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Diabetes And Cardiac Arrest

Brittany Murphy, Type 2 Diabetes, And Cardiac Arrest: Speculation And Science

Brittany Murphy, Type 2 Diabetes, And Cardiac Arrest: Speculation And Science

What made Brittany Murphy’s heart stop beating? We’re not likely to know why the actress went into cardiac arrest until toxicology reports come out sometime in the next six weeks. One clue, however, is that according to her mother, she had type 2 diabetes. If that’s the case, her tragic death may have some simple medical answers. Gossip Web sites have been quick to point out that Murphy was plagued by rumors of drug abuse and anorexia, both of which can put a strain on the cardiovascular system. But type 2 diabetes can be even harder on the heart. The high glucose levels associated with the disease affect the arteries, making the vessel walls rough and more likely to collect fatty deposits that block the flow of blood. If blood flow to the heart is interrupted, the cardiac muscle becomes starved for oxygen and dies. Even when they’re being treated effectively, people with type 2 diabetes are at a much higher risk for a heart attack or stroke than most of us. Having the disease is as big a risk factor as having already had one heart attack. When diabetes patients do have heart attacks, they’re about twice as likely to die of them. Sixty-five percent of diabetes patients ultimately die of cardiovascular disease or related complications. At 32, Murphy was young to go into cardiac arrest, but even children with diabetes can have heart trouble. It's impossible for us to know, without examining her, what lead to the cause of death. But someone in Murphy's situation may have had other risk factors for a heart attack─regardless of any rumors about anorexia and drug use. At the time of her death, she was reportedly “taking prescription meds for flu-like symptoms she had been experiencing for several days.” Catching the flu can make a person more susceptible to he Continue reading >>

About Half Of Cardiac Arrest Patients Have These Symptoms Before Their Attack

About Half Of Cardiac Arrest Patients Have These Symptoms Before Their Attack

Sudden cardiac arrest may not be as sudden as doctors have thought, researchers report. HealthDay Reporter MONDAY, Dec. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Sudden cardiac arrest may not be as sudden as doctors have thought, researchers report. Roughly half of cardiac arrest patients experience telltale warning signs that their heart is in danger of stopping in the month preceding their attack, new study findings suggest. Those symptoms can include any combination of chest pain and pressure, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, and flu-like sensations (such as nausea, back pain and/or abdominal pain), the researchers said. The problem: less than one in five of those who experience symptoms actually reach out for potentially lifesaving emergency medical assistance, the investigators found. Watch the video: 7 Numbers You Should Know for Your Heart "Most people who have a sudden cardiac arrest will not make it out alive," warned study co-author Dr. Sumeet Chugh, associate director of the Heart Institute and director of the Heart Rhythm Center at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. "This is the ultimate heart disease, where you die within 10 minutes. And less than 10 percent actually survive," he said. "For years we have thought that this is a very sudden process," Chugh added. "But with this study we unexpectedly found that at least half of the patients had a least some warning signs in the weeks before. And this is important, because those who react by calling their loved ones or calling 911 have a fivefold higher chance of living. So, this may open up a whole new paradigm as to how we may be able to nip this problem in the bud before a cardiac arrest even happens." Chugh and his colleagues published their findings in the Jan. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicin Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Sudden Cardiac Death

Diabetes And Sudden Cardiac Death

US Pharm. 2013;38(2):38-42. ABSTRACT: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been associated with diabetes, although it is unclear whether diabetes is a risk factor for SCD. Diabetes is a risk factor for common preventable comorbidities associated with SCD, including coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Researchers are seeking ways to measure susceptibility to SCD, but because of SCD’s multifactorial development, most likely no single test will be able to identify at-risk individuals. Until tests with proven predictive value are available, preventive efforts should focus on slowing the progression or development of cardiovascular diseases that frequently cause SCD. This can be accomplished by promptly initiating ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, antiplatelet agents (aspirin), and possibly statin therapy for CAD, hypertension, and/or hypercholesterolemia. SCD prevention strategies for the general population are the same as those for patients with diabetes. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an event that can occur in asymptomatic individuals, as well as in those with advanced cardiovascular (CV) disease.1 SCD typically manifests as a structural abnormality coupled with a disturbance in cardiac electrical activity that leads to fatal arrhythmias.1,2 However, in 5% to 10% of SCD cases, no definable structural cardiac abnormality exists.3 Patients may either be asymptomatic or experience symptoms including palpitations, chest pain or discomfort, dyspnea, fatigue, or syncope.3-5 Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), in which an electrical malfunction causes the heart to stop abruptly, may occur in these patients; if the heart is not quickly shocked back into rhythm, SCD ensues. At least 90% to 95% of SCA cases in the community sett Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Cause Sudden Cardiac Arrest In People?

Can Diabetes Cause Sudden Cardiac Arrest In People?

