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Diabetes Epidemic

Cost Of Diabetes Epidemic Reaches $850 Billion A Year

Cost Of Diabetes Epidemic Reaches $850 Billion A Year

(Reuters) - The number of people living with diabetes has tripled since 2000, pushing the global cost of the disease to $850 billion a year, medical experts said on Tuesday. The vast majority of those affected have type 2 diabetes, which is linked to obesity and lack of exercise, and the epidemic is spreading particularly fast in poorer countries as people adopt Western diets and urban lifestyles. The latest estimates from the International Diabetes Federation mean that one in 11 adults worldwide have the condition, which occurs when the amount of sugar in the blood is too high. The total number of diabetics is now 451 million and is expected to reach 693 million by 2045 if current trends continue. The high price of dealing with the disease reflects not only the cost of medicines but also the management of a range of complications, such as limb amputations and eye problems. Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Became An Epidemic

How Diabetes Became An Epidemic

It is estimated that almost 8 percent of Americans have some form of diabetes. What's even more worrying is that the number of people with diabetes is on the rise not just in the United States, but all over the world. Scientists have been working to find out why more people are developing diabetes and looking for strategies to help reverse this trend. Diabetes in the United States In the United States, diabetes has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. In 1980, 5.8 million people were diagnosed with diabetes, compared with 17.9 million today. Diabetes is expected to rise significantly in the near future. It is estimated that one in three Americans living today will eventually develop diabetes, and that the number of cases will increase in this country by 165 percent by 2050. Researchers believe that the following factors play a role in the increase: The baby-boomer population is aging, and your chances of developing diabetes increases with age. The Hispanic population is one of the fastest-growing segments of the United States population, and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Americans are becoming increasingly overweight and physically inactive, both known risk factors for diabetes. The Worldwide Diabetes Epidemic Diabetes is now a problem that affects people everywhere. There is evidence that 246 million people worldwide have diabetes. If current trends continue, this number is projected to reach 380 million within the next 20 years. Diabetes affects developed and developing countries alike. In fact, the largest increases in diabetes prevalence in the years to come are projected to take place in developing countries. According to the International Diabetes Federation, India currently has the highest concentration of people with diabetes, Continue reading >>

The Global Diabetes Epidemic

The Global Diabetes Epidemic

Twelve years ago, my husband and I packed up all of our belongings and moved to Trivandrum — a steamy, tropical town at the southern tip of India in Kerala. At the time, I was a medical student interested in studying stroke. For the next six months I dressed in a sari and walked to work on jungle roads. At the hospital, I immediately began seeing a steady stream of young patients affected by strokes, many of whom were so severely disabled that they were unable to work. I initially suspected the cause was tuberculosis or dengue fever — after all, this was the developing world, where infections have long been primary culprits for disease. But I soon learned that my hunch was wrong. One of my first patients was a woman in her mid-30s who came in with a headache, vomiting and an unsteady gait. Her scan showed a brainstem stroke. Her blood sugars were very high. The underlying cause of her stroke was most likely untreated Type 2 diabetes. Here I was, halfway around the globe, in a vastly foreign culture, but I was looking at a disease — and the lifestyle that fostered it — that was startlingly familiar. Today, I am an endocrinologist, and diabetes has become a full-blown epidemic in India, China, and throughout many emerging economies. In the United States, diabetes tends to be a disease that, while certainly not benign, is eminently manageable. Just this month, federal researchers reported that health risks for the approximately 25 million Americans with diabetes had fallen sharply over the last two decades. Elsewhere on the globe, however, diabetes plays out in a dramatically different fashion. Patients often lack access to care and can’t get insulin, blood pressure pills and other medicines that diminish the risk of complications. As more and more people develop Continue reading >>

