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Diabetes And Pneumonia Get The Facts

Sepsis And Diabetes

Sepsis And Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (life-long) autoimmune disease that has a significant impact on your life. Having diabetes means you must work to control your blood glucose (sugar) levels to be sure that they don’t get too high or too low. The amount of glucose in your blood is important. Your body needs glucose for energy, but too much of it can destroy body tissues and too little can starve your body of nutrients. People who have diabetes are also at risk of developing wounds and sores that don’t heal well. While the wounds are present, they are at high risk of developing infection. And, again because of the diabetes, the infections can get severe quickly. When infection overwhelms the body, the body can respond by developing sepsis and going into septic shock. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and rapid treatment for survival. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly) and/or amputations. What is diabetes? Your pancreas is a small organ (about 6” by 1.5”) that is part of your digestive system. It is connected to your small intestine and it lies just below your stomach towards the back. Your pancreas has a few roles, one is to help digest the food you eat and another is to secrete (send out) insulin, which stimulates your cells to use the glucose in the food and drink you consume. When a person has diabetes, the pancre Continue reading >>

Pneumonia

Pneumonia

What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants. It is a serious infection or inflammation in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid. Lobar pneumonia affects one or more sections (lobes) of the lungs. Bronchial pneumonia (also known as bronchopneumonia) affects patches throughout both lungs. What causes pneumonia? There are more than 30 different causes of pneumonia, and they’re grouped by the cause. The main types of pneumonia are: Bacterial pneumonia. This type is caused by various bacteria. The most common is Streptococcus pneumoniae. It usually occurs when the body is weakened in some way, such as by illness, poor nutrition, old age, or impaired immunity, and the bacteria are able to work their way into the lungs. Bacterial pneumonia can affect all ages, but you are at greater risk if you abuse alcohol, smoke cigarettes, are debilitated, have recently had surgery, have a respiratory disease or viral infection, or have a weakened immune system. Viral pneumonia. This type is caused by various viruses, including influenza (flu), and is responsible for about one-third of all pneumonia cases. You may be more likely to get bacterial pneumonia if you have viral pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumonia. This type has somewhat different symptoms and physical signs and is referred to as atypical pneumonia. It is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It generally causes a mild, widespread pneumonia that affects all age groups. Other pneumonias. There are other, less common pneumonias that may be caused by other infections, or that result from inhaling food, liquid, gases, dust, or fungi. What are the symptoms of pneumonia? The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia include: Cough that prod Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Influenza Facts:

Diabetes And Influenza Facts:

• Diabetes is a major risk factor for increased death and disease due to influenza. People with diabetes have a weakened immune system, so they are more susceptible to severe cases or complications of the flu. It is especially important for people with diabetes to receive vaccinations. • Vaccinating high-risk persons each year before the flu season (generally November through March) is the most effective measure for reducing the impact of flu. Even if persons develop the flu, despite vaccination, the vaccine can be effective in preventing lower respiratory tract involvement or other secondary complications, thereby reducing the risk of hospitalization and death. • Persons with diabetes are almost three times more likely than people without diabetes to die with flu or pneumonia-related complications • 10,000 to 30,000 people with diabetes die annually of flu or pneumonia-related complications • Among people with diabetes, mortality is particularly high when additional risk factors exist, especially cardiovascular disease and being over 65. • In a recent year, more than half of adults with diabetes did not receive a flu shot. • Most likely, people with diabetes don’t get flu shots because they don’t know of the importance. • People with diabetes are six times more likely to be hospitalized with influenza during flu epidemics. And their death rates may increase between five and 15 percent. • According to 1997 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) results, only half of adults with diabetes reported getting immunized against flu and only a third of them reported ever getting immunized against pneumococcal disease, the cause of the most common form of severe pneumonia. References 1. Diabetes, a S Continue reading >>