Yes! Yes of course :) How do we know you may say? Well, the best study done on a diabetes with Cardiac arrest is the UKPDS. A long duration study on diabetics starting in the 70’s by the United Kingdom government. It is unbiased, unfunded by drug companies, and the results are crystal clear (refer picture below). For your info, Myocardial infarction is the clinical term for cardiac arrest. If you refer to the chard here, for those patients treated well, there was an average of 30+% reduction in caridac arrests compared to those who are treated loosely. This is clear indication that if you have poorer diabetes, you have a higher chance to die of a cardiac arrest. Of course, there is an easier way of referring to the census data of various governments of your respective countries Continue reading >>

New Study Published In Heartrhythm Finds Type 2 Diabetes To Be An Independent Risk Factor For Sudden Cardiac Death After Myocardial Infarction

New Study Published In Heartrhythm Finds Type 2 Diabetes To Be An Independent Risk Factor For Sudden Cardiac Death After Myocardial Infarction

WASHINGTON, October 5, 2010 — New research reveals that patients with type 2 diabetes are at a higher risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) after myocardial infraction (MI) than nondiabetic patients. According to research published in the October edition of HeartRhythm , the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society, incidence of SCD in diabetic patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction >35% is equal to that of nondiabetic patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of <35%. A secondary analysis indicated that non-sudden cardiac deaths were also higher among diabetics after a heart attack. Between 1996 and 2005, researchers followed a cohort of 3,276 patients enrolled into the study at the time of acute MI. At entry into the study, diabetes was present in 629 (19.2 %) patients. Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was based upon World Health Organization criteria for the disease. Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with cardiac arrest during or prior to index MI were excluded from the study. During long-term follow-up of five years, outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes were observed and compared to the nondiabetic patient population after MI. Study findings show that SCD occurred in 5.9% of the diabetic patient population compared to 1.7% of the nondiabetic patient subgroup. The cumulative all-cause mortality rate among the diabetic population was 21% compared to 8.4% among the nondiabetic population. After adjustments for gender, age, hypertension, prior MI, LVEF and other factors, study analysis found type 2 diabetes to be an independent predictor of SCD. In a subgroup analysis comparing patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <35% versus those >35%, the incidence of SCD among diabetic patients with LVEF >35% was nearly identical to that of Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Mellitus Associated With Sudden Cardiac Arrest; Cindy’s Story

Is Diabetes Mellitus Associated With Sudden Cardiac Arrest; Cindy’s Story

Imagine that you have been diagnosed with diabetes and hypertension. Your life style is one of high stress and you are single trying to fill a void with lots of activities in addition to a high stress job full of pressure to meet performance expectations. Your job stress just increased over the past few months because of the number of layoffs. Then in addition your eating habits have grown worse even though you know you should be doing better. You know there are risks in not taking care of your health, but your commitments and lifestyle have placed such great demands that you tend to ignore them. Sudden death has been associated with diabetes although there is no firm evidence based research to link it yet. In a study published in the Cardiology Journal Daniel Bergner and Jeffrey Goldberg concluded that, “diabetes mellitus does appear to be associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. [1]Sudden cardiac death has been the first cardiac event in approximately 55% of men and 68% of women.[2]What makes this even worse is that there is no single test that can identify if you are a candidate for sudden cardiac death. However, there are plenty of things you can look at that can help you to minimize your risk for cardiac disease and diabetes. “Potential factors contributing to the increased risk of sudden cardiac death observed in patients with diabetes mellitus include silent myocardial ischemia, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, abnormal cardiac repolarization, hypoglycemia, a hypercoaguable state secondary to diabetes mellitus, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and impaired respiratory response to hypoxia and hypercapnea.[3]” You need to talk with your doctor on a frequent basis. Most of us think about going to the doctor as an annoyance or as something you do Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Sevenfold Higher In Young People

Diabetes: Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Sevenfold Higher In Young People

The preliminary findings of a study from Denmark suggest that children and young adults with diabetes may have seven times the risk of sudden cardiac death of young people without it. The study — led by researchers at Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark — was presented at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2017, held this week in Anaheim, CA. Its findings also revealed that children and young adults with diabetes may have eight times the risk of dying from any type of heart disease compared with peers without diabetes. The researchers suggest that the reason for the raised risk might be because diabetes causes abnormalities in blood vessels. "Although we have become better at helping people manage both type 1 and type 2 diabetes," says study contributor Jesper Svane, a postgraduate medical research student at Copenhagen University Hospital, "it is still associated with increased risk of death, especially among young people." Sudden cardiac death Sudden cardiac death is that which occurs as a result of sudden cardiac arrest, a deadly condition wherein the heart suddenly stops pumping and cannot send blood to the lungs, brain, and other organs. It results in an almost instant loss of pulse and consciousness, followed by certain death within minutes if the affected person does not receive immediate treatment. The trigger for sudden cardiac arrest is thought to be an abrupt malfunction in the heart's electrical system, which maintains the steady rhythm of pumping essential for effective blood circulation. Such a malfunction gives rise to irregular heartbeat, or arrhythmia, and it can happen with no warning. Sudden cardiac arrest is not the same as heart attack, which is a condition that arises when the blood supply that nourishes the heart is sud Continue reading >>

