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Diabetes And Metformin

Metformin Hcl

Metformin Hcl

Uses Metformin is used with a proper diet and exercise program and possibly with other medications to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Metformin works by helping to restore your body's proper response to the insulin you naturally produce. It also decreases the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. How to use Metformin HCL Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking metformin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1-3 times a day with meals. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). To reduce your risk of side effects (such as upset stomach), your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully. Take this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. If you are already taking another diabetes drug (such as chlorpropamide), follow your doctor's directions carefully for stopping/continuing the old drug and starting metformin. Check your blood sugar regularly a Continue reading >>

Metformin: An Old But Still The Best Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin: An Old But Still The Best Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract The management of T2DM requires aggressive treatment to achieve glycemic and cardiovascular risk factor goals. In this setting, metformin, an old and widely accepted first line agent, stands out not only for its antihyperglycemic properties but also for its effects beyond glycemic control such as improvements in endothelial dysfunction, hemostasis and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and fat redistribution. These properties may have contributed to the decrease of adverse cardiovascular outcomes otherwise not attributable to metformin’s mere antihyperglycemic effects. Several other classes of oral antidiabetic agents have been recently launched, introducing the need to evaluate the role of metformin as initial therapy and in combination with these newer drugs. There is increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies supporting its anti-proliferative role in cancer and possibly a neuroprotective effect. Metformin’s negligible risk of hypoglycemia in monotherapy and few drug interactions of clinical relevance give this drug a high safety profile. The tolerability of metformin may be improved by using an appropiate dose titration, starting with low doses, so that side-effects can be minimized or by switching to an extended release form. We reviewed the role of metformin in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and describe the additional benefits beyond its glycemic effect. We also discuss its potential role for a variety of insulin resistant and pre-diabetic states, obesity, metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease, gestational diabetes, cancer, and neuroprotection. Introduction The discovery of metformin began with the synthesis of galegine-like compounds derived from Gallega officinalis, a plant traditionally em Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medication Metformin: Why Patients Stop Taking It

Diabetes Medication Metformin: Why Patients Stop Taking It

Gretchen Becker, author of The First Year: Type 2 Diabetes: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed , has been taking metformin for more than 20 years after receiving a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in 1996. I never had any problems with metformin until I took a pill that I thought was the extended-release version, but it wasnt, Becker told Healthline. Beckers doctor had accidentally prescribed the regular form of metformin. I had very loose bowels for several months until I figured out what the problem was, Becker said. After getting the proper prescription, it took several months for Beckers digestive system to recover. Corinna Cornejo, who received a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in 2009, told Healthline that her digestive woes didnt start until shed been taking metformin for more than a year. At first, I thought it was a response to dairy, but my doctor eventually switched my prescription to the extended-release version, Cornejo recalled. That has helped, but the side effect has not gone away completely. For some people, however, metformins unpleasant side effect of loose stools provides a much-needed balance to the side effects that can result from other diabetes drugs theyre taking. GLP-1 drugs, like Victoza or Byetta, can cause constipation, explained Robinson. Taking metformin with a GLP-1 drug means they actually complement each other, balancing out those side effects. And for some, metformin simply isnt the right drug. No matter what you do, some patients just dont tolerate the side effects well, said Robinson. Although there are many diabetes drugs on the market today, doctors will likely push metformin first. There has never been as many diabetes treatment options available as there are now, explained Robinson. But doctors look at cost, and metformin is th Continue reading >>

