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Diabetes And Hormones

Your Blood Sugar May Be The Key To Your Hormone Imbalance

Your Blood Sugar May Be The Key To Your Hormone Imbalance

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy I remember frommy early medical training that the first question a doctor should ask a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is, Are you trying to get pregnant? If the answer is no, hand them the birth control pill . If the answer is yes, choose between clomid, a fertility drug, and metformin, an insulin sensitizer. No questions related to lifestyle, stress, nutrition, total toxic burden I had29 more patients to get to that day. It turns out that research showsmany lifestyle changescan pull someone out of the metabolic chaos of PCOS, anddecrease herchances of developing co-morbidities such as diabetes , heart disease , hypertension , sleep apnea , anxiety , depression and infertility . RELATED: What You Should Know About Infertilitys Most Common Cause Insulin resistance is one of the root physiological imbalances in most, if not all, PCOS. This is where your pancreas needs to pump out more and more insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. Insulin lowers the blood sugar by storing the glucose in cells. The cells become resistant to the constant insulin and need more to be signaled to lower the blood sugar. When this resistance goes on for a while, you have high insulin and high blood sugar. Incidentally, insulin is a fat-storage hormone, concentrating fat in the belly region. High insulin levels can tell the ovaries to make more testosterone. Thats why some women with PCOS have symptoms of excess androgens, like dark hairs on the face and belly. If you have PCOS, ask your doctor for a fasting insulin and fasting glucose level to be drawn, along with a HgbA1C (an average of blood su Continue reading >>

Sex Hormones And Health

Sex Hormones And Health

Over 50% of men with Type 2 diabetes have lower than normal testosterone (T) levels. Men with Type 1 also tend to have low T levels. Now research shows that women with diabetes often have low levels of estrogen (E), and that raising E protects against kidney and heart disease in this population. This sex hormone/diabetes connection may be very deep. In our current column on sex and diabetes, my partner and I reported on how raising T levels can help with insulin resistance (IR), lower cholesterol, and improve glucose control. Then I found some research from Georgetown researchers Shannon Sullivan, MD, and Christine Maric, PhD. They report that, among people without diabetes, men have much more kidney disease than women. But in people with diabetes, women and men have a more similar rate of kidney disease. Estrogens and Diabetes Women with diabetes tend to have too little estrogen and/or too much testosterone (a “low E:T ratio”). Sullivan and Maric say this lack of estrogen is associated with increased kidney disease and worse outcomes. Sullivan and Maric report on data showing that postmenopausal women with Type 2 improved their glucose control with hormone replacement. Supplementing low-E women with the hormone 17-β-estradiol reduced the incidence of diabetes and protected against diabetic kidney disease. This is similar to reports on testosterone for men. Sullivan and Maric say that, “Diabetic women reach menopause earlier than non-diabetics, suggesting lower baseline E levels.” They also point out that in the rat version of Type 2, females have lower estrogen levels compared to females without diabetes. The value of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women has been questioned recently. But HRT still seems to prevent heart disease in women with diabetes. A Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which blood sugar (glucose) levels are abnormally high because the body does not produce enough insulin to meet its needs. Urination and thirst are increased, and people lose weight when they are not trying to. Diabetes damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and vision loss. People with diabetes need to follow a healthy diet that is low in refined carbohydrates (including sugar), saturated fat, and processed foods. They also need to exercise and usually take drugs to lower blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the amount of sugar in the blood is elevated. Doctors often use the full name diabetes mellitus, rather than diabetes alone, to distinguish this disorder from diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is a relatively rare disorder that does not affect blood glucose levels but, just like diabetes mellitus, also causes increased urination. Continue reading >>

