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Diabetes Behavior Problems In Adults

Effect Of Hypos On Relationships

Effect Of Hypos On Relationships

Tweet Hypos can be trying on relationships. The way people with diabetes react to hypos can vary from person to person and the reaction can also vary from time to time. Letting people know how you tend to react is often a good idea so people will know what to watch for and will be able to better understand what is happening should you go hypo. Depending on the severity of the hypo, it can be difficult to maintain full composure, but if you can, try to recognise the concerns of those around you. Friction over whether you are hypoglycemic It can be frustrating if each time you feel stressed or upset your partner or a family member assumes it’s because you are low on blood sugar. Sometimes they may be right whereas other times your blood sugar may be fine. If you’re asked to do a blood test when you feel you’re fine you may think “Not again! It’s my diabetes, I’ll say how I control it.” It may be your diabetes but diabetes can be a great strain on your friends, family and your partner. The closer they are to you, the more they’ll share your difficulties. If they ask you to do a blood test, see it as an opportunity to repay their support and agree to do a test. If it is low, you’ll be glad you tested, if it’s normal then you know you’re ok and your partner or family member will usually feel more settled knowing you’re not low. Fear of hypoglycemia There are a lot of situations where fear of hypoglycemia exists. It can be fear within yourself of the consequences of a hypo or it may be the fear felt by your family, friends, your partner or colleagues. One key to help is to prevent the hypos taking place. This may not be an easy task, but with commitment and conviction it is possible. Read more about fear of hypoglycemia Bizarre or violent reactions to Continue reading >>

Are People With Diabetes Prone To Violence?

Are People With Diabetes Prone To Violence?

Most people with insulin dependent diabetes have experienced the slipping, sliding loss of control and reason. A few units of insulin too many – an accidental overdose – can trigger a hypoglycemic episode. These experiences vary from person to person. In the case of Mike Hoskins, who lives with Type 1 diabetes, it can get pretty bad. Aliens invade. Conspiracy theories march through his mind. His wife wakes up at the middle of the night at risk of physical violence, because once his levels sink below 40, Mike bites, hits, and scratches. When he turns violent, they have a plan of action. “My wife, she’s smaller than I am. So we have a standing rule when I get uncooperative or even violent, she’ll call the paramedics.” Fortunately, this hasn’t happened in a few years, because Mike uses a continuous glucose monitor to alert him of dangerous lows. Hallucinations and aggressive violence are not part of everyone’s reaction to a dangerously low blood sugar. I, for example, tend to fall mute and still, paralyzed by confusion. Anyone who has experienced severe hypoglycemia knows the powerful effects of the condition. But is severe hypoglycemia the only cause of aggressive behavior related to diabetes? Several recent scientific studies have examined aggressive behavior and propose more facets to the relationship between blood sugar, exertion of self-control, and aggression. Some research even suggests that due to problems metabolizing glucose, people with diabetes are more prone to aggressive behavior and violent crime, including murder, rape, and robbery. Self-Control: A Finite Resource The most recent study of the relationship between blood sugar and aggression, published earlier this year, “Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples,” recei Continue reading >>

Kids With Type 1 Diabetes At Risk For Mental Health Problems

Kids With Type 1 Diabetes At Risk For Mental Health Problems

Kids with type 1 diabetes at risk for mental health problems A person receives a test for diabetes during Care Harbor LA free medical clinic in Los Angeles, California September 11, 2014. REUTERS/Mario Anzuoni In a new Swedish study, kids diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were more likely than their healthy siblings to develop a psychiatric disorder or to attempt suicide. We suspected that we would find higher risk of common psychiatric disorders such as depression or anxiety, as observed among adults with diabetes, said lead author Agnieszka Butwicka of the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. What was surprising was that risk was high for many different psychiatric disorders, which may mean that applying the results of adult studies to kids is too simplistic, she told Reuters Health by email. More than 200,000 kids in the U.S. had diabetes in 2012, according to the National Diabetes Education Program, and most of them had type 1, which results from the body not producing enough insulin. The condition, previously known as juvenile diabetes, is often diagnosed early in life. People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections every day to regulate their blood sugar, and past research has shown that managing the disease is stressful for kids, especially in the period right after they are diagnosed. Butwicka and her colleagues used a national register to compare more than 17,000 children with diabetes born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009 with more than 1,000,000 similar but healthy kids, as well as with the healthy siblings of the diabetic group. They looked in medical records for diagnoses of common psychiatric disorders, such as depression, suicide attempt, anxiety, eating disorder, attention-deficit hyperactiv Continue reading >>