Mechanism Of Metformin: A Tale Of Two Sites

Mechanism Of Metformin: A Tale Of Two Sites

Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) features as a current first-line pharmacological treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in almost all guidelines and recommendations worldwide. It has been known that the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin is mainly due to the inhibition of hepatic glucose output, and therefore, the liver is presumably the primary site of metformin function. However, in this issue of Diabetes Care, Fineman and colleagues (1) demonstrate surprising results from their clinical trials that suggest the primary effect of metformin resides in the human gut. Metformin is an orally administered drug used for lowering blood glucose concentrations in patients with T2D, particularly in those overweight and obese as well as those with normal renal function. Pharmacologically, metformin belongs to the biguanide class of antidiabetes drugs. The history of biguanides can be traced from the use of Galega officinalis (commonly known as galega) for treating diabetes in medieval Europe (2). Guanidine, the active component of galega, is the parent compound used to synthesize the biguanides. Among three main biguanides introduced for diabetes therapy in late 1950s, metformin (Fig. 1A) has a superior safety profile and is well tolerated. The other two biguanides, phenformin and buformin, were withdrawn in the early 1970s due to the risk of lactic acidosis and increased cardiac mortality. The incidence of lactic acidosis with metformin at therapeutic doses is rare (less than three cases per 100,000 patient-years) and is not greater than with nonmetformin therapies (3). Major clinical advantages of metformin include specific reduction of hepatic glucose output, with subsequent improvement of peripheral insulin sensitivity, and remarkable cardiovascular safety, but without increasi Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

The most frequently prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes. Metformin does not cause weight gain, and is usually the first choice of medication to treat type 2 diabetes. Biguanide (Metformin) Metformin’s main site of action is at the liver to reduce the excessive sugar release seen in type 2 diabetes. Metformin does not cause weight gain, and is usually the first choice of medication to treat type 2 diabetes. However, if you have kidney or liver problems, heart failure, or are very sick, metformin cannot be used. The main side effects of metformin are diarrhea and stomach upset or cramping. It is important to take metformin with food to reduce stomach-related side effects. A very rare side effect (less than 1 person per 100,000 patients taking metformin) is lactic acidosis (a build-up of lactic acid in your blood). Lactic acidosis is very dangerous, and usually fatal. Generally, the people who develop this rare side effect are the ones who shouldn’t have been taking metformin in the first place (people with kidney problems or heart failure, or alcoholism). Metformin is also called a euglycemic, which means it may restore the blood sugar to normal or non-diabetic levels. If you are treated with metformin alone, you should not experience low blood sugars. And if you are treated with metformin and other blood sugar normalizing (“euglycemic”) agents (such as thiazolidinediones, starch blockers, or incretins) you also should not have low blood sugars. However, hypoglycemia or low blood sugars may develop when you take metformin together with insulin releasing pills and insulin, because they raise insulin levels and increase the risk of developing lows. In short, metformin decreases glucose production by the liver The most common side effects are: Diarrhea and stom Continue reading >>

The Pros And Cons Of Metformin For Diabetes

The Pros And Cons Of Metformin For Diabetes

Metformin is #7 on the doctors’ hit parade of top 10 prescription drugs. Each year the number of prescriptions increases substantially. Last year there were 87 million metformin prescriptions dispensed in U.S. pharmacies. That does not count combo products that include metformin in their formulation such as Glucovance, Invokamet, Janumet, Kombiglyze XR, Metaglip and Synjardy, to name just a few. Metformin is clearly the #1 drug for diabetes and because the number of people with diabetes keeps going up, prescriptions for metformin are skyrocketing. That’s why readers of our syndicated newspaper column and visitors to this website are so desperate to learn more about metformin for diabetes. How To Know If Metformin for Diabetes Is Right for You: Here is a typical letter from a reader: Q. I crossed the line a month ago from normal blood sugar to type 2 diabetes and was put on metformin. I hate taking drugs. What can you tell me about metformin? Thank the Old Wives: A. Metformin is one of the oldest and most well-studied diabetes medicines. It probably comes as a shock to most prescribers to learn that their favorite diabetes drug is available thanks to the old wives. Practitioners of folk medicine discovered that French lilac (Galega officinalis) helped control the symptoms of a condition associated with “sweet urine.” An article in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (Oct. 15, 2001) noted: “In medieval times, a prescription of Galega officinalis was said to relieve the intense urination accompanying the disease that came to have the name of diabetes mellitus [now known as type 2 diabetes].” The botanist and physician Nicholas Culpeper detailed the health benefits of French lilac in 1656. He described the ability of the plant to lower blood sugar and control Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medicine: Metformin

