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Diabetes Care By Physiotherapy

Role Of Exercise In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: The Global Scenario

Role Of Exercise In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: The Global Scenario

Role of Exercise in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: the Global Scenario 1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2 Physiotherapy Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Islamic Republic Of), Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: ZCT SD. Performed the experiments: ZCT SD LJH. Analyzed the data: ZCT SD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ZCT SD LJH. Wrote the manuscript: ZCT SD LJH. Received 2013 Jun 17; Accepted 2013 Oct 2. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians. Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms type 2 diabetes mellitus, type 2 DM, exercise, and/or physical activity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise. Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results. Twenty five studies met the sel Continue reading >>

Role Of Physiotherapy In Diabetes

Role Of Physiotherapy In Diabetes

Physiotherapy is an ancient science that provides physical treatment techniques such as massage and uses electrotherapeutic and mechanical agents rather than drug therapy. It helps people to overcome disability and pain related to orthopedic, musculoskeletal, neurological and rheumatic illness. A diabetic person with aching legs can be treated with a massage which gives a relief to the feet. After the message, the painful feet will be testified by soaking in cold water. Diabetes can be controlled by lifestyle modifications which include intensive exercise rather than pharmacological therapy. Physiotherapists can help people by planning an individualized exercise program. This exercise program helps to control the glucose level in blood and achieves optimal weight. Physiotherapy can reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events and improves the life expectancy. It also helps to improve the metabolic movements of the body in absence of weight loss. In addition to physical exercise, the use of alternate therapies such as yoga can help to achieve optimal cardio-respiratory health. Physiotherapists can suggest specific exercises for the people with coexisting complications and caution certain movements that might be detrimental to their health. Effective counseling for physical exercise can ensure both cardio-respiratory and musculoskeletal fitness. For example, an isotonic exercise like jogging helps a person to control high blood pressure and diabetes. But a repeated foot trauma associated with jogging may cause Sensory neuropathy or Charcots foot. Most of the people suffering from diabetes have musculoskeletal complications like frozen shoulder, back pain or osteoarthritis. People with poorly managed type 1 diabetes have a syndrome of limited joint mobility. Diabetic amy Continue reading >>

Physiotherapy And Rehabilitation In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review

Physiotherapy And Rehabilitation In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review

figure has increased threetime since 1981 as AusDiab reported 7.4% increase in year 2000(Shaw &Chisholm ; 2003). Global figures reveals a drastic rise in diabetes, it is In year 2000, 171 million patients were suffering from diabetes (Wild, et al.; 2004). Hilary King and Ronald E. Aubert et al (1998) predicted that by year 2025 patients suffering from diabetes may rise to 300 miilion (King H, et al ;1998) which will have to be reconsidered as diabetic population has already risen to 387 million in 2014 (IDF 2014) figure 2 (if seen continent wise were 387 million which include North Am e r i c a & C a r i b b e a n (NAm&C),South and central America (S&Cam), Europe, Middle East and North Africa(ME&NAf), Africa, South East Asia(SEAs), Western Pacific(WP)). Further estimates done by J.E.Shaw, R.A.Sicree et al. (2010) show that by year 2030 the incidence of diabetes mellitus will increase to 439 million. Out of this population 69% will be in developing countries and 20% in developed countries (Shaw JE , et al; 2010). Recently L. Guariguata , D.R. Whiting (2014) predicted that diabetes may rise to 592 million by year 2035, which is an alarming figure 2. India has become diabetes capital of the world. Diabetics are increasing with alarming figures. Every fifth diabetic in world is Indian (Joshi &Parik ; 2007).In 2000 people suffering from diabetes were 32 million which rose to 40.9 million in 2007 and it is expected that they will rise to 69.9 million and 80 million by 2025 ( Mohan, et al ; 2007). Advances in socio-economic development, daily routines, changes in dietary habits, aging and sedentary life style have manifested into significant rise in number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, va rio us mu scu los kel eta l dis ord ers a nd rise in obesi Continue reading >>

Is Your Patient Who Has Diabetes Following The Right Guidelines?

