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Diabetes Breakthrough 2018

Video: Big Year, Breakthroughs Seen In Type 1 Diabetes

Video: Big Year, Breakthroughs Seen In Type 1 Diabetes

VIDEO: Big year, breakthroughs seen in type 1 diabetes CHICAGO In this video exclusive, Dawn Belt Davis, MD, PhD, associate professor in the division of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health in Madison recaps some of the exciting developments in type 1 diabetes presented at the Endocrine Society Annual Meeting. Particularly interesting, Davis said, are discussions of the real-world use of an artificial pancreas system, for example, in athletes, in whom the algorithms may not work as well. Survival strategies for islet transplantation and improving outpatient hypoglycemia were also hot topics. CHICAGO In this video exclusive, Dawn Belt Davis, MD, PhD, associate professor in the division of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health in Madison recaps some of the exciting developments in type 1 diabetes presented at the Endocrine Society Annual Meeting. Particularly interesting, Davis said, are discussions of the real-world use of an artificial pancreas system, for example, in athletes, in whom the algorithms may not work as well. Survival strategies for islet transplantation and improving outpatient hypoglycemia were also hot topics. Continue reading >>

Stem Cell Breakthrough Edges Scientists Closer To Effective Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes

Stem Cell Breakthrough Edges Scientists Closer To Effective Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes

Thanks to a breakthrough in stem cell research, scientists are tantalizingly close to finally achieving an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes. Using human embryonic stem cells, Harvard researchers have developed a technique that allows them to produce insulin-producing cells in quantities sufficient for both drug discovery and transplantation into diabetes sufferers. Due to the success of pre-clinical non-human animal trials, the researchers are hopeful that human trials could be initiated in just a few years. The work has been published in Cell. Diabetes is a metabolic disease which results in higher than normal blood sugar levels for prolonged periods. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. The former, which accounts for around 10% of diabetes cases, is an autoimmune condition in which the body attacks insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Because insulin is not produced, the body is unable to regulate blood glucose levels. While sufferers can maintain relatively normal blood glucose levels with daily insulin injections, it is often not precise enough to properly control metabolism, which can lead to serious complications such as blindness. Researchers have therefore been exploring new ways to tackle the disease in order to overcome these problems. Given the vast therapeutic potential of stem cells, scientists wondered whether it might be possible to replace the beta cells in diabetic patients as a novel form of therapy. Although scientists previously managed to produce insulin-producing cells from human stem cells, they lacked many of the functional characteristics of pancreatic beta cells. However, the new technique pioneered by Harvard scientists allowed the team to produce hundreds of millions of mature beta cells from stem cells. Th Continue reading >>

$2m Granted To Unr School Of Medicine Researchers For Diabetes B - Ktvn Channel 2 - Reno Tahoe Sparks News, Weather, Video

$2m Granted To Unr School Of Medicine Researchers For Diabetes B - Ktvn Channel 2 - Reno Tahoe Sparks News, Weather, Video

$2M Granted to UNR School of Medicine Researchers for Diabetes B - KTVN Channel 2 - Reno Tahoe Sparks News, Weather, Video $2M Granted to UNR School of Medicine Researchers for Diabetes Breakthrough Discovery $2 millionin funding has been granted to University of Nevada's School of Medicine after a promising discovery. This could possibly pave the way for a Type 2 diabetes cure, along withhopefor the approximately 400 million diabetics, worldwide. Dr. SeungilRo and his team at UNR have been working on diabetes research for several years. About three years ago, Dr. Ro discovered a molecule that can be used to treat Type 2 diabetes. In such patients, he found, that gene is essentially turned "off."Dr. Ro explains, "This tiniest, small gene is shut down in diabetes patients." Proving this theory was the hard part. When testing it out in mice, Dr. Ro and his team used a chemical to turnthat same gene "off." They expected the mice to gain weight, as typically happens in diabetes patients. However, after several months, the mice still seemed healthy. The team was disappointed. Dr. Ro's lab member, Sandra Poudrier, had hope and kept monitoring the mice anyway. About six months in, the mice eventually proved them right;they became obese and developed Type 2 diabetes. Dr. Ro remembers, "That was a kind of record moment." That proof is what gained the team $2 million in funding by South Korean manufacturing company, YUYANG DNU Co., Ltd. Dr. Ro says this same research also shows that diabetes can be caused by a digestive condition called gastroparesis, something half of diabetes patients have. He explains, "The stomach's not properly working and the food stays longer than it's supposed to be, which produces more glucose and then glucose dumps into blood, which increases blood glu Continue reading >>