Diabetes Medicine: Metformin

If you have diabetes, chances are you’re taking some type of medicine to help control it. If you have Type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin. But with Type 2 diabetes, there are many options, ranging from no medicine to diabetes pills to non-insulin injectables to insulin. While you may be able to manage your diabetes with healthy eating, weight control, and physical activity, there’s a high likelihood that at some point, you may need to take medication, including insulin. Unless your blood sugar and A1C levels are quite high, you would likely start on a type of diabetes pill. Today, there are nine classes of diabetes pills. Some are more commonly used (and more effective) than others: • Metformin • Sulfonylureas • Meglitinides • Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) • DPP-4 inhibitors • SGLT2 inhibitors • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors • GLP-1 agonists • Bile acid sequestrants And to add to the mix, many of these medicines are available in combination form; for example, metformin can be combined with a sulfonylurea, a DPP-4 inhibitor, TZDs, or an SGLT2 inhibitor. Combination pills can save time and money and make pill-taking easier. This week, we’ll focus on one of the most commonly prescribed diabetes pills: metformin. What is metformin? Metformin is a medicine in a class called biguanides. It lowers blood sugar levels by decreasing the amount of glucose released into the bloodstream by the liver. Metformin is also an “insulin sensitizer,” meaning that it works to make the cells in your body more receptive to insulin. When cells are insulin sensitive, they are able to take more glucose from the blood to be used for energy. Because metformin does not signal the pancreas to release insulin, there is little risk of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) when taking Continue reading >>

Management Of Type 2 Diabetes: What Is The Next Step After Metformin?

Management Of Type 2 Diabetes: What Is The Next Step After Metformin?

O.B. is a 67-year-old African-American man who has had type 2 diabetes for 11 years. He was diagnosed incidentally through laboratory testing. Metformin was initiated at diagnosis and eventually titrated to his current dose of 1,000 mg twice daily. Because of his A1C of 7.5%, his primary care provider started him on sitagliptin, 100 mg daily, 4 years ago. Despite dual oral therapy, his blood glucose levels are still not at goal. He is self-referred to the clinic for help with blood glucose management. He checks his blood glucose once daily fasting. His results, by memory, are 175–190 mg/dl in the morning before breakfast. He has seen a dietitian in the past and is trying to maintain a diet that includes carbohydrates in the amounts of 60 g for breakfast, 45 g for lunch, 15 g for a snack, and 60 g for dinner. However, he has restaurant carryout food for dinner about five times per month, consisting of pizza or barbecue items with French fries. His exercise is limited by right-knee osteoarthritis. His medical and surgical history includes hypertension treated with lisinopril, hyperlipidemia treated with pravastatin, right-knee osteoarthritis, a right hip replacement at the age of 61 years, pneumothorax at the age of 35 years, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. He has no complications from his diabetes. On physical exam, his height is 5′9″, weight is 210 lb, and BMI is 31 kg/m2. His blood pressure is 146/77 mmHg, and his heart rate is 83 bpm. He has no acanthosis nigricans or skin tags on the neck. Physical exam is remarkable for limited range of motion in the right knee and a scar on the right lower extremity from previous hip surgery. He has no peripheral neuropathy. In the clinic, his random blood glucose is 254 mg/dl. On laboratory testing, his A1C is 8.1%. His li Continue reading >>