Exercices And Diabetes | Hormones | Management

Exercices And Diabetes | Hormones | Management

Small reminder of physiology: from an article "Diabetes & Sports: A History of hormones", article I wrote for a journal - Nutrition Endocrinology No special EASD September 2014 Muscle contraction is the basis of any physical activity. This is in skeletal muscle that takes place the conversion of biochemical energy into mechanical work. The hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the heart of this transformation that allows movement. Present in very small amounts in the muscle, ATP must be synthesized quickly during exertion. Three energy systems (depending on the type of exercise, intensity and duration) exist to synthesize (manufacture) ATP: Alactic anaerobic sector, put into play for intense efforts lasting less than a few tens of seconds (sprint) The anaerobic lactic die (intense efforts of longer than 15 seconds) uses muscle glycogen with lactate production through anaerobic glycolysis. The aerobic system (prolonged efforts) represents the largest system of supply of ATP mainly from the oxidation of carbohydrate substrates (plasma glucose, liver and muscle glycogen) and fat (plasma free fatty acids, intramuscular triglycerides). The relative participation of either substrate depends primarily on the power developed during exercise: low power (50-60% VO2 max) uses the fat reserves, a power greater than 60% VO2 max favors glycolytic reserves. Adaptation of energy metabolism is closely linked to the adaptation of hormonal regulation: the decrease in blood sugar during physical exertion induces neuroendocrine mechanisms (= hormones). While insulin production fall from the beginning of physical activity, those of hyperglycemic hormones (catecholamines - adrenaline and noradrenaline, cortisol, growth hormone) increase. These hormonal changes, controlling lipolysis Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Menopause: A Twin Challenge

Diabetes And Menopause: A Twin Challenge

Diabetes and menopause may team up for varied effects on your body. Here's what to expect — and how to stay in control. Menopause — and the years leading up to it — may present unique challenges if you have diabetes. But it's not necessarily a one-two punch. First, learn what to expect. Then consider what to do about it. Diabetes and menopause: What to expect Menopause is the phase of life after your periods have stopped and your estrogen levels decline. In some women, menopause can occur as a result of surgery, when the ovaries are removed for other medical reasons. Diabetes and menopause may team up for varied effects on your body, including: Changes in blood sugar level. The hormones estrogen and progesterone affect how your cells respond to insulin. After menopause, changes in your hormone levels can trigger fluctuations in your blood sugar level. You may notice that your blood sugar level is more variable and less predictable than before. If your blood sugar gets out of control, you have a higher risk of diabetes complications. Weight gain. Some women gain weight during the menopausal transition and after menopause. This can increase the need for insulin or oral diabetes medication. Infections. Even before menopause, high blood sugar levels can contribute to urinary tract and vaginal infections. After menopause — when a drop in estrogen makes it easier for bacteria and yeast to thrive in the urinary tract and vagina — the risk is even higher. Sleep problems. After menopause, hot flashes and night sweats may keep you up at night. In turn, the sleep deprivation can make it tougher to manage your blood sugar level. Sexual problems. Diabetes can damage the nerves of the cells that line the vagina. This can interfere with arousal and orgasm. Vaginal dryness, a Continue reading >>

3 Links Between Diabetes And Hormone Imbalance

3 Links Between Diabetes And Hormone Imbalance

Did you know that insulin is a hormone? It is produced by the pancreas and is a critical component in regulating your body’s metabolism, more specifically it regulates the way our bodies process glucose. Type 2 diabetes is becoming an ever-increasing health issue in the United States, and is characterized by the body’s inability to use insulin properly. But, as we mention over and over in our blogs, an imbalance in one area of the body has a noticeable effect on other parts. When a person has insulin-related hormone imbalance, other hormones can become out of balance as well, including testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, thyroid, and progesterone. This can have a significant effect on our health and the way they feel in our day-to-day life. Bringing these hormones back into balance can improve the metabolism and regulation of glucose. Fortunately, a hormone imbalance doctor can help you to naturally regulate your hormones, improving your overall health. Insulin resistance is linked to overall hormone imbalance Here are some typical examples of hormone imbalances related to low-insulin levels: 1. Low testosterone. When males have low testosterone levels, it can affect everything from their weight and physical appearance, to their emotional well-being. The reason this occurs is that insulin resistance with weight gain leads to elevated estrogen. Estrogen decreases free testosterone levels. The free testosterone is the amount available to have activity at the receptors for metabolism and muscle building. Plus, the low T can put men at risk for other medical conditions, such as heart disease. However, recently, researchers have correlated that low testosterone levels are linked to insulin resistance. In this study the researchers suggested that the low testosterone levels Continue reading >>