A Breakthrough In Diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy

A Breakthrough In Diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy

A Breakthrough in Diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy The FDA is expediting review of a new system, called IDx-DR, that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) automatically. IDx-DR is designed to be used during routine healthcare visits, making early detection of DR more accessible and affordable and enabling many more people with diabetes to avoid vision loss. The system was developed by IDx , a privately held company founded by Dr. Michael Abramoff. JDRF supported Dr. Abramoffs early studies on the use of AI for early detection of DR, which informed development of the IDx-DR system. IDx announced today that results from a pivotal clinical trial of IDx-DR have been submitted to FDA , which is expediting its review after granting the system a Breakthrough Device designation. This designation is reserved for technologies that provide for more effective treatment or diagnosis of life-threatening or irreversibly debilitating diseases. If cleared by the FDA, this would be the first autonomous, AI-based, patient-facing diagnostic system to be used in any area of medicine. JDRF is proud to have supported the research that led to this device, which is now poised to benefit the many people who are at risk of developing DR. Continue reading >>

8 Amazing Breakthroughs In Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope

8 Amazing Breakthroughs In Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope

8 Amazing Breakthroughs in Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope According to recent research , we're not entirely sure how many diseases the label 'diabetes' covers. But no matter what causes our bodies to struggle with their blood sugar levels, it's a serious condition that requires daily care. Scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Insulin producing implants made from stem cells Clinical trials began last year for testing for ViaCyte's PEC-Direct device ; a credit-card sized implant containing insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells. Previous research had shown the implants could mature and function inside patients. Together with a cohort of volunteers who started testing in January, the new research should tell us soon whether the technology can help people with type-1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. A drug on the World Health Organisation's list of essential drugs could have another purpose ; blocking a molecule implemented in the autoimmune response that can give rise to type-1 diabetes. Called methyldopa, the compound already has an important job treating high blood pressure in pregnant women and children. It's left to be seen if it could help reduce the incidence of diabetes in some way, but the fact it's already being used - rather than being stuck in the lab Continue reading >>

New Diabetes Breakthrough May Mean New Treatments

New Diabetes Breakthrough May Mean New Treatments

New Diabetes Breakthrough May Mean New Treatments New research may mean advancements in treatment options for individuals living with type 1 diabetes. Researchers from the Diabetes Research Institute at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine have identified the existence of stem cells in the pancreas that can be developed into beta cells that are responsive to glucose. The study addresses a critical factor in finding a cure for diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition in which the pancreas produces little to no insulin. "The immune system of individuals living with type 1 diabetes is overactive and sees the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas as a threat to the body. As a result, it sets out to destroy them," said Dr. Bill Johnson. Johnson is a Dallas, Texas, physician who treats patients living with diabetes using stem cell therapy. About 1.25 million people in the United States are living with type 1 diabetes, according to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Numbers from the JDRF indicate that 40,000 people are diagnosed with the autoimmune disease each year. The JDRF also estimates that 15 percent of those living with type 1 diabetes in the U.S. are children. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 29 million people in the U.S. are living with type 2 diabetes, a form of the disease often caused by genetics, lifestyle choices and obesity. The CDC also estimates that 8.1 million of these people are undiagnosed. More than 1.4 million cases of type 2 diabetes are diagnosed nationwide each year, and more than one in every 10 adults over the age of 20 has the disease. Researchers have long believed that the pancreas contains progenitor stem cells that could help to regenerate islets, the cells of the pancrea Continue reading >>

Breakthrough In Type 1 Diabetes Treatments!

Breakthrough In Type 1 Diabetes Treatments!