Coping With Diabetes In Adults

Coping With Diabetes In Adults

Maintaining quality of life (QOL) for people with diabetes is an important challenge in diabetes treatment. Quality of life is a multi-dimensional concept representing an individual’s subjective evaluations of physical, emotional and social well-being. Specific to diabetes, quality of life refers to the impact diabetes and its treatment has on an individual’s physical and psychosocial functioning, health beliefs, and perceived well-being. People value feeling well and most individuals place high priority on maintaining and improving the way they feel; however, for people with diabetes, the rigorous demands of following a complex self-care regimen combined with the risk for developing complications may affect their health beliefs and feelings of well-being. Conditions commonly associated with diabetes such as distress, major depression and elevated depressive symptoms also negatively impact quality of life. Thus, a person’s diabetes-related quality of life is subject to change over time as their disease progresses. People with diabetes face major stressors or crises at different points during the course of their disease[1]. Individuals often struggle to cope effectively with stressors or crises[2], which may be reflected in new or existing social and emotional difficulties that further hamper individuals’ efforts to maintain self-care behaviors, glycemia and overall quality of life[3][4]. Four phases representing different stressors or crises warrant particular mention: 1) Onset of diabetes, 2) Health maintenance and prevention, 3) Onset of complications, and 4) Complications dominate(1) (see Figure 1). Treatment approaches and support by the treatment team typically differ across these phases. Often, individuals may respond to stressors in one of two ways. Indiv Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Overview Type 1 diabetes in children is a condition in which your child's body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). Your child needs insulin to survive, so you'll have to replace the missing insulin. Type 1 diabetes in children used to be known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children can be overwhelming at first. Suddenly you and your child — depending on his or her age — must learn how to give injections, count carbohydrates and monitor blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes in children requires consistent care. But advances in blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have improved the daily management of the condition. Symptoms The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly, over a period of weeks. These signs and symptoms include: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your child's bloodstream pulls fluid from tissues. As a result your child might be thirsty — and drink and urinate more than usual. A young, toilet-trained child might suddenly experience bed-wetting. Extreme hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child's cells, your child's muscles and organs lack energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight — sometimes rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes to be noticed in children. Fatigue. Lack of sugar in your child's cells might make him or her tired and lethargic. Irritability or behavior changes. In addition to mood problems, your child might suddenly have a decline in performance at school. Fruity-smelling breath. Bu Continue reading >>

The Psychologist In Diabetes Care

The Psychologist In Diabetes Care

These pages are best viewed with Netscape version 3.0 or higher or Internet Explorer version 3.0 or higher. When viewed with other browsers, some characters or attributes may not be rendered correctly. Michael A. Harris, PhD, and Patrick J. Lustman, PhD he importance of the mental health expert in the management of medically ill individuals has grown with the proliferation of information linking health and behavior. Seven of the ten leading causes of death in the United States are related to behaviors such as smoking, overeating, and excessive alcohol consumption.1 Psychological problems (e.g., depression, anxiety) also have adverse effects on many physical diseases via a variety of behavioral and physiological pathways.2 The mental health professional intervenes to develop healthful behaviors and remove unhealthful behaviors in all medically ill patients and to relieve emotional distress in the subset of patients with evident psychopathology. Evidence demonstrating the importance of psychological, behavioral, and social factors in diabetes has been accumulating for more than 20 years,3 and the role of the mental health expert in diabetes care has expanded accordingly.4,5 In this article, we identify these factors and describe their effects on the course of diabetes and the functioning of people with diabetes. The use of psychological treatments to improve diabetes outcomes is also specified. Although the role of mental health provider may be filled by various professionals (e.g., psychologist, medical social worker, or psychiatrist), the term "psychologist" is used in this article to denote a mental health professional. Ideally, diabetes treatment is provided by a team of health care professionals that consists of a physician, diabetes nurse educator, dietitian, and p Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Psychiatric Disorders