Women And Diabetes | Diabetesnet.com

Women And Diabetes | Diabetesnet.com

Mon, 11/15/2010 - 11:33 -- Richard Morris Fluctuations in hormone levels occur through the menstrual cycle and these fluctuations can affect blood sugar control. When estrogen levels are naturally high, your body may be resistant to its own insulin or injected insulin. Many women find their blood sugar tends to be high 3-5 days before, during or after their periods. Since everyone is different, the only way to manage blood sugars in a setting where sensitivity to insulin changes is to test and record blood sugars four or more times a day the week before, during and after your period for at least 2 or 3 months to find your own pattern. This allows you to adjust your insulin doses and carb intake both before and during this time to better control your blood sugar. Premenstrual symptoms (PMS) can be worsened by poor blood sugar control. It helps to chart your feelings such as tenderness, bloating, grouchiness for a week before, during and after your period. Charting will help you know when your PMS reach their peak during your period so that before your PMS is most severe, you can check your blood sugar more often and take extra insulin or exercise to bring high blood sugars down. Food cravings during PMS are triggered by an increase in progesterone and can make it more difficult to control your blood sugar. Usually the craving is for chocolate or sweet foods. Give in to your cravings by trying sugar-free and fat-free versions, such as chocolate pudding. Take extra insulin or increase your exercise to compensate. You may feel less like exercising during your period. If so, extra insulin may be a good choice for keeping your blood sugar from rising. The extra insulin needed to overcome insulin resistance during this time will not cause weight gain. Treat yourself well duri Continue reading >>

Role Of Insulin And Other Hormones In Diabetes

Role Of Insulin And Other Hormones In Diabetes

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Insulin and glucose Our bodies require energy to function properly and we get that energy from three food groups: protein, fat, and carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and fibers). When the body digests carbohydrates, they are transformed through digestion into a very important source of instant energy, a form of sugar called glucose.1,2 Three forms of simple sugars (also called monosaccharides) are able to enter the bloodstream directly after digestion. These are often broken down from more complex sugars (polysaccharides and disaccharides). These simple sugars include glucose (found in most carbohydrates, including grains and starches), fructose (found in fruits and vegetables), and galactose (found in dairy products and in certain vegetables). The word glucose comes from the Greek word for sweet, and it is the key source of energy for cells in the body. Upon digestion, glucose can be used for instant energy or stored in the form of glycogen when the body’s energy needs are being met.1,2 Hormones and glucose control Our bodies depend on the action of a number of different hormones, working together in conjunction, to control how we use glucose. We depend on insulin, a hormone produced in the beta cells of the pancreas (an organ located behind the stomach) to use glucose. Insulin serves as sort of a “gate keeper,” allowing glucose to enter cells where it can be transformed into energy and used to support vital cell functions. Insulin also has other important functions related to the way our body uses glucose.3,4 In addition to insulin, another hormone produced by beta cells called amylin controls how quickly glucose is released into the blood stream after a meal. It does this by slowing emptying of the stomach and increasing the feeling tha Continue reading >>

Hormone May Help Treat Diabetes

Hormone May Help Treat Diabetes

Note: The researchers issued a retraction on December 28, 2016, stating that their conclusion in this study was wrong and could not be supported. This page remains posted for archival purposes only. Mice that overexpress betatrophin (right) produce more pancreatic beta cells (red) and insulin (green) than control mice (left).Melton lab, courtesy of Cell A hormone called betatrophin prompts cells in the pancreas to multiply and produce more insulin. The finding, in mice, may lead to new ways to prevent or slow the progression of diabetes. Diabetes is a disorder in the use of glucose, a sugar that serves as fuel for the body. When blood glucose levels rise, beta cells in the pancreas normally make the hormone insulin, which signals cells to take sugar from the blood. In type 1 diabetes, the bodys own immune system attacks and destroys beta cells. In type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, cells lose their sensitivity to insulin, and beta cells cant make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels in check. Over time, high levels of glucose can lead to heart disease, stroke, blindness and other problems. Insulin-secreting beta cells comprise just 1% of a normal pancreas and normally divide very slowly. Drs. Peng Yi, Douglas A. Melton and colleagues at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute reasoned that, while the causes for type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ, treatments that encourage beta cells to multiply could benefit patients with both types of diabetes. Previous studies found that, when insulin signaling is blocked in tissues such as the liver, beta cells multiply and increase insulin secretion. The researchers therefore used a molecule that binds the insulin receptor to interfere with insulin signaling. Their work, funded in part by NIHs National Institute of Diab Continue reading >>