A new study demonstrates that a gene therapy approach can lead to long-term survival of functional beta cells as well as normal blood glucose levels for extended periods of time in mice with type 1 diabetes. Researchersused an adeno -associated viral (AAV) vector to deliver to the mouse pancreas two proteins, Pdx1 and MafA , which reprogrammed the alpha cells into functional, insulin-producing beta cells. Beta-cell replacement therapy is likely to fail because adding new cells will fall victim to the same autoimmunity that destroyed the original cells. The solution is to reprogram other cell types to functional beta-like cells, which can produce insulin but are distinct from beta cells and therefore are not attacked by the immune system. Researchers Gittes and first author Xiangwei Xiao of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine engineered an AAV vector to deliver proteins called Pdx1 and MafA, which support beta cell maturation, proliferation, and function, to the mouse pancreas. The reason why they picked alpha cells to reprogram is becausethey are plentiful, resemble beta cells, and are in the correct location, all of these factors facilitate reprogramming of cells. Comparing the gene expression patterns of normal beta cells and insulin-producing cells derived from alpha cells, the researchers confirmed that it was nearly complete cellular reprogramming. The gene therapy produced normal blood glucose levels in diabetic mice, for typically four months. Also, the therapy was able to generate functional insulin-producing cells from human alpha cells. Unfortunately, the mice did eventually return to the diabetic state, suggesting that it would not cure the disease. But viral vectors can be delivered directly to the human pancreas through a routinely performed no Continue reading >>

This Scientific Breakthrough Could Be The Next Miracle Cure For Type 1 Diabetes

This Scientific Breakthrough Could Be The Next Miracle Cure For Type 1 Diabetes

Attention, all type 1 diabetics: Your days of insulin injections may be numbered, thanks to a revolutionary new medicine. California-based company ViaCyte just developed a stem cell implant called PEC-Direct, and it could be the next miracle cure for diabetes. The implant grows insulin-producing cells from stem cells, which would eventually help manage glucose levels in type 1 diabetes patients. If the implant successfully passes the clinical trials, patients would no longer need to inject themselves with insulin. (And, more good news: researchers are looking into ways to reverse type 1 diabetes.) “Patients with high-risk type 1 diabetes complications, such as hypoglycemia unawareness, are at constant risk of life-threatening low blood glucose,” clinical trial investigator Jeremy Pettus from University of California, San Diego, said in a press release. “The PEC-Direct islet cell replacement therapy is designed to help patients with the most urgent medical need.” Placed just below the skin, these implants are no larger than credit cards—but they could have a life-changing impact for diabetics. As the stem cells mature inside the human body, they will become specialized pancreas cells that release insulin automatically when needed. “There are limited treatment options for patients with high-risk type 1 diabetes to manage life-threatening hypoglycemic episodes,” added ViaCyte president and CEO Paul Laikind. “We believe that the PEC-Direct product candidate has the potential to transform the lives of these patients.” Clinical trials just began last week. Two patients received injections of PEC-Direct implants and will be monitored for the next several months. If all goes according to plan, the cells will mature in three months and begin releasing insulin a Continue reading >>

On The Cusp Of A Cure Heading Into 2018

On The Cusp Of A Cure Heading Into 2018

A recent article in Innovators magazine claims type 1diabetes will soon be a condition of the past. And next year could spell the beginning of theend. With diabetes affecting more than 400 million peopleworldwide, researchers are closer than ever to producinggame-changing treatments and cures for thoseliving withdiabetes. Recent research undertaken at the University ofCopenhagen, and published inNature CellBiology,shows that human cells can be used to 'produceinsulin-producing cells' - which 'in the future could betransplanted into diabetes patients'. "By identifying the signals that instruct mouse progenitorcells to become cells that make tubes and later insulin-producingbeta cells, we can transfer this knowledge to human stem cells tomore robustly make beta cells," explained Professor HenrikSemb,from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Stem CellBiology at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. There have been a number of key developments in 2017 inthe fight against diabetes. new partnershipbetweenIBM and JDRF is trying to use artificial intelligence to deliver a'world without type 1 diabetes'. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Breakthrough? Scientists Discover Five Distinct Types