10 Facts About Diabetes And Ra

10 Facts About Diabetes And Ra

1. Your body breaks food down into glucose. It then uses insulin produced by the pancreas to convert that glucose to energy. If your body doesn’t produce enough insulin itself, you may develop diabetes. Almost 24 million people in the US live with diabetes, approximately 3 percent of the population. 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It typically develops during childhood, but may also affect adults. People who have Type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. 3. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, affecting 90-95 percent of people living with the condition. This type of diabetes tends to be associated with obesity, age, physical inactivity and previous history of gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is usually treated with monitoring blood sugars, healthy eating, exercise and possibly diabetes medication. 4. There appears to be no link between RA and Type 1 diabetes. However, people with RA may be at higher risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. People with RA may be more sedentary, experience weight gain due to lack of physical activity or medications or take prednisone, all of which are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. 5. It’s important for people with RA to stay ahead of a number of possible comorbidities, including the increased risk of developing diabetes. Regular checks of your cholesterol and blood sugar levels (both simple blood tests) and monitoring your blood pressure will enable you to deal with problems early. This can help you manage the risks of diabetes and heart disease. 6. People who have developed Type 2 diabetes often have no symptoms. Those who do have symptoms may experience any of a variety, including increased thirst or hunger (especially a Continue reading >>

Pneumonia

Pneumonia

Topic Overview What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. You may cough, run a fever, and have a hard time breathing. For most people, pneumonia can be treated at home. It often clears up in 2 to 3 weeks. But older adults, babies, and people with other diseases can become very ill. They may need to be in the hospital. You can get pneumonia in your daily life, such as at school or work. This is called community-associated pneumonia. You can also get it when you are in a hospital or nursing home. This is called healthcare-associated pneumonia. It may be more severe because you already are ill. This topic focuses on pneumonia you get in your daily life. What causes pneumonia? Germs called bacteria or viruses usually cause pneumonia. Pneumonia usually starts when you breathe the germs into your lungs. You may be more likely to get the disease after having a cold or the flu. These illnesses make it hard for your lungs to fight infection, so it is easier to get pneumonia. Having a long-term, or chronic, disease like asthma, heart disease, cancer, or diabetes also makes you more likely to get pneumonia. Symptoms of pneumonia caused by bacteria usually come on quickly. They may include: Cough. You will likely cough up mucus (sputum) from your lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood. Fever. Fast breathing and feeling short of breath. Shaking and "teeth-chattering" chills. Chest pain that often feels worse when you cough or breathe in. Fast heartbeat. Feeling very tired or very weak. Nausea and vomiting. Diarrhea. When you have mild symptoms, your doctor may call this "walking pneumonia." Older adults may have different, fewer, or milder symptoms. They may not have a fever. Or they may have a cough but not bring up mucus. The mai Continue reading >>

Facts About Pneumonia

Facts About Pneumonia

This article originally published on Get Healthy Stay Healthy Facts About Pneumonia According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pneumonia affects millions of people every year in the world. It is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Pneumonia is a public health issue not only in developing countries but also in the U.S., where about 1 million people are hospitalized each year with the infection. In many cases, deaths may be prevented with prior vaccination or appropriate treatment. What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by different germs, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. It affects people of all ages and can cause a mild to severe illness. In general, your body prevents the germs which cause pneumonia from reaching your lungs. But if your immune system is weak or if your body is not able to prevent the germs from infecting your lungs, you can get pneumonia. There are different types of pneumonia: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): The most common type of pneumonia. It occurs in people who are not in the hospital or other healthcare facility Hospital-acquired pneumonia: Type of pneumonia you can develop during or after staying in a hospital Healthcare-acquired pneumonia: Type of pneumonia you can get in nursing homes, outpatient clinics, or centers for dialysis Aspiration pneumonia: You can get this type of pneumonia if you breathe large amounts of liquids, vomit, or food or other objects into your lungs. This can happen when you have a medical condition that affects your ability to swallow (e.g., seizure or stroke) Common Symptoms The severity of pneumonia symptoms might range from being mild to severe, depending on factors such as your age, the type of pneumonia you have, or your overall he Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Tuberculosis Facts And Controversies