The Link Between Diabetes And Hormones

The Link Between Diabetes And Hormones

Diabetes begins as a metabolic syndrome that features a combination of hormonal and nutritional imbalances. If these imbalances aren’t corrected, a pre-diabetic condition can turn into full-fledged diabetes. These hormonal imbalances can result in an inability for your body to produce the insulin that it needs to convert glucose into energy, a condition that is known as insulin resistance. When this occurs, your blood glucose levels will elevate, and you may experience complications and symptoms of diabetes. Likewise, if you suffer from glucose intolerance you may experience low blood sugar when your body doesn’t have enough glucose to use for fuel. Hormones that Affect Blood Sugar Levels To better understand how hormones affect diabetes, it is important to identify which hormones can impact sugar levels in the blood. Insulin Insulin is a hormone that is released from beta cells in the pancreas, and it allows the body to use glucose for energy. Insulin is important for keeping the blood sugar levels from getting too low or too high. After you eat a meal and the level of your blood sugar rises, beta cells are signaled to release the insulin into the blood. Then, it attaches to the cells to help with the absorption of sugar from the blood. Insulin is often referred to as a “key” that issued to unlock cells to allow sugar to convert so it can be used as energy. Glucagon Produced by the alpha or islet cells of the pancreas, glucagon is used to control glucose and ketone production in the liver. This hormone is released between meals and overnight, and it is essential in maintaining fuel balance and sugar levels in the body. Glucagon will signal the liver when it is time to break down glycogen and starch stores, and it will also help to form new units of ketones and Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar & Other Hormones

Blood Sugar & Other Hormones

Other hormones also affect blood sugar. Glucagon, amylin, GIP, GLP-1, epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone also affect blood sugar levels. There are other hormones other than insulin that affect the blood sugar levels in your body. It is important to know about glucagon, amylin, GIP, GLP-1, epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone. Glucagon: Glucagon, made by islet cells (alpha cells) in the pancreas, controls the production of glucose and another fuel, ketones, in the liver. Glucagon is released overnight and between meals and is important in maintaining the body’s sugar and fuel balance. It signals the liver to break down its starch or glycogen stores and helps to form new glucose units and ketone units from other substances. It also promotes the breakdown of fat in fat cells. In contrast, after a meal, when sugar from the ingested food rushes into your bloodstream, your liver doesn’t need to make sugar. The consequence? Glucagon levels fall. Unfortunately, in individuals with diabetes, the opposite occurs. While eating, their glucagon levels rise, which causes blood sugar levels to rise after the meal. WITH DIABETES, GLUCAGON LEVELS ARE TOO HIGH AT MEALTIMES GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and amylin: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and amylin are other hormones that also regulate mealtime insulin. GLP-1 and GIP are incretin hormones. When released from your gut, they signal the beta cells to increase their insulin secretion and, at the same time, decrease the alpha cells’ release of glucagon. GLP-1 also slows down the rate at which food empties from your stomach, and it acts on the brain to make you feel full and satisfied. Amylin: Amylin is released a Continue reading >>

How Estrogen Therapy Could Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

How Estrogen Therapy Could Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

How estrogen therapy could prevent type 2 diabetes New research strengthens the idea that estrogen therapy could help to prevent type 2 diabetes following menopause, after it identified the mechanisms by which the hormone helps to control blood sugar levels. Researchers reveal how estrogen could help to prevent type 2 diabetes in women who are postmenopausal. In a study of postmenopausal mice and human cells, researchers found that estrogen targets specific cells in the pancreas and the gut to increase tolerance to glucose. This is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes . Study leader Jacques Philippe, who is a diabetes specialist currently working at the University of Geneva's Faculty of Medicine in Switzerland, and colleagues recently reported their results in the journal JCI Insight. It is estimated that around 30.3 million people in the United States or around 9.4 percent of the population are living with diabetes, which is a condition that causes blood glucose levels to become too high. Type 2 diabetes which arises when the body struggles to effectively use insulin , the hormone that regulates blood sugar accounts for approximately 9095 percent of all diabetes cases. Previous research has suggested that after menopause , women may face a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. This has been attributed to hormonal changes, such as a reduction in estrogen levels. Following on from such studies, scientists have investigated whether or not estrogen replacement therapy could help to prevent type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women, and many studies have produced positive results . That being said, the exact mechanisms by which estrogen may protect against type 2 diabetes have been unclear until now. Estrogen targets pancreatic and gut cells For their study, Philipp Continue reading >>