Diabetes Breakthrough? Scientists Discover Five Distinct Types

Diabetes breakthrough? Scientists discover FIVE distinct types Diabetes breakthrough? Scientists discover FIVE distinct types SCIENTISTS have discovered five distinct types of diabetes, offering new hope for better treatments, it was announced yesterday. Traditionally, the killer disease has been split into two types by medics. Type 1 is an auto-immune disease which cannot currently be cured. PUBLISHED: PUBLISHED: 23:30, Thu, Mar 1, 2018 Scientists have discovered five distinct types of diabetes, offering new hope for better treatments Type 2 on the other hand can be avoided by making lifestyle changes such as taking more exercise and eating a healthy diet. However, in the new study, researchers found that separating adult-onset diabetes into five distinct different types - rather than just type 1 or type 2 - could help to better tailor early treatment for patients. It would also represent a first step towards precision medicine in the disease, they said. In the new analysis, published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal, five types of the disease were found. Each had different characteristics and were associated with different complications, illustrating the varied treatment needs of patients with diabetes. Lead author of the new study Professor Leif Groop, of the Lund University Diabetes Centre (LUDC), Sweden, and Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), said: Evidence suggests that early treatment for diabetes is crucial to prevent life-shortening complications. More accurately diagnosing diabetes could give us valuable insights into how it will develop over time, allowing us to predict and treat complications before they develop. Type 2 diabetes: Seven meal plans for your weight loss diet He added: Existing treatment guidelines are limited by the Continue reading >>

Possible Cures For Type-1 In The News (december)

Possible Cures For Type-1 In The News (december)

Here are some "bits and pieces" updates for December. Update on Dr. Faustman's Phase-II Trial of BCG Dr. Faustman's lab has published their Fall 2017 newsletter, which you can read here: This newsletter includes more information on her research, especially from the 3rd International BCG conference, The BCG Working Group, and the 2nd edition of the BCG and Autoimmunity book she edited. There are three pieces of new news there: The phase-II trial was fully enrolled in Summer of 2017. This is important because we now know when the trial will end. Since this is a five year study, they should finish collecting data in Summer of 2022 and publish before Summer of 2023. They have given BCG to the three untreated patients from their phase-I trial, so they will have data from six people to report in the future. The lab is going to be recruiting for more studies in the future, so would like to hear from anyone who is interested in participating. No details on future trials were provided. Another piece of news is that Dr. Faustman is branching out, and trying to apply BCG treatment to Fibromyalgia. This research is being done in collaboration with EpicGenetics, and they hope to start the trial in early 2018. If anything applicable to the type-1 world comes up in this research, I'll report it. Since Fibromyalgia is not generally considered an autoimmune disease, I'm not sure how much "cross pollination" of results there will be. You can read more about it here: DILfrequency Trial Completed There is a lot of research ongoing on IL-2 which is part of the immune system. About 18 months ago, I summarized all this research here: with an update here: One of those clinical trials was called "DILfrequency" and that trial has finished, and the results published. The purpose of that trial was Continue reading >>

Dq Helps Fund Smart Insulin Breakthrough

Dq Helps Fund Smart Insulin Breakthrough

Diabetes Australia funding for a matchstick-sized nano-implantthat could remove the need for daily insulin injections has helpedachieve a major step forward in diabetes research. In 12 months at the Australian Institute for Bioengineering andNanotechnology at the University of Queensland, researcher Dr ChunXu has proved the concept of nanoparticle "smart" insulin deliveryin mice, which means if blood glucose levels (BGLs) are high,insulin will be released. If BGLs are in the normal range, insulinis not released. This achievement is one of the most prospective lines ofdiabetes research internationally in the push to effect a lastingand simple treatment for the condition. It puts not onlyQueensland, but Australia, at the forefront of nanoparticleresearch, which will have applications across many fields ofmedicine. "In our test, one injection using this nanoparticle technologycan give diabetic mice about 3.5 days where blood glucose levelsstay in the normal range. A pure insulin injection only lasts forseveral hours," Dr Xu said. "By comparing the blood glucose levels of mice without diabetes,we have proved that the nanoparticle formulation showed minimizedinsulin release and the BGLs remained in the normal range." Project leader Professor Chengzhong (Michael) Yu sums up theachievement: "Yes, we have developed a smart insulin releasesystem, depending on the blood glucose concentration. It does thejob to bring high BGLs back to normal only in diabeticconditions. "When the BGLs are in the normal range, insulin will be releasedonly in a very small amount, without causing hypoglycemia [or lowBGLs]." Prof Yu (pictured at the University of Queensland recently withDr Xu) said this was achieved because the outside of thenanoparticle is coated with enzymes and polymer that act as Continue reading >>