Diabetes Mellitus And Tuberculosis Facts And Controversies

Go to: Introduction The first report of the association between DM and TB was documented by Avicenna (980-1027 AD) over one thousand years ago. Since that time, the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), and the nature of their interaction with regards to co-morbidity are largely suggested by numerous epidemiological studies. In the early 20th century, the effect of DM on TB was large concern of investigators, but this was somewhat neglected in the second half of the 20th century with the emergence proper treatment for both diseases [1,2]. In recent decades, with the increasing prevalence of TB, particularly Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB), and DM cases in the world, the relationship is re-emerging as a significant public health problem. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the prevalence of DM is rising. Although infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is considered as the most potent risk factor for TB, the high prevalence of DM in the world and its effect on TB burden is greater than HIV infection in many studies [3]. In addition, TB affects DM in many aspects. Although the definite pathophysiological mechanism of the effect of DM as a predisposing risk factor for TB is unknown, some hypotheses are suggested: depressed cellular immunity, dysfunction of alveolar macrophages, low levels of interferon gamma, pulmonary microangiopathy, and micronutrient deficiency [4,5]. Few studies in lower income countries have explored this relationship in light of growing DM prevalence in the developing world. Furthermore, the focus of most studies has been to assess the risk of TB in DM patients. In this paper, we reviewed existing data and discussed the matters of controversy that will be help Continue reading >>

Taking Care Of Your Diabetes When You Are Sick

Taking Care Of Your Diabetes When You Are Sick

Whether you have a head cold or the flu, being sick can put all of your activities on hold. You are forced to stop and take care of yourself. But, if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, this demands extra attention. When you are sick, you are more likely to have a high blood sugar (glucose) level also known as hyperglycemia. This happens because your body creates more hormones to fight infection, and these hormones can counteract the effects of insulin. If insulin cannot do its job, then glucose builds up in the blood. Test Your Blood Sugar Often Since being sick puts you at risk for hyperglycemia, you should consider checking your blood glucose more often. You may need to test more often than usual. What is considered high? This depends on your target range. According to the American Diabetes Association, you should aim for tight control, keeping glucose levels as close to normal as possible (80-130 milligrams per deciliter [mg/dL] before a meal, less than 180 mg/dL 1-2 hours after starting a meal). But not everyone is able to achieve this. Ask your doctor what levels are right for you and when you should call for additional medical advice. You also need to know how to adjust your medication to treat high glucose levels. Ask about the amount of insulin you should give yourself to bring the levels down. If you take oral diabetes medication, find out how to adjust the dose. If you do not already have this information, work with your doctor to create a sick day plan so that you will be prepared. In addition to testing your blood glucose levels, be alert for the symptoms of hyperglycemia such as having to urinate frequently, being very thirsty, and having blurry vision. Test for Ketoacidosis If you have diabetes and high glucose levels, you are at risk for a dangerous cond Continue reading >>

Fight Flu And Pneumonia: Get Vaccinated!

Fight Flu And Pneumonia: Get Vaccinated!

October is here, and fall is starting to settle in. Here in Massachusetts, the leaves have started to turn their brilliant colors, people are getting ready for Halloween, and yes, Christmas decorations have hit the stores. It’s also Columbus Day weekend, a time of year when I dig out my warmer clothes and do some fall cleaning. The squirrels are scurrying around, burying acorns, preparing for what will probably be a long, cold winter. Do you do anything special this time of year? Flu Facts One thing that’s important for people with diabetes to do every fall is to get a flu vaccination, or flu shot. My local Walgreens pharmacy is offering flu shots, and I’m sure other pharmacies are, as well. Actually, getting a flu shot is usually recommended for almost everyone, whether a person has diabetes or not. But people with diabetes should be particularly vigilant about getting a flu shot. Here are some facts and figures about the flu and diabetes: People with diabetes may be more susceptible to getting the flu. And people with diabetes can often be sicker, and for a longer period of time, if they do catch the flu. Because of this, people with diabetes are six times as likely to be hospitalized with the flu. And, not to sound too grim, but people with diabetes are three times as likely to die from flu complications as people without diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Having the flu when you have diabetes may mean higher blood glucose levels that can be hard to control. And high blood glucose levels, on top of already not feeling well, can make you feel worse. Some people shouldn’t get the flu shot, such as people allergic to eggs, so always check with your health-care provider if you have any doubts about being vaccinated. You can’t catch th Continue reading >>

