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Diabetes History Facts

64 Interesting Facts About Diabetes

64 Interesting Facts About Diabetes

The word “diabetes” is Greek for “siphon,” which refers to the copious urine of uncontrolled diabetes. “Mellitus” is Latin for “honey” or “sweet,” a name added when physicians discovered that the urine from people with diabetes is sweet with glucose.[8] Scientists predict that there may be 30 million new cases of diabetes in China alone by 2025.[1] The earliest recorded mention of a disease that can be recognized as diabetes is found in the Ebers papyrus (1500 B.C.), which includes directions for several mixtures that could “remove the urine, which runs too often.”[1] The name “diabetes” is attributed to the famed Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia who practiced in the first century A.D. He believed that diabetes was caused by snakebite.[1] William Cullen (1710-1790), a professor of chemistry and medicine in Scotland, is responsible for adding the term “mellitus” (“sweet” or “honey-like”) to the word diabetes.[1] Insulin was coined from the Latin insula (“island”) because the hormone is secreted by the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.[9] In 1889, Oskar Minkowski (1858-191931) discovered the link between diabetes and the pancreas (pan - “all” + kreas - “flesh) when a dog from which he removed the pancreas developed diabetes.[1] Before the discovery of insulin, surgeons rarely operated on diabetic patients with gangrene because the patients typically would not heal and would inevitably die. On occasion, an area of gangrene would “auto-amputate,” meaning it would dry up and fall off.[1] Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, physicians would often put their patients on starvation or semi-starvation diets, recommending they eat only foods such as oatmeal.[1] In 1996, a 16-year-old girl with diabetes died at he Continue reading >>

Ten Things You Might Not Know About Diabetes

Ten Things You Might Not Know About Diabetes

Did you know these 10 facts about diabetes? About one third of all people with diabetes do not know they have the disease. Type 2 diabetes often does not have any symptoms. Only about five percent of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. If you are at risk, type 2 diabetes can be prevented with moderate weight loss (10–15 pounds) and 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking) each day. A meal plan for a person with diabetes isn’t very different than that which is recommended for people without diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. People with diabetes are twice as likely to develop heart disease than someone without diabetes. Good control of diabetes significantly reduces the risk of developing complications and prevents complications from getting worse. Bariatric surgery can reduce the symptoms of diabetes in obese people. Diabetes costs $174 billion annually, including $116 billion in direct medical expenses. Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

Frederick Banting (right) joined by Charles Best in office, 1924 Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[1] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning “too great emptying of the urine.”[2] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[2] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants.[2] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 250 BC by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis.[2] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400-500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with obesity.[2] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by Thomas Willis in the late 1600s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus which is also associated with frequent urination.[2] Further history[edit] Plaque in Strasbourg commemorating the 1889 discovery by Minkowski and Von Mering The first complete clinical description of diabetes was given by the Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (fl. 1st century CE), who also noted the excessive amount of urine which passed through the kidneys.”[3] Diabetes mellitus appears to have been a death sentence in the ancient era. Hippocrates makes no mention of it, which may indicate that he felt the disease was incurable. Aretaeus did attempt to treat it but could not give a good prognosis; he commented that "life (with diabetes) is short, disgusting and painful."[4] The disease must have been rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.[2] In medieval Persia, Avicenna (980–1037) provided a detailed account on diabet Continue reading >>

Diabetes Fast Facts

Diabetes Fast Facts

(CNN)Here's a look at diabetes, a disease that affects millions of people around the world. Diabetes is characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. The disease can lead to serious complications such as blindness, kidney damage, cardiovascular disease, limb amputations and premature death. Facts: Worldwide, the number of people living with the potentially fatal disease has quadrupled since 1980, to more than 400 million, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Prediabetes occurs when blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Before developing Type 2 diabetes, people almost always have prediabetes. Research has shown that some long-term damage to the body may occur during prediabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body's immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make insulin. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults. Only 5-10% of people with diabetes have Type 1. Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes may be autoimmune, genetic or environmental. There is no known way to prevent Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not use insulin properly. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and in adults, it accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. It is associated with older age, obesity, family history, physical inactivity and race/ethnicity. It is more common in African Americans, Latino Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, although still rare, is being diagnosed more frequently. Gestationa Continue reading >>

