT that are required for ghrelin modification. Synthetic chemistry will then let us create molecules that block these interactions for evaluation as potential GOAT inhibitors. By understanding how GOAT recognizes and modifies ghrelin, our work will lay the foundation for potentially creating a novel class of therapeutics for controlling glucose regulation and insulin secretion in patients with type II diabetes. What area of diabetes research does your project cover? What role will this particular project p Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Affect Homeostasis?
Diabetes affects homeostasis by the glucose levels rising, diabetes can also disturb the homeostasis with the metabolism , another system which has disrupted homeostasis from diabetes is the body water regulation system (3). As sugar level rises in the blood, water is pulled out of the cells shrinking them, and the brain does not function as well and foggy water is pulled out of the vitreous of the eyeball and shrinks causing blurry vision the high glucose starts leaking through the kidney glomerulus and spilling into the urine and,pulling water out with it, this is why diabetes cause the symptoms of thirst excessive urination blurry vision and foggy thinking (4). Diabetes affects the endocrine system because it is the result of three main hormonal inconsistencies. One side effect of diabetes is frequent urination and one symptom is that the body can't properly regulate water. It also affects the kidneys to the point where they could shut down. Diabetes affects the nervous system by having too much glucose circulating the body. This can damage many nerves in the body and if the damage is too severe, amputation may be the only solution. Most common oral drugs used for diabetes are: Sulfonyureas, Bigueniedes, Meglitindes. Sulfonyureas Sulfonylureas Simulates the beta cells of the pancreas to release more insulin. sulfonylurea drugs have been used since the 1950s. This drug is generally taken one to two times a day before meals, all Sulfonylureas drugs have similar effects on blood glucose levels, but differ in side effects.Sulfonyureas still effects often taken, or w/ interactions with other drugs. Biguenides Biguanides lowers blood glucose levels primarily by decreasing the amount of glucose produced by the liver by making the muscle tissue more sensitive to insulin so t Continue reading >>
6 Glucose Homeostasis, Obesity And Diabetes
Plasma glucose levels are maintained within a narrow range in normal individuals. Both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent processes contribute to fasting and postprandial plasma glucose regulation. The brain and nervous system are insulin independent. Muscle and adipose tissue are responsive to insulin and can use either glucose or ketones and free fatty acids as their primary metabolic fuel. The essential components of metabolic syndrome are obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, lipid disturbances, and hypertension. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases exponentially as body mass index increases above about 25 kg/m2. The links between obesity and type 2 diabetes include proinflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, deranged fatty acid metabolism, and cellular processes. Modest weight reduction can improve glycaemic control and reduce diabetes risk. Obesity also leads to hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance, with a progressive decrease in insulin secretory function. Ageing is another important risk factor for metabolic disorders, including obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Continue reading >>
Prostaglandins, Glucose Homeostasis, And Diabetes Mellitus
Prostaglandins, Glucose Homeostasis, and Diabetes Mellitus Prostaglandins of the E series are implicated as regulators of glucose homeostasis because of their effects on glucose production and secretion of insulin and glueagon. PGE is postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin secretion in adult-onset (Type II) diabetes mellitus. Evidence supporting this hypothesis includes the demonstration that PGE inhibits glucose-induced acute insulin responses in normal humans. Moreover, drugs that inhibit synthesis of PGE improve abnormal insulin secretion in human subjects with Type II diabetes mellitus. D. Doniach, G. F. Bottazzo, M. R. C. Path, and A. G. Cudworth Vincent Poitout, D. V.M., Ph.D., and and R. Paul Robertson, M.D. C. Ronald Kahn, M.D., David Vicent, M.D., and , and Alessandro Doria, M.D., Ph.D. Gene therapies are gaining momentum as promising early successes in clinical studies accumulate and examples of regulatory approval for licensing increase. Investigators are advancing with cautious optimism that effective, durable, and safe therapies will ... Read More Figure 1: Indications in gene therapy clinical trials. The bar graph classifies clinical gene transfer studies by disease. Adapted from Reference 1. Figure 2: (a) The goal of gene augmentation is to restore normal cellular function by providing a functional copy of a gene in trans (i.e., without affecting the diseased gene itself, which will still... Figure 3: Genetic engineering of T cells. TCRs have the ability to recognize any protein expressed by a cell and can potentially distinguish healthy cells from tumor cells through the specific recogni... Continue reading >>
- Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study
- Exercise and Glucose Metabolism in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: Perspectives on the Role for Continuous Glucose Monitoring
- How Does Diabetes Disrupt Homeostasis?
Constancy in a system, such as the human body, maintained by sensing, feedback, and control mechanisms. A familiar example of a system in homeostasis is a house with a thermostat. When the temperature in the house dips too far below the desired temperature, the thermostat senses this and sends a signal to the furnace to turn on. When the target temperature level is reached, the thermostat senses this, too, and signals the furnace to shut off. The human body has a number of functions that are controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, including heartbeat, blood pressure, body temperature, electrolyte balance, respiration, and blood glucose regulation. In a person who doesn’t have diabetes, the body has a number of mechanisms in place to keep blood glucose in a fairly limited range. The pancreas reacts to low blood glucose levels by decreasing its insulin secretion. If the blood glucose level drops lower, the alpha cells of the pancreas release more of a hormone called glucagon, which stimulates the liver to manufacture more glucose and release it into the bloodstream. At the same time, the adrenal glands secrete more of a hormone called epinephrine. In addition to stimulating the manufacture and secretion of glucose by the liver, epinephrine keeps the body’s tissues from using as much glucose. Epinephrine is thought to cause some of the physical symptoms of hypoglycemia — such as sweating, trembling, and heart palpitations. Other counterregulatory hormones, including growth hormone and cortisol, also help raise blood glucose levels by increasing glucose production and limiting glucose utilization. A person with Type 1 diabetes has lost one or more of these defense mechanisms. Since his pancreas no longer makes insulin and he must inject it, his pancreas cannot control t Continue reading >>
Disruption Of Homeostasis - Advanced
What happens if there's disruption? If homeostasis is disrupted, it must be controlled or a disease/disorder may result. Your body systems work together to maintain balance. If that balance is shifted or disrupted and homeostasis is not maintained, the results may not allow normal functioning of the organism. Many homeostatic mechanisms keep the internal environment within certain limits (or set points). When the cells in your body do not work correctly, homeostatic balance is disrupted. Homeostatic imbalance may lead to a state of disease. Disease and cellular malfunction can be caused in two basic ways: by deficiency or toxicity. Deficiency occurs when beneficial pathways are blocked and cells lack adequate quantities of vitamins or minerals. Toxicity occurs when cells have an excess of a toxin that poisons the cell. Cells are delicate and require concise levels of every necessary substance; levels that are too high and levels that are too low can be extremely dangerous. Cells undergo homeostasis to maintain the ideal levels, but, when homeostasis is interrupted, your body may correct or worsen the problem based on certain influences. In addition to inherited (genetic) influences, there are external influences that are based on lifestyle choices and environmental exposure. These factors together influence the body's ability to maintain homeostatic balance. A commonly seen example of homeostatic imbalance is diabetes. In a diabetic, the endocrine system has difficulty maintaining the correct blood glucose levels, so diabetics must closely monitor their blood glucose levels, as shown in Figure below. They must monitor their daily sugar intake and regulate their blood glucose levels with insulin injections. Like most homeostatic imbalances, diabetes is dependent on both Continue reading >>