Is Your Patient Who Has Diabetes Following The Right Guidelines?

Is your patient who has diabetes following the right guidelines? You are working in an out-patient orthopaedic clinic and you have a new patient that discloses she has been recently diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus-Type 2(DMT2). She is 51 years old and you have been treating her for tendonitis of her shoulder. Reviewing her past medical history reveals she is on medications for high cholesterol and for high blood pressure. She also has family history of a mother suffering a myocardial infarction at the age of 48 year old. She tells you she is not happy taking so many medications. What are the impact on this womens health, now that she has been diagnosed with DMT2? Her cardiovascular health, her neurological health and her musculoskeletal health? Having a diagnosis of DMT2 will put this women at a high risk of having a heart attack. Women with DMT2 are seven times more likely to have a cardiovascular event than another of the same age without DMT2. It also affects her cholesterol and blood pressure profile as well. And her family history is positive if the health concern happened before the age of 65 year old. DMT2 also has a profound effect on the neurological system as well and can be affecting her memory. Like, remembering to take her medications at a certain time or in doing some of her exercises. Also, poor sugar control leads to neuropathies of feet or legs which can increase the risk of pain or falls. DMT2 indicates poor glucose control and this can cause musculoskeletal issues that are present to be persistent as the tendons arent healing in a healthy environment. Insulin-dependent diabetes are 8 times more likely to suffer from rotator cuff tendonitis. Consider talking to the patient at her visits about: What is she doing in knowing what her blood glucose level Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Unfortunately due to changes in lifestyle a growing number of Australians are being diagnosed with Type II Diabetes every year. There are two different but equally destructive types of diabetes. Type I involves an insulin deficiency and often develops at an early age. Type II diabetes accounts for 85% of diabetes in Australia* and is associated with an insulin resistance. Poor management of diabetes can lead to foot problems and increased risk of lower limb amputation. Podiatry can greatly reduce this risk. Diabetes is a chronic disease, which means it lasts a long time or often someone's whole life. For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. So when people with diabetes eat glucose, which is in foods such as breads, cereals, fruit and starchy vegetables, legumes, milk, yoghurt and sweets, it cant be converted into energy. Instead of being turned into energy the glucose stays in the blood. This is why blood glucose levels are higher in people with diabetes. Glucose is carried around your body in your blood. Your blood glucose level is called glycaemia. Diabetic must consult their doctor who will guide them on how to measure and balance your glycemic index. What you eat is vital. Diabetics nedd to maintain their glycemic index within a healthy range. It is best to consult with your doctor and/or dietician for the best advice. Everybody benefits from regular exercise. If you have diabetes, or are at risk of diabetes it plays an even more important role in keeping you healthy. For a person with diabetes exercise helps: Insulin to work better, Continue reading >>

Your Physiotherapist Can Help With Diabetes

Your Physiotherapist Can Help With Diabetes

Your Physiotherapist Can Help With Diabetes Your Physiotherapist Can Help with Diabetes In the world that we live in, Type 2 diabetes has become widespread. It is usually associated with weight gain, which further complicates the condition. Owing to insulin imbalances, it becomes extremely difficult for a diabetic to lose weight. At the same time, weight loss is an important component of diabetes management. Losing just 5 to 10 percent of excess body weight has radical long term consequences and significant health benefits. Weight loss has the potential to reduce the complications associated with diabetes and minimize the likelihood of developing Type 2 diabetes. In order to shed the excess body weight, a diabetic needs a progressive, structured combination of exercise and nutrition. Supervision and accountability is a key component of lasting weight loss for diabetics. A physiotherapist can play an important role in exercise program design. A well-designed exercise program from a physiotherapist can help burn calories, improve circulation and help the body manage insulin more effectively. Weight loss requires a strategic combination of cardiovascular exercise and muscle strengthening to burn excess calories and improve metabolism. This increases your body's ability to utilize energy and balance blood sugar levels, which is a safe and effective way to manage diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, which makes it extremely important for a diabetic to include muscle strengthening as part of a supervised exercise program. Increased muscle tone is a direct benefit of muscle strengthening. Muscle is considered a metabolically active tissue, which burns energy, helps stabilize the body's response to sugar and allows the body to use insulin Continue reading >>