Metformin Linked To Lower Mortality In Diabetes With Dementia

Metformin Linked To Lower Mortality In Diabetes With Dementia

Metformin Linked to Lower Mortality in Diabetes With Dementia LISBON, Portugal For older patients with both diabetes and dementia, taking metformin was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality while insulin was associated with an increased risk for heart failure (HF), new observational data suggest. When it comes to the impact of diabetes medications on cardiovascular outcomes in this patient population, "Insulin users, in general, fare worse across the board, even when adjusted for duration of diabetes," said Juraj Secnik, MD, and doctoral candidate, Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institute, Sweden. More frequent monitoring might be appropriate in these patients, especially for those starting insulin treatment, said Secnik. The longitudinal, register-based cohort study also showed that diabetic patients with dementia who take a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) have a higher rate of myocardial infarction (MI). The study was presented at the Congress of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) 2018. Worldwide, some 47 million people have dementia, each with an average of four comorbidities, Secnik told meeting delegates. An estimated 13% to 20% of patients with dementia, or about 6 to 9 million, also have diabetes. In a later interview with Medscape Medical News, Secnik noted that diabetes can affect dementia and vice versa. "Diabetes contributes to cognitive impairment, and dementia can hinder diabetes self-management." Yet few studies have looked comprehensively at this patient group, and there are no guidelines for when diabetes and dementia coexist, said Secnik. He added that most cohort studies and randomized, controlled trials are carried out before dementia diagnosis. "So it's not entirely clear what kind of strategy we should use when b Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin may rarely cause a serious, life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you are over 65 years old and if you have ever had a heart attack; stroke; diabetic ketoacidosis (blood sugar that is high enough to cause severe symptoms and requires emergency medical treatment); a coma; or heart or liver disease. Taking certain other medications with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you are taking acetazolamide (Diamox), dichlorphenamide (Keveyis), methazolamide, topiramate (Topamax, in Qsymia), or zonisamide (Zonegran). Tell your doctor if you have recently had any of the following conditions, or if you develop them during treatment: serious infection; severe diarrhea, vomiting, or fever; or if you drink much less fluid than usual for any reason. You may have to stop taking metformin until you recover. If you are having surgery, including dental surgery, or any major medical procedure, tell the doctor that you are taking metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you plan to have any x-ray procedure in which dye is injected, especially if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol or have or have had liver disease or heart failure. You may need to stop taking metformin before the procedure and wait 48 hours to restart treatment. Your doctor will tell you exactly when you should stop taking metformin and when you should start taking it again. If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking metformin and call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, or discomfort; nausea; vomiting; stomach pain; decreased appetite; deep and rapid breathing or shortness of breath; dizzi Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes Type 2

Many people with type 2 diabetes are prescribed tablets to help control their blood glucose levels. Metformin is the first-line medication for diabetes in the UK but there are many more types of medication for type 2 diabetes discussed below. Most people had tried initially to control their blood glucose with a regimen of diet and exercise before being given oral medication. Many people took metformin alone to control blood glucose, and some were taking metformin and gliclazide. Both medications help to reduce blood glucose but work differently. Metformin reduces the amount of glucose produced in the liver, and also makes muscle tissue absorb more glucose; gliclazide increases the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas. While people found that the medication they took had helped reduce and control their blood glucose, many had experienced side effects. Metformin can cause diarrhoea and other digestive problems and many people went back to their GPs for advice. Some people felt concerned about the risks they might face from certain drugs after reading negative reports in the media (see 'Misunderstandings about diabetes'). Rosiglitazone has been linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Since these interviews were conducted in 2008, there has been growing concern about the potential harmful effects of rosiglitazone (Avandia, but also contained in Avandamet and Avaglim) and from September 2010 in the UK and Europe, new prescribing of this drug has stopped, and most people who were taking the drug have been changed to alternative medication. Most people we interviewed had been prescribed higher dosages of medication to control their blood glucose as their diabetes got worse over time. Some people had transferred to insulin while continuing on metformin (se Continue reading >>