Global Diabetes Epidemic

Global Diabetes Epidemic

Photo: Diabetes screening 2015 Uttam Kamati, Courtesy of K4Health Photoshare The World Health Organization (WHO)s first global report on diabetes underscores how diabetes is no longer a disease of predominantly rich nations but is increasing in all regions, including in developing countries. In 2014, there were 422 million cases of diabetes, or 8.5 percent of the worlds population. In 2012 alone, 3.7 million people died from the disease, 1.5 million directly and 2.2 million indirectly. We ask: In which region is diabetes most prevalent? Of the six WHO regions, Africa has the lowest prevalence, with 7.1 percent of its population suffering from diabetes. However, diabetes prevalence in Africa has more than doubled since 1980 and 25 million Africans now suffer from the disease, compared to only 4 million in 1980 and it looks like it will continue on a sharp upward direction. Sixty-two million people suffer from diabetes in the Americas, or 8.3 percent of the total population, which is a 344 percent increase since 1980. About one in twelve Americans today has diabetes, compared with one in twenty a generation ago. Nearly one in seven people in the Eastern Mediterranean, or 13.7 percent, suffer from diabetes. There has been an alarming increase in prevalence in this part of the world, which includes the Arabian Gulf countries, Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. The number of sufferers has risen from 6 million in 1980 to 43 million today, a more than 700 percent increase. The Eastern Mediterranean also has the highest mortality rate from diabetes of all WHO regions, 139.6 per 100,000 people aged 20+. With 7.3 percent of its population suffering from diabetes, Europe, which covers the former Soviet bloc countries and Turkey, ranks the second lowest region for prevalence, after Continue reading >>

Diabetes Epidemic

Diabetes Epidemic

Tweet A number of recent diabetes news articles indicate that the diabetes problem is now a truly global epidemic. Understanding where the problem is at its worst, where the greatest concentrations of diabetics are, and raising awareness are the keys to prevention and the aversion of a future healthcare crisis. The diabetes epidemic is largely focused around massively increased rates of obesity. Obesity, when left unchallenged, leads to pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Either of these conditions, if not swiftly acted against, can lead to the development of full-blown type 2 diabetes. The diabetes epidemic occurs at different rates throughout the world, with the condition changing in some countries from a minor to a serious problem in a matter of years. Global diabetes hotspots are at the forefront of the problem, including the USA, China and India, yet diabetes is now truly global. Some ethnic groups are particularly prone to developing type 2 diabetes, yet it has become apparent that diabetes can strike anywhere. The following selection of news articles indicates that diabetes is a truly global phenomenon, with no country seemingly safe: Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are a Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Epidemic

Diabetes: The Epidemic

On Barbara Young's office table is a graph. A bar chart, actually: four columns of green, purple, red and bright blue showing the progression, in England, of rates of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes over the past five years. The first two are flatlining or falling. Cancer, in red, is rising, but slowly. Trace a line between the blue bars from 2005 to 2010, and it soars off the chart. "Diabetes," says Young flatly, "is becoming a crisis. The crisis. It's big, it's scary, it's growing and it's very, very expensive. It's clearly an epidemic, and it could bring the health service to its knees. Something really does need to happen." Baroness Young is, admittedly, the chief executive of Diabetes UK, Britain's main diabetes charity and campaigning group. It's her job to say such things. But the figures are behind her all the way: diabetes is fast becoming the 21st century's major public-health concern. The condition is now nearly four times as common as all forms of cancer combined, and causes more deaths than breast and prostate cancer combined. Some 2.8m people in the UK have been diagnosed with it; an estimated 850,000 more probably have type 2 diabetes but don't yet know. Another 7m are classified as high-risk of developing type 2; between 40% and 50% of them will go on to develop it. By the year 2025, more than 5m people in this country will have diabetes. The implications for the NHS, obviously, don't bear thinking about. Diabetes already costs the service around £1m an hour, roughly 10% of its entire budget. That's not just because the condition generally has to be managed with medication or insulin, but because by the time they are diagnosed, around half the people with type 2 – by far the most common and fastest growing form – have developed a Continue reading >>