Internet Scientific Publications

Internet Scientific Publications

S Kalra, B Kalra, N Sharma, S Sharma. Physiotherapy In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: Utility And Benefits. The Internet Journal of Pain, Symptom Control and Palliative Care. 2009 Volume 8 Number 1. In popular perception the role of physiotherapeutic treatment is limited to common orthopedic problems 1 such as cervical spondylosis, low back ache, joint stiffness, frozen shoulder etc. However, physiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the management of diabetes mellitus as well 2. Exercise is a cornerstone in the management of diabetes, and the physiotherapist holds a place of importance in helping diabetic patients lead a better quality of life. Physiotherapy has its role not only in control of diabetes as a disease, per se, but also in the management and treatment of various painful neuropathies and arthromyopathy. To assess the utility and benefits of this therapeutic discipline, a study was conducted in the physiotherapy clinic of our hospital. The aim was to assess the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints, and the improvement noted with physiotherapeutic modalities in diabetes patients. A prospective observational study was conducted to determine the utility of physiotherapeutic interventions in the management of diabetes mellitus. 371 patients of diabetes mellitus (179 male and 192 female) who attended both the endocrine and physiotherapy clinics were treated for various musculoskeletal problems and painful neuropathies according to routine clinical practice. The complaints and therapeutic modalities used were noted. All patients were administered certain scores to assess the benefit of physiotherapy. The common complaints were painful sensory neuropathy, weight gain, general debility, De Querveins disease, hip, knee, wrist and hand stiffness, lateral epicond Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin[1]. Insulin moves blood sugar (glucose) into cells where it is stored and later used for energy. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2 [1]. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), whereas Type 2 diabetes is also called adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)[1]. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes glucose[1]. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin, known as insulin resistance[1]. As a result, blood sugar does not get transported into these cells to be stored for energy and builds up in the bloodstream; this is known as hyperglycemia[1]. In a healthy person, blood glucose levels are normalized by insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin [1]. With Type 2 diabetes, the mechanisms become faulty; the pancreatic beta-cell, which releases insulin, becomes impaired and tissues develop insulin resistance[1][2]. This pathology has a genetic link, although it is somewhat unclear[1]. Risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include: background of African-Caribbean, Black African, Chinese, or South-Asian, and over 25 years old, or other ethnic background over 40 years old[3] According to the International Diabetes Federation (2014), 8.3% of the population or 387 million people are living with diabetes worldwide.[4] Diabetes prevalence increases with age across all regions worldwide and income groups.[5] This number is expected to increase by 205 million by the year 2035.[6] Diabetes is most prevalent in people aged 60-79 years, with 18.6%, though those aged 40-59 have the highest number (184 million) of people living Continue reading >>