Diabetes Urine Tests

Diabetes Urine Tests

Urine tests may be done in people with diabetes to evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. Urine glucose measurements are less reliable than blood glucose measurements and are not used to diagnose diabetes or evaluate treatment for diabetes. They may be used for screening purposes. Testing for ketones is most common in people with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? This test detects the presence of ketones, which are byproducts of metabolism that form in the presence of severe hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar). Ketones are formed from fat that is burned by the body when there is insufficient insulin to allow glucose to be used for fuel. When ketones build up to high levels, ketoacidosis (a serious and life-threatening condition) may occur. Ketone testing can be performed both at home and in the clinical laboratory. Ketones can be detected by dipping a test strip into a sample of urine. A color change on the test strip signals the presence of ketones in the urine. Ketones occur most commonly in people with type 1 diabetes, but uncommonly, people with type 2 diabetes may test positive for ketones. The microalbumin test detects microalbumin, a type of protein, in the urine. Protein is present in the urine when there is damage to the kidneys. Since the damage to blood vessels that occurs as a complication of diabetes can lead to kidney problems, the microalbumin test is done to check for damage to the kidneys over time. Can urine tests be used to Continue reading >>

Diabetes: 7 Myths And 7 Facts

Diabetes: 7 Myths And 7 Facts

Julie had a history of diabetes in her family, and although her doctor had been warning her of the risks, she was still caught off-guard when she was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes at age 43. Formerly known as adult onset diabetes, Type 2 diabetes normally runs in families. However, many who are diagnosed have no family history of the disease. It can also be caused by a person’s lifestyle. When she came to me, Julie had a lot of fear, in part because she didn’t understand what the diagnosis meant for her diet and her future. I helped her separate the myths from the facts. Myth: Once you are diagnosed with diabetes, you have to go on insulin shots. Fact: If caught early, Type 2 diabetes can be managed with lifestyle — diet and exercise. If more advanced, multiple oral medications exist that can control blood glucose levels. If you have diabetes, you may never need to be on insulin shots. Myth: If your blood glucose or sugar levels are elevated, you will feel it in your body. Fact: Diabetes is usually silent until your blood sugars are painfully high. Subtle signs may be having more carbohydrate or sugar cravings, or feeling fatigued or lack of energy even after having a good night’s sleep. Myth: If I have diabetes I will know it. Fact: You can have diabetes for many years without knowing it. Anne Peters, M.D., a leading diabetologist and researcher at University of Southern California (USC), believes that the average person diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes actually had it for seven years prior to diagnosis! Myth: Since I now have a diagnosis of diabetes, it feels like a death sentence. Fact: Type 2 diabetes is extremely controllable with lifestyle and medications. It is not a death sentence by any stretch, and if managed daily can keep your life in balance. Myth: N Continue reading >>

Highlights: Diabetes In Canada: Facts And Figures From A Public Health Perspective

Highlights: Diabetes In Canada: Facts And Figures From A Public Health Perspective

Report highlights This report presents the most recent statistics on the burden and impact of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus ("diabetes") in Canada. It outlines complications attributable to the disease, ways of reducing the risks, and provides some estimates of the economic burden of diabetes. Finally, the report provides information on diabetes among children and youth, as well as among First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations. The quality of surveillance information on diabetes in Canada has increased substantially over the last decade. The Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System uses population-based administrative data from every province and territory to provide detailed, comparative information for assessing the burden, as well as the use of health services and certain health outcomes of chronic diseases, including diabetes. Population surveys provide additional data on diabetes, its risk factors, complications and impacts on the lives of affected Canadians. The combination of these complementary data sources provides information to the Public Health Agency of Canada's diabetes surveillance program. Chapter 1 – The burden of diabetes in Canada In 2008/09, almost 2.4 million Canadians (6.8%) were living with diabetes. According to data obtained from blood samples, about 20% of diabetes cases remain undiagnosed. While the prevalence increased with age, more than 50% of Canadians diagnosed with diabetes (1.2 million) were of working age, between 25 and 64 years of age. The overall prevalence was higher among males (7.2%) than females (6.4%). Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Ontario had the highest age-standardized prevalence rates of diagnosed diabetes in Canada; Nunavut, Alberta, and Quebec had the lowest. From 1998/99 to 2008/09, the prev Continue reading >>

The History Of Diabetes

The History Of Diabetes

Scientists and physicians have been documenting the condition now known as diabetes for thousands of years. From the origins of its discovery to the dramatic breakthroughs in its treatment, many brilliant minds have played a part in the fascinating history of diabetes. Diabetes: Its Beginnings The first known mention of diabetes symptoms was in 1552 B.C., when Hesy-Ra, an Egyptian physician, documented frequent urination as a symptom of a mysterious disease that also caused emaciation. Also around this time, ancient healers noted that ants seemed to be attracted to the urine of people who had this disease. In 150 AD, the Greek physician Arateus described what we now call diabetes as "the melting down of flesh and limbs into urine." From then on, physicians began to gain a better understanding about diabetes. Centuries later, people known as "water tasters" diagnosed diabetes by tasting the urine of people suspected to have it. If urine tasted sweet, diabetes was diagnosed. To acknowledge this feature, in 1675 the word "mellitus," meaning honey, was added to the name "diabetes," meaning siphon. It wasn't until the 1800s that scientists developed chemical tests to detect the presence of sugar in the urine. Diabetes: Early Treatments As physicians learned more about diabetes, they began to understand how it could be managed. The first diabetes treatment involved prescribed exercise, often horseback riding, which was thought to relieve excessive urination. In the 1700s and 1800s, physicians began to realize that dietary changes could help manage diabetes, and they advised their patients to do things like eat only the fat and meat of animals or consume large amounts of sugar. During the Franco-Prussian War of the early 1870s, the French physician Apollinaire Bouchardat noted Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

