diabetestalk.net

Diabetes Autoimmune Diseases

Is Type 2 Diabetes Part Of The Autoimmune Diseases?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Part Of The Autoimmune Diseases?

INTRODUCTION Is type 2 diabetes an autoimmune disease? To answer this question, there is need for us to first know what the term ‘Autoimmunity‘ means. Autoimmunity is a highly complex, multi-factorial that is usually process defined by loss of self-tolerance and the reaction of B and T cells. It is excessively chronic, which also stem danger signals that are released when cells or tissues undergo abnormal cell death. Autoimmunity is a well-known pathogenic component in type 1 diabetes. The assumption that the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes also encompasses autoimmune aspects is being increasingly recognized. WHAT IS AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE? Autoimmune disease refers to illness that occurs when the immune system of the body attacks and destroys cells there in. Autoimmune is a disease that I believe that many people with diabetes will have been familiar with by now. And we have always believed type 2 diabetes may be cause by the combination of genes. And even lifestyle because even experts have argued upon the importance of environmental factors , lifestyle, and gene in the development of Type 2 diabetes. Some studies however have connected diabetes to pollution and toxins. They have provided energy to the speculation that autoimmunity plays a role in the growth of type 2 diabetes. According to the US centres for disease control and Prevention. Close to 26 millions of people in America suffer from diabetes, not to talk of other people around the world. The most common cases of this diabetes are type 2 diabetes, which is about 90 to 95% of the entire population. In type 2 diabetes, the body does not either produce insulin or it ignores the presence of insulin in the body. The presence of insulin in the body is very important so that it can use glucose to produce energy. Continue reading >>

I've Been Diagnosed With Lada — Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults. What's The Difference Between It And Other Forms Of Diabetes?

I've Been Diagnosed With Lada — Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults. What's The Difference Between It And Other Forms Of Diabetes?

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slow progressing form of autoimmune diabetes. Like the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes, LADA occurs because your pancreas stops producing adequate insulin, most likely from some "insult" that slowly damages the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. But unlike type 1 diabetes, with LADA, you often won't need insulin for several months up to years after you've been diagnosed. Many researchers believe LADA, sometimes called type 1.5 diabetes, is a subtype of type 1 diabetes. Other researchers believe diabetes occurs on a continuum, with LADA falling between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. People who have LADA are usually over age 30. Because they're older when symptoms develop than is typical for someone with type 1 diabetes and because initially their pancreases still produce some insulin, people with LADA are often misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes. If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and you're lean and physically active or you've recently lost weight without effort, talk with your doctor about whether your current treatment is still the best one for you. At first, LADA can be managed by controlling your blood sugar with diet, weight reduction if appropriate, exercise and, possibly, oral medications. But as your body gradually loses its ability to produce insulin, insulin shots will eventually be needed. More research is needed before the best way to treat LADA is established. Talk with your doctor about the best LADA treatment options for you. As with any type of diabetes, you'll need close follow-up to minimize progression of your diabetes and potential complications. Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 diabetes is in the process of being redefined as an autoimmune disease rather than just a metabolic disorder, said an author of a new study published in Nature Medicine this week, the findings of which may lead to new diabetes treatments that target the immune system instead of trying to control blood sugar. As part of the study the researchers showed that an antibody called anti-CD20, which targets and eliminates mature B cells in the immune system, stopped diabetes type 2 developing in lab mice prone to develop the disease, and restored their blood sugar level to normal. Anti-CD20, available in the US under the trade names Rituxan and MabThera, is already approved as a treatment for some autoimmune diseases and blood cancers in humans, but more research is needed to see if it will work against diabetes in humans. The researchers believe that insulin resistance, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (unlike type 1 diabetes where it is the insulin-producing cells that are destroyed), is the result of B cells and other immune cells attacking the body's own tissues. Co-first author Daniel Winer, now an endocrine pathologist at the University Health Network of the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, started working on the study as a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine in California, USA. He told the press that: "We are in the process of redefining one of the most common diseases in America as an autoimmune disease, rather than a purely metabolic disease." "This work will change the way people think about obesity, and will likely impact medicine for years to come as physicians begin to switch their focus to immune-modulating treatments for type-2 diabetes," he added. The discovery brings type 2 diabetes, until now considered to be more of a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Overview