Pneumonia: Get The Facts

Pneumonia: Get The Facts

What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs characterized by inflammation of the air sacs in the lungs (alveoli). The air sacs can become filled with fluid, causing coughing with phlegm. This can affect either one or both of the lungs. The infection commonly starts as an upper respiratory infection, then later moves into the lower respiratory tract such as the lungs. Pneumonia is a fairly common illness and can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of infections such as viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites and is commonly seen alongside the influenza virus. There are three sub-categories of pneumonia: Hospital-acquired, where the infection is acquired in a hospital Health care-acquired, where the infection is acquired in long-term treatment facilities Aspiration pneumonia, where the infection is acquired by inhaling food, drinks, vomit or saliva into your lungs Symptoms of pneumonia Common symptoms of pneumonia include: Cough, with or without mucus Fever Chills that may cause shaking Shortness of breath Chest pain that gets worse when you cough or breathe deeply Headache Loss of appetite Lethargy Fatigue Muscle pains Nausea Lower-than-normal body temperature Who is at risk? Pneumonia can often be treated at home. However, if you are having difficulty breathing; chest pain; a fever of 102F (39C) or higher; confusion; or a persistent cough, it is important to see your family doctor. While adults do not typically see persistent and severe symptoms, there are some populations who are more at risk for severe pneumonia. These populations include: •Young children •Older adults •Individuals with pre-existing medical conditions such as chronic illnesses or those who have recently recovered from another illness Continue reading >>

October/november 2010

October/november 2010

About Diabetes Food & Diabetes Medications & Diabetes Current Issue Archive En Español Recommended Websites Your Guide to Diet and Diabetes Recipes for Diabetes Fiesta of Flavors: Traditional Hispanic Recipes for People with Diabetes In This Issue Diabetes - The Medical Perspective Diabetes and Food Medication Update Recipes To Try Menu Suggestions Diabetes - The Medical Perspective For people with diabetes, the flu can be more than aches and pains. It can mean longer illness, hospitalization, even death! Diabetes can make the immune system more vulnerable to severe cases of flu. In fact, people with diabetes are almost three times more likely to die with influenza, “the flu”, or pneumonia. So take control! When you live with diabetes you are careful about the food and meals you eat, you try to exercise each day, and you see your doctor regularly. Now add an annual flu vaccine to your routine. Call your doctor’s office to make sure a flu shot is okay for you. Check the schedule for flu shots in your local paper or clinic. You might also ask your doctor about a pneumonia vaccine. This vaccine protects against pneumococcal disease, which is the most common form of pneumonia. This vaccine is safe to take at the same time as the flu shot, and for most people one dose one time provides years of protection. Can a Flu Shot Give Me the Flu? No. Flu vaccines do not contain a live virus, so they cannot infect you. Some people coincidentally have a cold a week or two following immunization. This is not a result of their flu vaccine. The flu is not a cold. Do I Need a Flu Shot Every Year? Yes. Flu viruses vary from year to year, so it is important to get a shot every year to be sure. Do I Need To Get a Pneumonia Vaccine Every Year? No. Usually one vaccine will last years and Continue reading >>

Pneumonia

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is inflammation of the airspaces in the lungs, most commonly due to an infection. Pneumonia may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi; less frequently by other causes. The most common bacterial type that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include This article discusses both community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), which is acquired outside of the health-care setting, and hospital-acquired (or health-care-acquired) pneumonia (HAP), which is typically more serious. About 20% of those with CAP require treatment in a hospital. Antibiotics treat pneumonia by controlling the bacterial or fungal infection. The initial choice of antibiotic depends on the organism presumed to be causing the infection as well as local patterns of antibiotic resistance. Pneumonia can be fatal in up to 30% of severe cases that are managed in the intensive-care setting. Complications of pneumonia include sepsis, pleural effusion, and empyema. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the most common viral causes of pneumonia. Antiviral medications may be used to treat pneumonia caused by some types of viruses. Most kinds of bacterial pneumonia are not highly contagious, but tuberculosis and Mycoplasma pneumonia are exceptions. A chest X-ray is typically done to diagnose pneumonia. Risk factors for pneumonia include age over 65 or under 2, having certain chronic medical conditions (including underlying lung disease, cigarette smoking, alcoholism, and neurological problems), or sustaining injuries that interfere with swallowing or coughing. Vaccinations are available against several common organisms that are known to cause pneumonia. Pneumonia is an inflammation of the airspaces in the lung most commonly caused by infections. Bacteria, virus Continue reading >>