Origin of the term ‘diabetes’ The term diabetes is the shortened version of the full name diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is derived from the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon - to pass through and the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet. This is because in diabetes excess sugar is found in blood as well as the urine. It was known in the 17th century as the “pissing evil”. The term diabetes was probably coined by Apollonius of Memphis around 250 BC. Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425. It was in 1675 that Thomas Willis added the word “'mellitus'” to the word diabetes. This was because of the sweet taste of the urine. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians as is evident from their literature. History of the treatment of diabetes Sushruta, Arataeus, and Thomas Willis were the early pioneers of the treatment of diabetes. Greek physicians prescribed exercise - preferably on horseback to alleviate excess urination. Some other forms of therapy applied to diabetes include wine, overfeeding to compensate for loss of fluid weight, starvation diet, etc. In 1776, Matthew Dobson confirmed that the sweet taste of urine of diabetics was due to excess of a kind of sugar in the urine and blood of people with diabetes. In ancient times and medieval ages diabetes was usually a death sentence. Aretaeus did attempt to treat it but could not give a good outcome. Sushruta (6th century BCE) an Indian healer identified diabetes and classified it as “Madhumeha”. Here the word “madhu” means honey and combined the term means sweet urine. The ancient Indians tested for diabetes by looking at whether ants were attracted to a person's u Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

The beginnings Diabetes has been affecting lives for thousands of years. An ailment suspected to be diabetes was recognized by the Egyptians in manuscripts dating to approximately 1550 B.C. According to one study, ancient Indians (circa 400–500 A.D.) were well aware of the condition, and had even identified two types of the condition. They tested for diabetes — which they called “honey urine” — by determining if ants were attracted to a person’s urine. The term “diabetes” In Greek, “diabetes” means “to go through.” Greek physician Apollonius of Memphis is credited with naming the disorder for its top symptom: the excessive passing of urine through the body’s system. Historical documents show that Greek, Indian, Arab, Egyptian, and Chinese doctors were aware of the condition, but none could determine its cause. In earlier times, a diagnosis of diabetes was likely a death sentence. Insulin deficiency In the early years of the 20th century, medical professionals took the first steps toward discovering a cause and treatment mode for diabetes. In 1926, Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer announced that the pancreas of a patient with diabetes was unable to produce what he termed “insulin,” a chemical the body uses to break down sugar. Thus, excess sugar ended up in the urine. Physicians promoted a fasting diet combined with regular exercise to combat the disorder. Diabetes in dogs Despite attempts to manage the disorder through diet and exercise, people with diabetes inevitably died prematurely. In 1921, scientists experimenting with dogs had a breakthrough in reversing the effects of diabetes. Two Canadian researchers, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Herbert Best, successfully extracted insulin from healthy dogs. They then injected it into dogs th Continue reading >>

9 Things You Never Knew About Type 2 Diabetes

9 Things You Never Knew About Type 2 Diabetes

A big baby can cause more than a difficult labor According to the Joslin Diabetes Center, giving birth to a baby nine pounds or larger puts you at a greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes tend to put on more weight during pregnancy and give birth to larger babies, but a baby of above average weight is a risk factor with or without gestational diabetes. (These are the symptoms of gestational diabetes to watch out for.) Most cases of type 2 diabetes can be reversed A little-known fact about this kind of diabetes is that most cases are treatable. "The biggest misconception is that type 2 diabetes should simply be managed," says Joel Kahn, MD, founder of the Kahn Center for Cardiac Longevity and owner of GreenSpace Cafe. "But my goal with these patients is to reverse and eliminate their diabetic state through whole food, plant-based, low-fat diets, exercise, and supplements leading to weight control." He adds that this approach really works for many of his patients and that "it's better to be an ex-type 2 diabetic than a well-managed one." These are the superfoods that are great for diabetics. Genetics play a (supporting) role Just as with several other diseases and conditions, genetics can contribute to type 2 diabetes risk. Even if a close family member has type 2 diabetes, you may not suffer the same fate. Type 2 diabetes has a greater connection to diet and lifestyle than family history, although having a sibling or parent with the disease does increase your chances. These health breakthroughs can help stop type 2 diabetes before it starts. Sugar isn't off limits Type 1 diabetes is directly related to how the body produces insulin and absorbs glucose, so someone with type 1 diabetes has to closely watch their sugar Continue reading >>