Does Metformin Cause Weight Loss? What To Know Before You Take It

Does Metformin Cause Weight Loss? What To Know Before You Take It

If you’re managing type 2 diabetes with metformin (Glucophage), you might be well acquainted with unwanted side effects of this drug — namely, upset stomach, diarrhea, muscle aches, and sleepiness. These can be a figurative and literal pain, but you might welcome one side effect of metformin with open arms, particularly if you’ve struggled to lose weight. Metformin isn’t a weight loss drug, but researchers have found a link between the drug and weight loss. In fact, a long-term study published in April 2012 in the journal Diabetes Care that was conducted by the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) concluded that the drug could serve as a treatment for excess body weight, although more studies are needed. What Is Metformin and How Does It Work? “[Metformin] has been considered a first-line medication in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and it mainly acts by lowering the amount of glucose released by the liver,” says Minisha Sood, MD, an endocrinologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. “It also helps a hormone called insulin to work better by helping muscles use glucose in a more efficient manner. When insulin works better (and insulin sensitivity improves), a person’s insulin levels are lower than they would be otherwise.” There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but the right combination of medication and healthy lifestyle can stabilize blood sugar levels, which, of course, is the end goal of any diabetes treatment. As the medication helps your body properly metabolize food and restores your ability to respond to insulin, you’ll not only feel better, you can potentially avoid complications of high blood sugar, such as heart disease, kidney damage, nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), and eye damage (retinopathy). Why Does Metformin Cause Weight Lo Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Tweet Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug for the treatment of diabetes. Created by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Metformin is approved in the US and the UK as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Click here to read our Diabetes and Metformin FAQs including information on lactic acidosis. Other Names for Metformin Metformin is sold both under brand names, and also as a generic drug. Common brand names include: Glucophage Riomet Fortamet Glumetza Obimet Dianben Diabex Diaformin Metformin Treatment Metformin contains the active ingredient metformin hydrochloride (or metformin hcl). Metformin is available both in combination with other drugs, or as a single treatment (a monotherapy). Metformin was approved in 1994 (in the USA) and is prescribed as: 500mg tablets 850mg tablets 500mg modified-release tablets 750mg modified-release tablets 1g modified-release tablets 1g oral powder sachets sugar free 500mg oral powder sachets sugar free 500mg/5ml oral solution sugar free Metformin SR Metformin is also available as metformin SR, a slow release or modified release form of the medication. Modified release versions of metformin may be prescribed for people experiencing significant gastro-intestinal intolerance as a result of standard metformin. Type 2 drug Metformin is a type 2 diabetic drug, and helps diabetics to respond normally to insulin. Like most diabetic drugs, the ultimate goals of Metformin are to lower blood sugar to a normal level and maintain this level. Metformin can be used in conjunction with other diabetic drugs, and diabetics should also use diet and exercise to help control their condition. How Metformin Works Metformin helps the body to control blood sugar in several ways. The drug helps type 2 diabetics respond better to their own insulin, lower the amount of Continue reading >>

Metformin Side Effects

Metformin Side Effects

Generic Name: metformin (met FOR min) Brand Names: Fortamet, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet What is metformin? Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. Metformin is used together with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is sometimes used together with insulin or other medications, but it is not for treating type 1 diabetes. Important information You should not use metformin if you have severe kidney disease or diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment). If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you will need to temporarily stop taking metformin. This medicine may cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, slow or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to metformin: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Some people develop lactic acidosis while taking this medicine. Early symptoms may get worse over time and this condition can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness; numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs; trouble breathing; feeling dizzy, light-headed, tired, or very weak; stomach pain, nausea with vomiting; or slow or uneven heart rate. Common metformin side effects may include: low blood sugar; nausea, upset stomach; or diarrhea. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doc Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,[4][5] particularly in people who are overweight.[6] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.[4] Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes.[7][8] It is not associated with weight gain.[8] It is taken by mouth.[4] Metformin is generally well tolerated.[9] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain.[4] It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar.[4] High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses.[10] It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems.[4] While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes.[4][11] Metformin is in the biguanide class.[4] It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues.[4] Metformin was discovered in 1922.[12] French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s.[12] It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995.[4][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[14] Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth.[12] It is available as a generic medication.[4] The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014.[15] In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month.[4] Medical uses[edit] Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>

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