The Diabetes Epidemic

The Diabetes Epidemic

In the 1990s, the prevalence of diabetes took a sharp and unexpected upward turn, according to annual surveys of more than 100,000 participants conducted by scientists at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. Their study, "Diabetes Trends in the U.S.: 1990-1998," appeared in the September 2000 issue of Diabetes Care . Related Articles 'Poisoning by sugar' and the 'safe for diabetics' foods myth Do 'heart healthy' diets cause diabetes? What is diabetes? The glycemic index: why everyone's talking about it Diabetes is a potentially devastating disease that tends to be taken less seriously than it should because its beginning symptoms may not be alarming. However, its slow progression can lead to recurrent infections and ulcerations, nerve damage, gangrene (which often results in amputations), blindness, kidney failure, heart disease and stroke. Individuals with diabetes have a reduced life expectancy. About 16 million Americans have diabetes, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases' latest estimates. As a result of the new research, that figure could increase by several million. Frightening statistics he study found that in eight years, the prevalence of diabetes among adults in the United States rose by 33 percent, from 4.9 percent in 1990 to 6.5 percent in 1998. Among Hispanics, it increased by 38 percent, going from 5.6 percent to 7.7 percent. Among African-Americans, it increased by 26 percent, going from 7.0 percent to 8.9 percent. These numbers are cause for concern. But by far the most worrying are those in the 30 to 39 age group. There, the prevalence increased by 70 percent, from 2.1 percent in 1990 to 3.7 percent in 1998. The youngest age group that the study considered, those 18 to 29, showed on Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Biggest Epidemic In Human History

Diabetes: Biggest Epidemic In Human History

Remember back in history class, when they talked about the Great Diabetes Epidemic of 1665? Of course you don’t; there was never any such thing. Certainly, there have been many epidemics throughout history. These could be enormously destructive; killing millions, toppling empires, depopulating entire landscapes.1 But diabetes as a mass killer? That’s something new. But that is exactly where we are today. Epidemiologists are warning that the Great Diabetes Epidemic is upon us – right now. The result of the combination of obesity and type 2 diabetes (“diabesity”) is likely to be the biggest pandemic in human history.2 Perhaps the word “epidemic” sounds overly dramatic to some ears. But the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) explains that “epidemic” simply refers to an increase in the number of cases of a disease above what is normally expected in a population in a given area. Relatedly, “pandemic” refers to an epidemic that has spread over several countries or continents, usually affecting a large number of people.3 And so CDC refers quite specifically to the diabetes “epidemic” that currently affects almost 30 million Americans, which is forecast to rise to nearly 55 million people over the next decade.4, 5 This chart illustrates the growth in diabetes in the U.S. through the year 2030: Regarding the spread to other countries, the World Health Organization estimates that the number of people with diabetes grew by nearly 300% from 1980 to 2014, to 422 million worldwide.6 That number is also predicted to rise, to 642 million people living with diabetes worldwide by 2040.7 Altogether, taking into account both the number of people it will affect, and what it will cost to treat, one researcher has gone so far as to predict that type 2 diabetes is on t Continue reading >>

1 Type 2 Diabetes: A 21st Century Epidemic

1 Type 2 Diabetes: A 21st Century Epidemic

Around 415 million people around the world have diabetes (9% of adults), and the vast majority live in low- and middle-income countries. Over the next decade, this number is predicted to increase to 642 million people. Given that diabetes is a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and health care expenditures, addressing this chronic disease represents one of the greatest global health challenges of our time. The objectives of this article are three-fold: (1) to present data on the global burden of type 2 diabetes (which makes up 87–91% of the total diabetes burden), both in terms of prevalence and incidence; (2) to give an overview of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and to describe obesity and the developmental origins of disease risk in detail; and (3) to discuss the implications of the global burden and point out important research gaps. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Its Drivers: The Largest Epidemic In Human History?

Diabetes And Its Drivers: The Largest Epidemic In Human History?