Diabetes Overview

Almost everyone knows someone who has diabetes. An estimated 23.6 million people in the United States -- 7.8 percent of the population -- have diabetes, a serious, lifelong condition. Of those, 17.9 million have been diagnosed, and about 5.7 million people have not yet been diagnosed. Each year, about 1.6 million people aged 20 or older are diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism -- the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of sugar. The three main types of diabetes are Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the body's system for fighting infection (the immune system) turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. A person who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to live. At present, scientists do not know exactly wh Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Researchers in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology recently discovered an immune mechanism that links obesity with insulin resistance, a condition that raises the risk of heart disease and often leads to type 2 diabetes. The results, published last month by the journal Cell Reports, add to growing evidence that type 2 diabetes has an autoimmune component (in which the immune system attacks parts of healthy cells). The lead author on the study was Xavier Revelo, a postdoctoral fellow based at University Health Network in the lab of Professor Daniel Winer. Revelo spoke with Faculty of Medicine writer Jim Oldfield about his research and what it means for the understanding and treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes. What did you find in this study? We investigated the role of a mechanism that releases extracellular traps, which are structures composed of nucleic acids that immune cells use to prevent infection. We found that in obese mice, an excess release of nucleic-acid material promotes inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the liver. That leads to insulin resistance and the buildup of glucose in the blood, which precedes the development of type 2 diabetes. We describe the different players that take part in nucleic acid-targeting pathways and show that blocking those pathways can prevent metabolic disease in our mouse model of obesity. Is type 2 diabetes an autoimmune disease? Well, right now there isn't enough evidence to include or dismiss type 2 diabetes as a classic autoimmune disease. However, this study and others have shown that obesity-related insulin resistance has several hallmarks that are typical of autoimmune diseases. For example, we found that diet-induced obesity led to an increased adaptive immune response against nucleic Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Often Comes With Other Autoimmune Diseases

Type 1 Diabetes Often Comes With Other Autoimmune Diseases

(Reuters Health) - People with type 1 diabetes often develop other autoimmune disorders, such as thyroid and gastrointestinal diseases, and a recent study yields new information about this link. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the pancreas and destroys its insulin-producing cells. Patients often develop other immune system diseases, too. Indeed, in the current study, 27 percent of patients had at least one other autoimmune disorder. But the new study also held some surprises about how early and late in life these added health problems might surface, said lead author Dr. Jing Hughes of Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. “The pattern that emerged was striking: autoimmune diseases begin early in childhood, where nearly 20 percent of those under age 6 already have additional diseases other than type 1 diabetes,” Hughes said by email. “Another surprise finding was that, while we had expected that autoimmune diseases may peak at a certain time of life, we found instead that the autoimmune burden continues to increase as patients age, to the extent that nearly 50 percent of those over age 65 have accumulated one or more additional autoimmune disease,” Hughes added. The findings are drawn from data on nearly 26,000 adults and children being treated for type 1 diabetes at 80 endocrinology practices in the U.S. between 2010 and 2016. Of those with other autoimmune disorders in addition to diabetes, 20 percent had one additional problem and 5 percent had at least two additional diseases, researchers report in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Participants with one or more additional autoimmune disorders were more likely to be older, female and white, the study found. They also tended to have been diagnosed with type 1 d Continue reading >>

Understanding Autoimmunity

Understanding Autoimmunity

The function of your body's immune system is to protect you against disease and infection. In a healthy person, the immune system will recognize infectious organisms like bacteria and viruses as foreign invaders and attack them. But in some people, the immune system doesn't function correctly, and it mistakenly misidentifies healthy tissues as being foreign, and attacks them as well. This can lead to a variety of conditions, known as autoimmune diseases, which can affect different areas of your body. Facts About Autoimmune Diseases It's estimated that 5 to 8 percent of people in the United States are living with an autoimmune disease. And researchers aren't sure why, but the prevalence of autoimmune diseases seem to be increasing. Autoimmune diseases can affect anyone, but women of childbearing age are most likely to develop them. Women of African-American, Native American, and Hispanic descent are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than Caucasian women. Genetics also play a big role in who gets autoimmune diseases, so if you have a family history of them, you are at increased risk. Common Autoimmune Diseases There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, but some of the most common ones are: Graves' disease. Graves’ disease is a type of autoimmunity in which the thyroid gland becomes overly active. People who have Graves' disease may have trouble sleeping, irritability, unexplained weight loss, eyes that bulge, sensitivity to heat, muscle weakness, brittle hair, light menstrual periods, and hand shakiness. On the other hand, some people with Graves' disease experience no symptoms at all. A radioactive iodine pill, which destroys overactive thyroid cells, is used to treat Graves’ disease and cures the condition in about 90 percent of patients Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes A Chronic Inflammatory/autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes A Chronic Inflammatory/autoimmune Disease?