Diabetes And Psychiatric Disorders

Patterns of co-occurrence of diabetes and psychiatric disorders Comorbidity of diabetes and psychiatric disorders can present in different patterns. First, the two can present as independent conditions with no apparent direct connection. In such a scenario both are outcome of independent and parallel pathogenic pathways. Second, the course of diabetes can be complicated by emergence of psychiatric disorders. In such cases diabetes contributes to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Various biological and psychological factors mediate the emergence of psychiatric disorders in such context. Third, certain psychiatric disorders like depression and schizophrenia act as significant independent risk factors for development of diabetes. Fourth, there could be an overlap between the clinical presentation of hypoglycemic and ketoacidosis episodes and conditions such as panic attacks. Fifth, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes could emerge as a side effect of the medications used for psychiatric disorders. Treatment of psychiatric disorders could influence diabetes care in other ways also as discussed in subsequent sections [Box 1]. Diabetes and psychiatric disorders interact in other ways as well. Certain substances of abuse such as tobacco and alcohol can alter the pharmacokinetics of the oral hypoglycemic agents. Moreover, the presence of a comorbid psychiatric disorder like depression could interfere with the management of diabetes by influencing treatment adherence. Similarly certain disorders such as phobia of needles and injections can present difficulties with investigations and treatment processes such as blood glucose testing and insulin injection. Also patients with psychiatric disorders are less likely to seek treatment. Such delays would postpone detection Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Affect Your Mood?

Can Diabetes Affect Your Mood?

My husband has type 2 diabetes, which is now being controlled by medicine. I find that he is sometimes particularly irritable or even mean, which is very out of character for him. Is this common with type 2 diabetes, or with high or low readings? — Sally, Florida It is great that you are seeking a better understanding of your husband’s illness. Diabetes is a disease that not only affects individuals but also those close to them. As a result, those who have good family support in the care of their diabetes do much better in managing their illness. There are a few reasons for behavioral changes like those you see in your husband among people with diabetes. One is the effect of abnormally low glucose levels in the bloodstream. The other reason is depression, which can be triggered by the diagnosis of diabetes, the burden of daily management, and fear of complications. Low glucose levels can cause symptoms including impaired judgment, anxiety, moodiness, belligerence, fatigue, apathy, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, and a lack of coordination. I would advise your husband to check his sugar levels at the times when he is irritable. If his mood is indeed due to low glucose levels, the symptoms will improve if he raises his blood sugar, for example, by drinking orange juice or taking glucose tablets. It is also important to consult with his doctor to adjust his medicines or dietary intake. On the other hand, your husband’s irritability can be a manifestation of depression. Many people with depression are undiagnosed and thus do not receive the necessary counseling and treatment. Also, depression symptoms vary from person to person, which can make it difficult to diagnose. Signs such as lack of sleep, overeating or lack of appetite, poor concentration, and other sym Continue reading >>

Emotional And Behavioral Problems And Glycemic Control In Adolescents With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Emotional And Behavioral Problems And Glycemic Control In Adolescents With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