Exercises For Diabetics

Exercises For Diabetics

The article describes the benefits of exercises for diabetics patients. The best and suitable exercises for diabetics patients are demonstrated with aid of videos. Diabetes is one of the most prevalent lifestyle diseases in modern world but still the awareness about the risks and benefits of exercises to patients with diabetes is limited. There are two distinct types of diabetes mellitus: lnsulin dependent (type 1) and Non insulin dependent (type 2) with distinct challenges associated with exercises. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) It is an inherited autoimmune disease in which antibodies are produced against the beta cells of pancreas. Type 1 diabetes represents approximately 10-15% of the diabetic cases. It is characterized by absence of endogenous insulin production. Therefore insulin administration is essential to prevent ketosis, coma, and death. Non-Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) Type 2 diabetes is linked to both genetic and lifestyle factors, It is characterized by diminished insulin secretion relative to serum glucose levels in conjunction with peripheral insulin resistance, both of which result in chronic hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by three major metabolic abnormalities: Impairment in pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion in response to a glucose stimulus. Reduced sensitivity to the action of insulin in major organ systems such as muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Excessive hepatic glucose production in the basal state. Exercise and Diabetes When considering exercise prescription for a diabetic patient target should be to achieve at least 30 minutes of continuous moderate activity (e.g. brisk walking) five or six days a week provided that cardiovascular and hypertensive problems are accounted for. Both insulin and e Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to appropriately regulate the level of sugar, specifically glucose, in the blood, either by poor sensitivity to the protein insulin, or due to inadequate production of insulin by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes cases. Diabetes itself is not a high-mortality condition (1.3 million deaths globally), but it is a major risk factor for other causes of death and has a high attributable burden of disability. Diabetes is also a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and blindness.[1] Be sure to also read: Clinically Relevant Anatomy and Pathophysiology Diabetes Mellitus primarily affects the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, where glucagon (from the alpha cells) and insulin (from the beta cells) are produced. Glucagon raises the blood glucose level, while insulin lowers it. In Type 1 DM (Insulin Dependent), the loss of function of the beta cells leads to an absolute insulin deficiency. In Type 2 DM (Non-insulin Dependent), the impaired production and secretion of insulin by the beta cells is concommitant with the impaired ability of the tissues to utilize insulin (termed insulin resistance). The resulting accumulation of glucose in the blood is further elevated by the greater synthesis of glucose in the liver, which releases it to the general circulation. Diabetes Mellitus (both Type 1 and Type 2) is now a global epidemic. Usually correlated with being overweight and obese, a sedentary lifestyle and familial history are also being considered as risk factors. According to the research entiltled "Global Prevalence of Diabetes" by Sarah Wild, MB, BCHIR, PhD and associates[2], "the total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 Continue reading >>

Can Physiotherapy Help Diabetic Patients?

Can Physiotherapy Help Diabetic Patients?

Can Physiotherapy Help Diabetic Patients? Diabetes affects millions of people around the world. Factors such as poor nutrition and obesity contribute to these rising rates. There are many treatment approaches that are currently used to treat diabetes. But can physiotherapy help diabetic patients? Exercise is a primary component of the work that physiotherapists do with their clients. As a result, physiotherapy can be an invaluable tool in helping manage diabetes and other health conditions. Diabetes is a disorder related to the bodys metabolism. Its primary characteristic is a high level of blood sugar that results from the inability to properly use or produce insulin. In Type 1 diabetes, a person is unable to produce the insulin needed to transport glucose (sugar) from the blood and into the cells. Type 2 diabetes involves the bodys inability to respond to the insulin that is present, which prevents the uptake of glucose by the cells and leads to a significantly high level of blood sugar. In addition to high blood sugar, diabetes results in damage to the nervous system and dysfunction of the bodys circulatory system. Although there is currently no cure for diabetes, the condition can be managed through the use of nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle strategies. Two effective ways to manage diabetes are nutrition and exercise. Physical activity helps patients manage their weight, decrease LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol while increasing HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol in the body. Exercise is also essential for maintaining metabolically active muscle mass while reducing unwanted body fat. This contributes to the treatment of high blood pressure and the management of stress. Exercise can also help patients reduce their need for medications or insulin Continue reading >>

Exercise Assessment And Prescription In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes In The Private And Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From Axxon (belgian Physical Therapy Association)

Exercise Assessment And Prescription In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes In The Private And Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From Axxon (belgian Physical Therapy Association)

Exercise Assessment and Prescription in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in the Private and Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association) D. Hansen, PT, PhD, Hasselt University, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Agoralaan, Building A, 3590, Diepenbeek, Belgium; Heart Centre Hasselt, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, Belgium; and Flemish Working Group from AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association), Antwerp, Belgium. Search for other works by this author on: S. Peeters, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: B. Zwaenepoel, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON; Ghent University, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Ghent, Belgium; and Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Jan Palfijn, Ghent, Belgium. Search for other works by this author on: D. Verleyen, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: C. Wittebrood, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: N. Timmerman, PT, MSc, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: M. Schotte, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: Physical Therapy, Volume 93, Issue 5, 1 May 2013, Pages 597610, Dominique Hansen, Stefaan Peeters, Bruno Zwaenepoel, Dirk Verleyen, Carla Wittebrood, Nicole Timmerman, Michel Schotte; Exercise Assessment and Prescription in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in the Private and Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association), Physical Therapy, Volume 93, Issue 5, 1 May 2013, Pages 597610, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease associated with many complications: the likelihood for the development of heart Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors In Patients Referred For Physical Therapy In A National Primary Care Electronic Medical Record Database

Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors In Patients Referred For Physical Therapy In A National Primary Care Electronic Medical Record Database

The prevalence of diabetes (type 2) in the general population has increased dramatically over the last decade, yet patients with diabetes are rarely referred for physical therapy management of their condition. The majority of patients referred for outpatient physical therapy have musculoskeletal-related conditions. Secondary conditions, such as diabetes, may be prevalent in this population, and physical therapists need to be aware of this to adjust interventions and treatment. The purpose of this article is to describe the prevalence of diabetes and the associated risk factors in adults referred for physical therapy in a primary care outpatient setting. Patients aged 18 years or older referred for physical therapy were identified from the Centricity Electronic Medical Records database during the period of December 13, 1995, to June 30, 2007. Patients were evaluated on the basis of clinical (height, weight, blood pressure, laboratory values), treatment (prescriptions), and diagnostic (ICD-9 codes) criteria to identify the presence of diabetes or associated risk factors (eg, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, and prediabetes). There were 52,667 patients referred for physical therapy, the majority of whom were referred for a musculoskeletal-related condition. Approximately 80% of the total study population had diabetes, prediabetes, or risk factors associated with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in the study population was 13.2%. Of the diabetes-associated risk factors evaluated, hypertension was the most prevalent (70.4%), and less than half (39.1%) of the study population had an elevated body mass index. Only 20% of the study population had values within normal limits for all clinical, treatment, and diagnostic crit Continue reading >>

Treatment For Diabetes | How Can Physio Help Diatetes

Treatment For Diabetes | How Can Physio Help Diatetes

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by high blood sugar (glucose) levels. The condition results from the bodys inadequate production of insulin or the bodys altered response to insulin, or both. Diabetes causes abnormally high glucose levels (hyperglycemia), circulatory problems, and nerve damage. Diabetes cannot be cured, but it can often be managed with proper medical care, diet, and regular exercise. There are two types of Diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2. Approximately 90% of all diabetes cases are Type 2. Increased urination, hunger, weight gain, fatigue, thirst, cuts and bruises that dont heal or have delayed healing and numbness and tingling in the hands/ feet are some of the most common symptoms. An autoimmune disease in which the body destroys insulin producing cells. The body does not produce insulin and cells cannot absorb sugar needed for energy. The body does not use insulin in the right way and can become insulin resistant. This can develop at any age and is most commonly diagnosed in adulthood. Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Moveforwardpt.com

Diabetes - Moveforwardpt.com

Diabetes is diagnosed by a physician, based on a test of your blood glucose level. This test is often ordered by a physician when a person reports some of the signs and symptoms listed in the previous section, or has risk factors determined by a physician. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, a physical therapist can evaluate your symptoms and problems associated with the condition. A physical therapist will identify physical problems that can be helped with an individualized exercise program, and provide specialized treatments based on your needs and goals. Physical therapists help people with diabetes participate in safe, effective exercise programs to improve their ability to move, perform daily activities, reduce their pain, and possibly lower their blood glucose levels. Physical therapy treatments also can help people with diabetes heal any associated skin problems faster than they would without treatment. Your physical therapist will examine your record of blood glucose levels, and will check your skin for wounds. Your physical therapist will conduct a complete assessment of your strength, flexibility, endurance, and balance, and use the results of the testing to design an individualized treatment program that addresses your problems and needs. Your treatment program can help improve your: Motion. Your physical therapist will choose specific activities and treatments to help restore normal movement. These might begin with passive motions that the physical therapist performs for you to gently move your joints, and progress to active exercises and stretches that you do yourself. Strength. Your physical therapist will choose and teach you the correct exercises and equipment to use to steadily and safely restore your strength. Flexibility. Your physical therapist will Continue reading >>

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