Bacterial Pneumonia: Get The Facts

Bacterial Pneumonia: Get The Facts

Bacterial pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs due to some form of bacteria. There are different types of bacteria that may lead to the infection. The lungs are made up of different sections or lobes. There are three lobes on the right and two on the left. Bacterial pneumonia can affect both lungs, one lung, or even just one section of a lung. The lobes of the lungs are made up of small air sacs called alveoli. Normally, the air sacs fill with air. Oxygen is inhaled and carbon dioxide in exhaled. When a person develops pneumonia, the air sacs become inflamed, which can cause them to fill with fluid. If the air sacs are filled with fluid instead of air, it can make breathing difficult. In some cases, the lungs may not get enough oxygen. Contents of this article: Causes of bacterial pneumonia Pneumonia is often classified as either community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia. The classification refers to where a person was when they became infected. Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia. If a person develops community-acquired pneumonia, it means they were infected by bacteria outside of a hospital. Bacteria usually enter the lungs after someone breathes in particles or droplets from a sneeze or a cough from someone who has the infection. Viruses can also cause community-acquired pneumonia. The most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Hospital-acquired pneumonia occurs within a few days of being exposed to a germ in a healthcare setting, such as a hospital or nursing home. Hospital-acquired pneumonia can develop when a healthcare worker transmits germs from one patient to another. The most common causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia are Pseudomonas aerugino Continue reading >>

Do I Have Pneumonia Quiz

Do I Have Pneumonia Quiz

Discover more information from Bupa about pneumonia symptoms and treatment options, including how to prevent it by having a vaccine and giving up smoking. Your doctor may also diagnosis you with a certain type of pneumonia. Is it a cold, the flu or pneumonia? Gail Carlson, MPH, Ph. How do you know if you have pneumonia or bronchitis - How can I tell if I have pneumonia or bronchitis? You cannot. Answer this interactive quiz to be entered to win a gift I have been treading water in an ocean of grief Getting a flu shot also can help guard against getting pneumonia, particularly in kids who have asthma or certain other lung conditions. Find out how and why you need to be able to tell the difference. If you are concerned you might have pneumonia, call your doctor immediately. Take the Sex & Love Quiz! The brain. Take the Pneumonia Quiz on MedicineNet to learn more about this highly contagious, infectious disease. How much do you know about this condition? Test yourself with our short quiz. com. How much do you know about sex, love, and the human body? . Lab tests for pneumonia. g My dad had adeno of right lung lining of Do You Have Lung Cancer Quiz lung and ndes behind breast bone which spread to bones and we think other organs. What are the pneumonia symptoms? Do you have them? Take the Pneumonia Symptom Quiz and find out the main symptoms of pneumonia. Jul 26, 2014 Here's what those symptoms look like: In bacterial pneumonia, patients usually develop a high fever with possible shaking chills. Bronchitis and pneumonia are lung infections and can be hard to tell apart. Pinpoint your symptoms and signs Do I Have Pneumonia? Symptoms & Signs. Common. People who have not been the quiz. Asthma is a and when I am around cats, but I have never wheezed. Learning About Your Health. Continue reading >>

Viral Pneumonia: Symptoms, Risk Factors, And More

Viral Pneumonia: Symptoms, Risk Factors, And More

Pneumonia is an infection that causes inflammation in your lungs. The main causes of pneumonia are bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses. This article is about viral pneumonia. Viral pneumonia is a complication of the viruses that cause colds and the flu. It accounts for about one third of pneumonia cases. The virus invades your lungs and causes them to swell, blocking your flow of oxygen. Many cases of viral pneumonia clear up on their own within a few weeks. However, severe cases can be life-threatening. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) ranked pneumonia combined with the flu as the 8th leading cause of death in the U.S. The symptoms of pneumonia occur when your lungs become inflamed as they try to fight off a viral infection. This inflammation blocks the flow of oxygen and gas exchange in the lungs. Early symptoms of pneumonia are a lot like flu symptoms. These include: fatigue sweating Viral and bacterial pneumonia have similar symptoms, but someone with viral pneumonia may develop additional symptoms. Some of these include: Children with viral pneumonia may gradually show symptoms that are less severe. A bluish tint to their skin may be a sign of a lack of oxygen. They may also have a loss of appetite or eat poorly. Older adults with pneumonia may experience a lower than normal body temperature, dizziness, and confusion. It’s possible for viral pneumonia to quickly develop into a more serious condition, especially if you’re in a high-risk group, such as people with weakened immune systems. Everyone has some risk of catching viral pneumonia, since it’s airborne and contagious. You may have a higher risk of developing pneumonia if you: work or live in a hospital or nursing care setting are 65 years of age or older are 2 years or younger are pregna Continue reading >>

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