Abstract The classification of diabetes mellitus into 2 main types, defined as Type 1 and 2 diabetes (T1DM, T2DM) relies mostly on the requirement of insulin therapy and on the presence of detectable immunologic abnormalities. However, this distinction is far from straightforward and there is considerable overlap between these 2 types of diabetes. Islet cell autoimmunity, which is characteristic of T1DM, appears in fact to be present in up to 10-15% of subjects diagnosed clinically with T2DM. In the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), it was reported that in patients diagnosed with in T2DM, the presence of autoantibodies to the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies (ICA) were a predictor of insulin requirement as compared with patients not carrying these autoantibodies. These results are strikingly similar to a number of prospective studies carried out in childhood diabetes. If islet cell autoimmunity is truly present in 10-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with T2DM, up to two million Americans might have an unidentified autoimmune form of T2DM, a prevalence similar to that of recent onset childhood diabetes. In addition, we found that in a subset of T2DM patients, a pronounced activation of the acute phase response that seems to be associated with islet cell autoimmunity. These results may in part explain the defect in insulin secretion as well as insulin resistance seen in T2DM. The identification of a subgroup of individuals at risk of developing T2DM using autoantibody as well as inflammatory markers is of public health interest, not only for the correct classification of diabetes, but also because immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies could potentially be instituted sufficiently early in a large number of patients d Continue reading >>

Other Diseases That Are More Common In People With Type 1 Diabetes

Other Diseases That Are More Common In People With Type 1 Diabetes

Other Diseases That Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Other Diseases That Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes have a greater risk for other health problems, many of which also are autoimmune disorders. The diabeteshealth care team will watch kids for signs of these problems. But parents also should know what to look for so that they can alert doctors and get treatment, if necessary. In autoimmune disorders, the immune system attacks the body's healthy tissues as though they were foreign invaders. A severe attack can affect how that body part works. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The pancreas can't make insulin because the immune system attacks it and destroys the cells that produce insulin. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are at risk for other autoimmune problems, but these aren't actually caused by the diabetes. Doctors still aren't exactly sure why autoimmune diseases happen. But genetics probably play an important role because relatives of people with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have autoimmune diseases. Most kids with type 1 diabetes never need treatment for any other autoimmune disorder. But those who do might develop: These disorders can develop before a child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes or months or years after the diabetes diagnosis. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are more likely to get disorders affecting the thyroid. The thyroid, which is part of the endocrine system , makes hormones that help control metabolism and growth. These hormones play a role in bone development, puberty, and many other body functions. Thyroid disease is fairly common in people with type 1 diabetes, affecting 15% to 20% of them. In thyroid disease, the thyroid gland Continue reading >>

What Causes Autoimmune Diabetes?

What Causes Autoimmune Diabetes?

Autoimmune diabetes is influenced by genetics. What starts the autoimmune destruction is unknown, but it may be due to environmental factors. You may want to learn more about how type 1a diabetes develops. We know type 1a diabetes is caused by an autoimmune process in the body that mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells, or beta cells and occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. What starts the autoimmune destruction is unknown, but it may be due to environmental factors. In this section, you can learn more about: What is the Immune system? An overview of the different cells and organs in the immune system and how the immune system works Autoimmunity and diabetes: Current ideas about how the immune systems destroys insulin producing cells Continue reading >>

Autoimmune Aspects Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - A Mini-review

Autoimmune Aspects Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - A Mini-review

Abstract Autoimmunity is a well-known pathogenic component in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The assumption that the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) also encompasses autoimmune aspects is recognized increasingly, based on the presence of circulating autoantibodies against β cells, self-reactive T cells, but also on the glucose-lowering efficacy of some immunomodulatory therapies in T2DM. The identification of these autoantibodies in elderly patients with slowly progressive manifestation of diabetes led to the introduction of a distinct clinical entity termed latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA), which combines features of both T1DM and T2DM. The autoantibody cluster differs in patients with LADA from patients with T1DM, but their presence indicates steady progression towards β-cell death and subsequent need for initiation of insulin treatment in a shorter period of time compared to autoantibody-negative T2DM patients. Autoimmune aspects in T2DM are not solely restricted to autoantibodies and thus LADA. They include the self-reactive T cells or defects in regulatory T cells (Tregs), which have been detected in autoantibody-negative T2DM patients as well. One contributor to the autoimmune activation in T2DM seems to be the chronic inflammatory state, characteristic of this disease. Upon inflammation-induced tissue destruction, cryptic ‘self' antigens can trigger an autoimmune response, which in turn accelerates β-cell death. Both innate and adaptive immune system components, specifically macrophages and self-reactive T cells, contribute to an increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines involved in inflammatory and autoimmune processes. However, the extent to which inflammation overlaps with autoimmunity is not known. Our review focuses on autoimmune invol Continue reading >>

Type 2: Autoimmune?

Type 2: Autoimmune?