Abstract The “Diabesity” epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore “the rise and rise” of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed. To prevent type 2 diabetes, a better understanding of the drivers of the epidemic is needed. While for years, there has been comprehensive attention to the “traditional” risk factors for type 2 diabetes i.e., genes, lifestyle and behavioral change, the spotlight is turning to the impact of the intra-uterine environment and epigenetics on future risk in adult life. It highlights the urgency for discovering novel approaches to prevention focusing on maternal and child health. Diabetes risk through epigenetic changes can be transmitted inter-generationally thus creating a vicious cycle that will continue to feed the diabetes epidemic. History provides important lessons and there are lessons to learn from major catastrophic events such as the Dutch Winter Hunger and Chinese famines. The Chinese famine may have been the trigger for what may be viewed as a diabetes “avalanche” many decades later. The drivers of the epidemic are indeed genes and environment but they are now joined by deleterious early life events. Looking to the future there is the potential scenario of future new “hot spots” for type 2 diabetes in regions e.g., the Horn of Africa, now experiencing droughts and f Continue reading >>

University Press Of Florida: The Diabetes Epidemic

University Press Of Florida: The Diabetes Epidemic

The University of Florida has an ambitious goal: to harness the power of its faculty, staff, students, and alumni to solve some of society's most pressing problems and to become a resource for the state of Florida, the nation, and the world. The Diabetes Epidemic explores the complicated landscape of diabetes research and offers a glimpse of the extraordinarily difficult, and sometimes serendipitous, ways in which breakthroughs occur. At the University of Florida Diabetes Institute more than 100 faculty members are working on education, research, prevention, and treatment. Their fields are diverse--genetics, endocrinology, epidemiology, patient and physician education, health outcomes and policy, behavioral science, and rural medicine--but their goal is the same. Jump into the trenches with the doctors, scientists, and research nurses at the Diabetes Institute to learn about the challenges associated with developing treatments. Meet a brother who is helping his sister by participating in one of the largest studies ever undertaken of people at risk for Type 1 diabetes. Visit the largest open-access repository of diabetic pancreases in the world, where the most studied is that of a 12-year-old boy who had Type 1 diabetes for only a year. Spend time with one of the foremost diabetes researchers as he decides which pancreases to study, deploys experimental projects to answer new questions, and struggles to fund additional investigations. Discover why Type 2 diabetes is affecting more and more people and how some of them control it, and learn about a few of the most promising Type 2 treatments currently under study. While a cure has not yet been found, the researchers at UF's Diabetes Institute are working to improve the lives of the estimated 415 million people currently s Continue reading >>

Diabetes Epidemic In Mexico Is Fueled By Deep-fried Tamales And Many Gallons Of Soda : Npr

Diabetes Epidemic In Mexico Is Fueled By Deep-fried Tamales And Many Gallons Of Soda : Npr

A chile-rubbed pork taco is topped with french fries in the Merced market in Mexico City. The taco costs 10 pesos less than 50 cents. Cheap, high-calorie food is contributing to Mexico's obesity problem. Meghan Dhaliwal/for NPR hide caption A chile-rubbed pork taco is topped with french fries in the Merced market in Mexico City. The taco costs 10 pesos less than 50 cents. Cheap, high-calorie food is contributing to Mexico's obesity problem. Anais Martinez is on the hunt in Mexico City's Merced Market, a sprawling covered bazaar brimming with delicacies. "So this is the deep-fried tamale!" she says with delight, as if she'd just found a fine mushroom specimen deep in a forest. The prized tamales are wrapped in corn husks and piled next to a bubbling cauldron of oil. "It's just like a corn dough patty mixed with lard, put in a corn husk or banana leaf, steamed and then deep fried," says Martinez of this traditional Mexican breakfast. "And then after you fry it, you can put it inside a bun and make a torta [sandwich] out of it. So it's just like carbs and carbs and fat and fat. But it's actually really good." And it only costs 10 pesos roughly 50 cents. What's for breakfast? One Mexican option is a deep-fried tamale: a corn dough patty mixed with lard, wrapped in a corn husk or banana leaf and then put in a bun. Carbs upon carbs. Meghan Dhaliwal/for NPR hide caption Martinez is a designer in Mexico City. She studied gastronomy here and now moonlights for a company called Eat Mexico giving street food tours. Deeper in the market there's an area packed with taco stalls. Customers stand at the counters or sit on wobbly plastic stools. The young cooks fry, flip and chop various meats into tortillas. They pound strips of flank steak out on wooden cutting boards. Piles of red c Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?

Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?

Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Worldwide, the prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate. About 18 million people die every year from cardiovascular disease, for which diabetes and hypertension are major predisposing factors. Today, more than 1.7 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and 312 million of them are obese. In addition, at least 155 million children worldwide are overweight or obese. A diabetes epidemic is underway. According to an estimate of International Diabetes Federation comparative prevalence of Diabetes during 2007 is 8.0 % and likely to increase to 7.3% by 2025. Number of people with diabetes is 246 million (with 46% of all those affected in the 40–59 age group) and likely to increase to 380 m by 2025. The comparative prevalence of IGT is 7.5% in 2007 and likely to go up to 6.0 by 2025. The number of people with IGT is 308 million in 2007 and likely to be 418 m by 2025. (1) Almost 80% of the total adult diabetics are in developing countries. The regions with the highest rates are the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, where 9.2 % of the adult population is affected, and North America (8.4%). The highest numbers, however, are found in the Western Pacific, where some 67 million people have Diabetes, followed by Europe with 53 million. India leads the global top ten in terms of the highest number of people with diabetes with a current figure of 40.9 million, followed by China with 39.8 million. Behind them come USA; Russia; Germany; Japan; Pakistan; Brazil; Mexico and Egypt. Two major concerns are that much of this increase in Diabetes will occur in developing countries and that there is a growing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes at a younger age in Continue reading >>

Cities Are The Front Line In The Global Diabetes Epidemic

Cities Are The Front Line In The Global Diabetes Epidemic

Today, 437 million people worldwide have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. New estimates published this month show that three-quarters of a billion people could have the disease by 2045 — and cities are the front line of this challenge. As the growth fast becomes unmanageable for health systems, shortening the lives of millions of urban citizens and constraining economic growth, Novo Nordisk is working with a coalition of major cities to bend the curve on type 2 diabetes. We’re calling for local political and health leaders of all cities to ask what it will take to change the trajectory of the disease in their area and to put into practice the new models that we are forging. A rapidly urbanizing world is changing not just where we live but also how we live. As my predecessor at Novo Nordisk wrote, the way cities are designed, built, and run creates health benefits for citizens — but critically it also creates risks. Towns and cities, where half of the world’s population now lives, are home to two-thirds of people with diabetes. That’s why when we initiated the Cities Changing Diabetes program in 2014, we set out to put a spotlight on urban diabetes. This effort has grown into a global partnership of nine major cities, home to over 75 million people, and over 100 expert partners united in the fight against urban diabetes. Without concerted action, health systems around the world will reach a point in coming decades when they won’t be able to effectively treat patients sustainably. We conservatively estimate that the related costs of diabetes — including medication, supplies, hospital care, and the treatment of complications — will exceed $1 trillion a year by 2045. The catastrophic rise in diabetes won’t be stemmed by medicine alone. That’s why cities need t Continue reading >>

Global And Societal Implications Of The Diabetes Epidemic

Global And Societal Implications Of The Diabetes Epidemic

Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic Changes in human behaviour and lifestyle over the last century have resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of diabetes worldwide. The epidemic is chiefly of type 2 diabetes and also the associated conditions known as 'diabesity' and 'metabolic syndrome'. In conjunction with genetic susceptibility, particularly in certain ethnic groups, type 2 diabetes is brought on by environmental and behavioural factors such as a sedentary lifestyle, overly rich nutrition and obesity. The prevention of diabetes and control of its micro- and macrovascular complications will require an integrated, international approach if we are to see significant reduction in the huge premature morbidity and mortality it causes. Man may be the captain of his fate, but he is also the victim of his blood sugarWilfrid Oakley [Trans. Med. Soc. Lond. 78, 16 (1962)] Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the doomsday scenario be averted? The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010 Global burden of diabetes, 19952025. Prevalence, numerical estimates and projections Redefining type 2 diabetes: 'diabesity' or 'obesity dependent diabetes mellitus'? Development and consequences of insulin resistance: lessons from animals with hyperinsulinaemia Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes mellitus and its Complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus (Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance, Geneva, 1999). Diabetes epidemiology as a trigger to diabetes research American Diabetes Association. Economic consequences of diabetes mellitus in the U.S. in 1997 Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolesce Continue reading >>

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