10 Facts About The History Of Diabetes

10 Facts About The History Of Diabetes

November 14th is world diabetes day and November is Diabetes awareness month! World diabetes day is internationally recognized; with the hope of bringing about more awareness and to celebrate how far medicine and technology have come since diabetes was first described. In honor of this important date and the entire month, I would like to share with the type 2 diabetes community some interesting facts about the history of diabetes. 10 Facts in Diabetes History When was diabetes discovered? The earliest known mention of diabetes symptoms dates back to 1552 B.C. An Egyptian physician named, Hesy-Ra, documented frequent urination as a symptom of this unexplainable disease which also caused extreme weight loss. Where does the name Diabetes Mellitus (often shortened to diabetes) originate from? In 230 BC, a physician named, Apollonius of Memphis, used the term “diabetes” (in Greek diabetes means siphon or to pass through), to describe a condition in which people were eliminating more fluid then they could consume. In 1675 Thomas Willis, an English physician, added the Greek word “mellitus” (in Greek mellitus means sweet) to the word diabetes. This was because those with diabetes had urine with a sweet taste. Before the discovery of insulin (see below) how was diabetes mellitus treated? A scientist named, Frederick M. Allen, recognized that diabetes was not just a disease that caused elevated blood sugar levels but also a problem with metabolism. He developed the first “diabetic diet”, before the discovery of insulin. Allen’s diet, was a very low calorie diet the included mostly protein and fat, with only minimal amounts of carbohydrate. When was insulin discovered? Insulin was discovered by Fredrick Banting and Charles Best in 1921. Who was the first person to r Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

The Facts Diabetes is a condition where people don't produce enough insulin to meet their body's needs and/or their cells don't respond properly to insulin. Insulin is important because it moves glucose, a simple sugar, into the body's cells from the blood. It also has a number of other effects on metabolism. The food that people eat provides the body with glucose, which is used by the cells as a source of energy. If insulin isn't available or doesn't work correctly to move glucose from the blood into cells, glucose will stay in the blood. High blood glucose levels are toxic, and cells that don't get glucose are lacking the fuel they need. There are two main kinds of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. More than 90% of all people with diabetes have type 2. A 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) report estimated that about 3.4 million Canadians have diabetes. Only about two-thirds of people with type 2 diabetes are aware of it and are receiving treatment because, for many people, early symptoms are not noticeable without testing. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin. Everyone with type 1 diabetes requires insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body does not use insulin properly. It usually occurs in adults, although in some cases children may be affected. People with type 2 diabetes usually have a family history of this condition and are most often overweight. People with type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin injections. This condition occurs most commonly in people of First Nations descent, Hispanics, and North Americans of African descent. Another less common form is gestational diabetes, a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. According to the CDA, depend Continue reading >>

General Diabetes Facts And Information

General Diabetes Facts And Information

What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). Glucose backs up in the bloodstream — causing one’s blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high. There are two major types of diabetes. In type 1 (fomerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent) diabetes, the body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that enables the body to use glucose found in foods for energy. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive. This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can occur at any age. Type 2 (formerly called adult-onset or non insulin-dependent) diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (insulin resistance). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly occurring in younger people, particularly adolescents. How do people know if they have diabetes? People with diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include: being very thirsty frequent urination weight loss increased hunger blurry vision irritability tingling or numbness in the hands or feet frequent skin, bladder or gum infections wounds that don't heal extreme unexplained fatigue In some cases, there are no symptoms — this happens at times with type 2 diabetes. In this case, people can live for months, even years without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized. Who gets diabetes? Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are somewhat more likely to develop it. Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. Most of the food you eat is broken down into sugar (also called glucose) and released into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin, which acts like a key to let the blood sugar into your body’s cells for use as energy. If you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use the insulin it makes as well as it should. When there isn’t enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in your bloodstream, which over time can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease. There isn’t a cure yet for diabetes, but healthy lifestyle habits, taking medicine as needed, getting diabetes self-management education, and keeping appointments with your health care team can greatly reduce its impact on your life. 30.3 million US adults have diabetes, and 1 in 4 of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US. Diabetes is the No. 1 cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations, and adult-onset blindness. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than tripled as the American population has aged and become more overweight or obese. Types of Diabetes There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant). Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that stops your body from making insulin. About 5% of the people who have diabetes have type 1. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop quickly. It’s usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need t Continue reading >>

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