In The Spotlight: How Teen Hormones Affect Blood Sugar

In The Spotlight: How Teen Hormones Affect Blood Sugar

Shortly after her son Alex turned 13, north Texas mom Tracie noticed a change in his blood sugar control. His numbers were running slightly high … almost all the time. “Because he was diagnosed at age 5, knowing when to test and how to cover carbs [with insulin] were both pretty old-hat by the time Alex became a teen. When he started coming up with these high readings all the time, I just couldn’t figure it out,” she remembers. To get to the bottom of this trend, Tracie questioned her son about things like “sneaking” extra food when out with friends and being careless with entering information into his pump. It only made things worse. “First came the highs, and then — on my part — came the nagging. Was he eating too much with his friends without bolusing for it or being careless and not testing after eating? Was he depressed? Something was definitely up, but the more I got on him about it, the more he withdrew.” At her son’s next endocrinologist appointment, Tracie finally got an explanation. Turns out, it wasn’t too much soda or lack of testing that was the main contributor to her son’s high numbers. It was his hormones. Not Just Those Hormones Beyond the behavioral issues that often crop up at this age, it can be a surprise to parents and caregivers to find out just how much fluctuating hormone levels during puberty affect blood sugar control. The biggest culprit? According to Melinda Penn, M.D., assistant professor of pediatric endocrinology at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Va., “Growth hormone seems to be the hormone that has the greatest impact on blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity during puberty.” Human growth hormone, which surges during adolescent growth spurts, can decrease how efficiently the body uses ins Continue reading >>

Hormones And Their Affect On Type 1 Diabetes Management

Hormones And Their Affect On Type 1 Diabetes Management

For people with Type 1 diabetes, there are certain stages in life that can seem a bit more like a rollercoaster than others. In most cases, these ups and downs can be attributed to a shift in hormones. Major hormonal changes can be due to many things, such as puberty, menopause, menstrual cycle, stress and illness, to name a few. Definitive correlations between hormones and blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivities and other possible Type 1 related side effects have been difficult to pinpoint thus far. Until more studies have been published about hormonal effects on T1D, there are things we can keep in mind based on the type of imbalance hormones can generally cause for T1D management. Growth hormones Both men and women experience puberty, and it can occur anywhere between the ages of 9 and 16. One of the primary hormones that kick in during puberty are growth hormones, and it has been noted by medical professionals that this kind of hormone can create insulin resistance. As a result, insulin requirements are often increased significantly during growth spurts. Other things to keep in mind during puberty that can have an effect on T1D: Behavioral changes / Moodiness Body image issues Increase in appetite Peer pressure Changes in sleep habits More (or less) physical activity Menstruation Women often notice changes in their blood sugar levels depending on where they are in their menstrual cycle. Many women have reported having abnormally high blood sugars the week before starting their period, and lower blood sugars in the few days following starting their period. It is important to note, however, that hormones fluctuate differently for each person – especially considering that women use all different kinds of birth control that can contribute to these fluctuations. Me Continue reading >>

How Will Age-related Hormone Changes Affect You?

How Will Age-related Hormone Changes Affect You?

If you have diabetes, you know lots of things -- from eating too much, to missing a snack, to plain old stress -- can affect your blood sugar. But did you know just getting older could make it harder to control? There’s a lot going on in your body as you age. If you become more of a couch potato as you get up in years, you may gain weight. This lack of exercise and the extra pounds can send your blood sugar levels too high. And as you age, your body doesn’t use the insulin it makes as well as it did when you were younger. Your body also starts making less of some hormones, including the human growth hormone. Women will create less estrogen and progesterone, and men often produce less of the sex hormone testosterone. And as you get older, you may be more prone to illness and infections that can spike your blood sugar. Don’t worry too much, though. Middle age doesn’t mean you have to make dramatic changes to control your diabetes. It’s just good to be aware of things that might pop up. The Outlook for Women As women get older, hormone changes before and during menopause often cause hot flashes, irritability, and trouble sleeping. Not only do these drops or spikes in the hormones impact your mood and life, but they can also affect your blood sugar. These ups and downs mean may mean you have to test your levels and make adjustments more often. If you have type 1 diabetes, you may notice low blood sugar levels more often as you get closer to menopause. This can be a sign that your hormones are going down and you may need more insulin. It’s important to know the difference between low blood sugar and moodiness or other perimenopause symptoms. You may reach menopause early if you have type 1 diabetes, but if you’re overweight and have type 2, your changes could s Continue reading >>

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