1Department of Psychiatry, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea 2Department of Pediatrics, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea Citation: Kim WJ, Park JH, Yoo JH (2015) Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Glycemic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. J Psychiatry 18:244. doi: 10.4172/Psychiatry.1000244 Copyright: © 2015 Kim WJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Psychiatry Abstract Objective: This study investigated the emotional and behavioral problems of adolescents with diabetes. We also compared the emotional and behavioral problems according to the type of diabetes and glycemic control. Methods: Sixty-five adolescents with diabetes (type 1 diabetes; n=51, type 2 diabetes; n=14) and 83 healthy controls participated in this study. Glycemic control was assessed based on the mean HbA1c level, and the patient participants were divided into the following HbA1c groups: good (HbA1c<7.5%, n=17) and poor (HbA1c ≥ 7.5%, n=48). Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using the Korean version of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Results: The YSR scores of the adolescents with diabetes were significantly higher than those of the healthy controls in terms of total problems, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, thought problems, rule-breaking behavior, aggressive behavior, and lower in terms of academic performance. The adolescents with type 2 diabetes had significantly more problems than those with type 1 diabetes; specifically, the adoles Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Mood Swings: Effects On Relationships

Diabetes And Mood Swings: Effects On Relationships

Diabetes is a condition that impacts the way a person's body uses sugar for energy. However, diabetes affects much more than blood sugar. It can impact nearly every body system and have an effect on a person's mood. Stress associated with managing diabetes as well as concerns about potential side effects can all contribute to changes in mood. In addition, the actual highs and lows of blood sugar levels may also cause nervousness, anxiety, and confusion. It is important for people to recognize their own individual symptoms of high or low blood sugar. They must also ensure they seek support for any concerning mental health symptoms they might experience. Watching these mood swings can often be difficult for friends and family to understand. However, learning why a person may experience mood changes related to diabetes and being supportive can help to promote a stronger, healthier relationship. Contents of this article: How do diabetes and mood swings go together? Diabetes can have many effects on a person's mood. For example, managing diabetes can be stressful. A person may be constantly worried about their blood sugar and whether it is too high or too low. Adjustments to their diet and constantly checking their blood sugar can also add to a person's stress and enjoyment of life. As a result, they are more likely to experience feelings of anxiety and depression. Blood sugar swings can cause rapid changes in a person's mood, such as making them sad and irritable. This is especially true during hypoglycemic episodes, where blood sugar levels dip lower than 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Hyperglycemic episodes where levels spike higher than 250 mg/dL may cause confusion in people with type 1 diabetes, but are much less likely to in those with type 2 diabetes. When a pe Continue reading >>

Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Relationship Between Blood Glucose Level and Self-Control Blood sugar can make people do crazy things. According to a recent scientific study on the link between low blood glucose level and relationship clashes (Bushman et al, 2014), being hungry makes an individual generally cranky and act more hostile to others. In the study, couples who are hungry tend to have a much higher tendency to exhibit aggression towards each other and become more impulsive in their reactions. This phenomenon is often referred to “hangry” (meaning feeling angry when you are hungry). If this irritable state can happen to any healthy person who experiences a change in their blood glucose level, imagine the ordeals individuals with diabetes frequently go through on a daily basis. However, do not jump to the conclusion that diabetes leads to aggression. In fact, scientists find a more direct correlation between blood glucose level and self-control. I recommend reading the following articles: In a way, you can visualize self-control as a muscle that requires a lot of energy to sustain so that it does not become ineffective quickly. This energy source comes from the glucose in the blood. So what kind of activities can wear out this “muscle”? Any daily activities that require self-discipline such as forcing yourself to get out of bed early to exercise, resisting from having a soda drink or another cookie with your meal, stopping yourself from smoking, dealing with stressful situations at work and at home, and abstaining yourself from road rage. As you can see, self-control plays a crucial part in restraining inappropriate and aggressive behaviors. So when people are low in glucose, the self-control mechanism cannot function properly to prevent these outbursts of hostile actions. In a researc Continue reading >>

Personal And Relationship Challenges Of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