Rare Tumor Could Help Produce Insulin For Type-1 Diabetics, Studyshows

Rare Tumor Could Help Produce Insulin For Type-1 Diabetics, Studyshows

NEW YORK (CBSNewYork) Researchers have a found a surprising potential ally in the search for a cure for Type-1 diabetes. Its a rare tumor that produces a lot of what diabetics are missing insulin. Type-1 diabetics have two problems. Their own immune system destroys the beta-cells that make insulin. To cure diabetes, you have to stop that autoimmune attack and then replace the destroyed beta-cells. CBS2s Dr. Max Gomez first met diabetic Alecia Wesner shortly after she was diagnosed with Type-1 diabetes at age 6. Her continuous glucose monitor and a small insulin pump have made managing her blood sugar easier, but not easy. Theres no break from Type-1 diabetes, theres no vacation, she said. Trying to manage all of this with a lot of things that beep to wake me up if something has gone too high or two low is a tremendous amount of work. What gives Alecia a lot of hope for the future is whats being done in the lab of Dr. Andrew Stewart at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. He explains that even though Alecia has had diabetes for almost four decades, she still has a few beta-cells left. The key to getting them to replicate Alecias destroyed beta-cells, says Dr. Stewart, may lie in the DNA of rare benign tumors called beta-cell insulinomas. Those small insulinoma tumors in the pancreas have the genomic recipe, if you will, Dr. Stewart said. They now have the genomic wiring diagram or roadmap for knowing how to make beta-cells replicate. By sequencing every gene in these tumors, Dr. Stewart found the ones that put the brakes on beta-cell regeneration. As it turns out, certain drugs can take the brakes off the genes in normal beta-cells so they can start to divide. We found lots of candidates and were in the process now of screening drugs that take off these other br Continue reading >>

Breakthrough Could Lead To Better Drugs To Tackle Diabetes And Obesity

Breakthrough Could Lead To Better Drugs To Tackle Diabetes And Obesity

Breakthrough could lead to better drugs to tackle diabetes and obesity Breakthrough research at Monash University has shown how different areas of major diabetes and obesity drug targets can be 'activated', guiding future drug development and better treatment of diseases. Monash researchers have identified specific areas within a key drug target, GLP-1R, that interact differently in response to the natural hormone and potential drugs, leading to differential effects in preclinical disease models. "This knowledge can guide how to change potential new drugs to capture beneficial differences in signalling that may better treat disease," says project lead, Dr. Denise Wootten of the Drug Discovery Biology theme at the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (MIPS). Diabetes is a wide-spread chronic illness that can lead to major organ failure and death, and globally affects nearly 10% of the population, with incidence of the disease rising in parallel with the large increase in obesity. In Australia, the incidence rates are even higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Common diabetes drugs such as Byetta and Victoza act via the GLP-1R receptor by mimicking the natural hormone for this receptor. Drugs that target GLP-1Rs have also been approved for treatment of obesity and are in clinical trials for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. However, the interaction process between drug and receptor has remained largely unclear, until now. "What we are learning is that these drugs can have distinct actions via the GLP-1R and that these differences, termed 'biased agonism', can lead to differential therapeutic effects," says Professor Sexton, Head of the Drug Discovery Biology theme at MIPS. A recently discov Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Can Gene Therapy Normalize Blood Glucose Levels?

Diabetes: Can Gene Therapy Normalize Blood Glucose Levels?

Researchers may have just found a way to restore normal blood glucose levels in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes, which could prove to be a promising solution for people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the future. Dr. George Gittes, a professor of surgery and of pediatrics at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania, and team led the study. Their findings were published in the journal Cell Stem Cell. Type 1 diabetes, a chronic autoimmune disease, affects around 1.25 million children and adults in the United States. The immune system that usually destroys germs and foreign substances mistakenly launches an attack on the insulin-producing beta cells that are found in the pancreas, which then results in high blood glucose levels. Over time, type 1 diabetes can have a significant effect on major organs and cause heart and blood vessel disease, damage to the nerves, kidneys, eyes, and feet, skin and mouth conditions, and complications during pregnancy. Researchers in the type 1 diabetes field have aimed to develop a treatment that preserves and restores function to beta cells, which would, in turn, replenish insulin, responsible for moving blood glucose into cells for energy. One barrier to this solution is that the new cells that arise from beta cell replacement therapy would likely also be destroyed by the immune system. To overcome this hurdle, the team hypothesized that other, similar, cells could be reprogrammed to behave in a similar way to beta cells and produce insulin, but which are different enough not to be recognized and destroyed by the immune system. Alpha cells reprogrammed into beta cells The team engineered an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector that delivered two proteins — Pdx1 and MafA — to the mouse pancreas. Pdx1 and MafA su Continue reading >>

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