Conventional wisdom holds that Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition — caused by a misguided attack by the immune system on the beta cells of the pancreas — while Type 2 diabetes is not, caused instead by a combination of genes and lifestyle. Experts have debated the relative importance of genes, lifestyle, and environmental factors in the development of Type 2 diabetes — and at times, studies linking Type 2 diabetes to pollution and toxins have fueled speculation that autoimmunity plays a role in its development. But until this month, there was little conclusive evidence of an autoimmune role in Type 2 diabetes. That changed last week, with the release of a study that addressed the potential connection between autoimmunity and Type 2 diabetes head-on. Published on the Web site of the journal Nature Medicine, the study had two components: one in humans, and one in mice. As described in a HealthDay article, for the mouse experiment, researchers fed mice a high-fat diet that would be expected to induce insulin resistance, a hallmark of Type 2 diabetes in humans. After five weeks, they gave some of the mice a drug, known as anti-CD20, that suppresses the immune system by depleting a type of immune system cell known as B cells. In mice given the drug, there was no sign of insulin resistance, and blood glucose levels were normal. All of the other mice developed insulin resistance. This result suggests that in overweight mice — and, most likely, humans — an immune system attack on fat cells, instigated by B cells, leads to insulin resistance. Conducting a similar experiment in humans would be much more complicated, both pragmatically and ethically, since the drug anti-CD20 (known as rituximab when intended for humans) broadly suppresses the immune system, not j Continue reading >>

Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes, Other Autoimmune Diseases Linked

Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes, Other Autoimmune Diseases Linked

Adult-Onset Type 1 Diabetes, Other Autoimmune Diseases Linked CHICAGO, Illinois The risk of developing 1 or more additional autoimmune conditions rises with age at onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly among women who develop diabetes in adulthood, new research suggests. Findings from more than 1100 adults with type 1 diabetes were presented March 19 here at ENDO 2018: The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting by Yicheng Bao, a medical student at the University of MissouriKansas City (UMKC) School of Medicine. "Physicians should be aware that a lot of autoimmune diseases can occur in people with type 1 diabetes. People who develop type 1 diabetes in adulthood are at special risk," Bao told Medscape Medical News. The finding is particularly important in light of the recent UK Biobank study that showed type 1 diabetes onset is equally likely to occur after age 30 years as prior, but is often misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes in adults. Bao noted that previous studies have focused on comorbid endocrine autoimmune conditions, and in children with type 1 diabetes. In the new study, people with type 1 diabetes onset after age 40 years had twice the risk for 1 or more autoimmune conditions, such as thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, vitiligo, and gastrointestinal autoimmune conditions, as those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in childhood. Betty Drees, MD, professor of medicine at UMKC, who was not involved in the study, told Medscape Medical News that she was struck by "the number and variety of [autoimmune] conditions that are outside the endocrine system...I think it has an important clinical message in terms of continuing to monitor adults with type 1 diabetes for late complications that may be associated with autoimmune conditions." Drees said that although routine screening i Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus--an Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus--an Autoimmune Disease?

Abstract Inflammation-induced inhibition of the insulin signalling pathway can lead to insulin resistance and contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a chronic but subclinical inflammatory process that impairs insulin action in most tissues and could also hamper pancreatic β-cell function. The involvement of monocytic cells and the profiles of the chemokines and cytokines induced by this inflammation suggest an innate immune response. However, emerging data indicate that elements of the adaptive immune system could also be involved. As activation of an adaptive response requires antigen specificity, some researchers have hypothesized that T2DM evolves from an innate immune response to an autoimmune condition. In this Perspectives article, we present the arguments for and against this hypothesis and discuss which mechanisms could be involved in a putative switch from innate immunity to autoimmunity. Continue reading >>

What Is An Autoimmune Disease?

What Is An Autoimmune Disease?

Tweet Autoimmune disease refers to illness or disorder that occurs when healthy tissue (cells) get destroyed by the body's own immune system. The term autoimmune disease is one that many people with diabetes - in particular, those with type 1 diabetes - will have come across or be familiar with. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the disease-fighting system mistakes healthy cells in the pancreas for foreign, harmful invaders and attacks them, leaving the body unable to produce its own insulin and keep levels of blood glucose under control. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disease, from multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes to coeliac disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The immune system is the body's protection against harmful substances such as bacteria, viruses and toxins, all of which contain harmful antigens. To counter this, the immune system produces and sends antibodies (special proteins) to identify destroy these antigens. However, in some cases the immune system cannot distinguish between healthy, harmless tissue and antigens and, as a result, it attacks and destroys normal tissue (in people with diabetes, the cells mistakenly targeted are the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas). This autoimmune reaction (or 'attack') is what triggers the development of an autoimmune disease. What causes the immune system to act this way? The exact cause of autoimmune disease is unknown, although there are many theories about what causes it to malfunction including: Bacteria or virus Drugs Chemical irritants Environmental irritants Studies have shown that autoimmune disorders often run in families and are much more common in women. How serious is it? As well as destroying body tissue, an autoimmune reaction can also affect organ function or result in t Continue reading >>

More in diabetes