Personal And Relationship Challenges Of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: Abstract Little is known about the psychosocial challenges of adults living with type 1 diabetes or its impact on partner relationships. This qualitative study was undertaken to gain better understanding of these issues. Four focus groups were held, two with adult type 1 diabetic patients (n = 16) and two with partners (n = 14). Two broad questions were posed: “What are the emotional and interpersonal challenges you have experienced because you have (your partner has) type 1 diabetes?” and “How does the fact that you have (your partner has) type 1 diabetes affect your relationship with your partner, positively and/or negatively?” Sessions were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed by a team of four researchers, using constant comparative methods to identify core domains and concepts. Four main domains were identified: 1) impact of diabetes on the relationship, including level of partner involvement, emotional impact of diabetes on the relationship, and concerns about child-rearing; 2) understanding the impact of hypoglycemia; 3) stress of potential complications; and 4) benefits of technology. Themes suggest that, although partner involvement varies (very little to significant), there exists significant anxiety about hypoglycemia and future complications and sources of conflict that may increase relationship stress. Partner support is highly valued, and technology has a positive influence. Adults with type 1 diabetes face unique emotional and interpersonal challenges. Future research should focus on gaining a better understanding of how they cope and the effect of psychosocial stressors and coping on adherence, quality of life, and glycemic control. Continue reading >>

Behavioral Programs To Help Manage Type 1 Diabetes

Behavioral Programs To Help Manage Type 1 Diabetes

Behavioral Programs To Help Manage Type 1 Diabetes Behavioral Programs To Help Manage Type 1 Diabetes A Review of the Research for Children, Teens, and Adults This summary is for you if your health care professional has said you have (or your child has) type 1 diabetes. This summary will tell you what researchers have found about behavioral programs to help manage type 1 diabetes. It does not cover specific treatments for diabetes. Diabetes (also called "diabetes mellitus") is a condition in which your body has trouble controlling the level of sugar (or glucose) in your blood. Insulin is a hormone that your body needs to use the sugar for energy. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas (a gland behind your stomach) makes very little or no insulin. Without insulin, sugar builds up in your blood, and your blood sugar level gets too high. It is important to manage diabetes because high blood sugar can cause serious health issues over time. Your health care professional can help you make a plan to manage your (or your child's) diabetes. Your health care professional may also suggest a behavioral program to help you learn how to manage type 1 diabetes. Note: This summary is for children, teens, and adults with type 1 diabetes. For caregivers of children or teens with type 1 diabetes, the words "you" and "your" in this summary are also meant to refer to your child or teen. You can manage the effects of diabetes on your health by trying to keep your blood sugar level within a healthy range. Your health care professional can help you set a blood sugar level goal and make a plan to manage your diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin to manage their blood sugar and must check their blood sugar level often each day. It is also important for people with type 1 d Continue reading >>

On The Association Between Diabetes And Mental Disorders In A Community Sample

On The Association Between Diabetes And Mental Disorders In A Community Sample

Results from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey Abstract OBJECTIVE—To determine the relationship between mental disorders and diabetes in a representative community sample. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study. Data on diabetes and HbA1c values were obtained by structured questionnaires and by laboratory assessments. Current psychiatric disorders were diagnosed by a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS—People with diabetes (PWD) were not more likely to meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for at least one mental disorder than were individuals without diabetes. However, a different diagnostic pattern occurred compared with the general population: odds ratios (ORs) for anxiety disorders in PWD were higher (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.19–3.14). Although PWD had higher prevalence rates of affective disorders, the relationship between diabetes and affective disorders was not statistically significant after controlling for age, sex, marital status, and socioeconomic status. In contrast, the relationship between diabetes and anxiety disorders remained significant after controlling for these variables. In contrast to individuals without mental disorders, PWD with affective or anxiety disorders more frequently had adequate glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS—Diabetes was associated with an increased likelihood of anxiety disorders. The association between mental disorders, diabetes, and glycemic control should be evaluated carefully in terms of potentially confounding sociodemographic variables, sample characteristics, and definitions of the disorders. During the last years, the comorbidity of mental disorders with chronic health co Continue reading >>

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