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest is caused due to sudden abrupt loss of heart function and as a result normal circulation of blood stops as the heart fails to contract effectively. It is generally caused due to electrical problem in the heart which leads to the death of part of the heart muscle. If it goes untreated for more than five minutes it can lead to severe brain injury or even death. During cardiac arrest the heart starts to beat rapidly and quivers instead of pumping blood to the body and brain. Cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac arrest is considered to be more severe than heart attack due to abrupt cessation of the normal circulation of blood because of heart failure. Ischemic heart disease is a primary cause for cardiac arrest but at times heart attack can also cause cardiac arrest. The blood plays an important role of supplying oxygen and essential nutrients to all parts of the body especially the brain. When the blood circulating in the body completely stops, the person loses his consciousness within minutes due to lack of oxygen in brain. The heart can stop pumping blood around the body if the electrical impulses in the heart become chaotic or rapid. If the person suffering from cardiac arrest is not given quick medical treatment then his brain will get severely affected and he may eventually die. Sometimes a cardiac arrest can occur because of extreme slowing of the heart. The complications associated with cardiac arrest are potent and dangerous and hence it should not be ignored till the patient recovers completely and is able to walk again. Cardiac Arrest resuscitation / Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is very beneficial for a person suffering from cardiac arrest and may improve the chances for survival. Several research studies have indicated that over 80 per cent of Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Glucose Tolerance, And The Risk Of Sudden Cardiac Death

Diabetes, Glucose Tolerance, And The Risk Of Sudden Cardiac Death

Abstract Diabetes predisposes to sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, it is uncertain whether greater proportion of cardiac deaths are sudden among diabetes patients than other subjects. It is also unclear whether the risk of SCD is pronounced already early in the course of the disease. The relationship of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and SCD is scarcely documented. A general population cohort of 10594 middle-aged subjects (mean age 44 years, 52.6 % male, follow-up duration 35–41 years) was divided into diabetes patients (n = 82), subjects with IGT (n = 3806, plasma glucose ≥9.58 mmol/l in one-hour glucose tolerance test), and controls (n = 6706). Diabetes patients had an increased risk of SCD after adjustment confounders (hazard ratio 2.62, 95 % confidence interval 1.46–4.70, p = 0.001) but risk for non-sudden cardiac death was similarly increased and the proportion of SCD of cardiac deaths was not increased. The SCD risk persisted after exclusion of subjects with baseline cardiac disease or non-fatal cardiac events during the follow-up. Subjects with IGT were at increased risk for SCD (univariate hazard ratio 1.51; 95 % confidence interval 1.31–1.74; p < 0.001) and also for non-sudden cardiac deaths and non-fatal cardiac events but adjustments for other risk factors attenuated these effects. Diabetes was associated with increased risk of SCD but also the risk of non-sudden cardiac death was similarly increased. The proportion of cardiac deaths being sudden in subjects with diabetes was not increased. The higher SCD risk in diabetes patients was independent of known cardiac disease at baseline or occurrence of non-fatal cardiac event during the follow-up. Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is estimated to account for 50 % of deaths from cardiovascular ca Continue reading >>

Early Increase In Blood Glucose In Patients Resuscitated From Out-of-hospital Ventricular Fibrillation Predicts Poor Outcome

Early Increase In Blood Glucose In Patients Resuscitated From Out-of-hospital Ventricular Fibrillation Predicts Poor Outcome

OBJECTIVE To describe the trend of blood glucose immediately after successful resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from cardiac arrest registry supplemented with blood glucose data were analyzed in this population-based observational study. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 170 adult patients survived to hospital admission after resuscitation from bystander-witnessed cardiac arrest of cardiac origin and ventricular fibrillation as an initial rhythm. RESULTS Sufficient data for analysis were available in 134 (79%) patients, of whom 87 (65% [95% CI 57–73]) survived to hospital discharge in Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2. Blood glucose did not change significantly between prehospital (10.5 ± 4.1 mmol/L) and admission (10.0 ± 3.7 mmol/L) in survivors (P = 0.3483), whereas in nonsurvivors, blood glucose increased from 11.8 ± 4.6 to 13.8 ± 3.3 mmol/L (P = 0.0025). CONCLUSIONS Patients who are resuscitated from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation, but whose outcome is unfavorable are characterized by significant increase of blood glucose in the ultraacute postresuscitation phase. Postcardiac arrest syndrome after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation poses high mortality. Only one-third of the patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest and admitted to intensive care units survive to discharge from hospital (1). In observational studies, hyperglycemia during intensive care predicted unfavorable outcome (2,3). The aims of this study were to investigate 1) how blood glucose changes during the early postresuscitation period and 2) how changes in blood glucose affect survival in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This retrospective population-bas Continue reading >>

Sudden Cardiac Death In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus And Chronic Heart Failure

Sudden Cardiac Death In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus And Chronic Heart Failure

In patients with diabetes mellitus, around 50% of deaths due to cardiovascular causes are sudden cardiac deaths. The prevalence of diabetes in cohorts with chronic heart failure is increasing, and while sudden cardiac death is an increasingly rare mode of death in chronic heart failure patients as a whole, the risk of this outcome remains high in those with diabetes. This review summarises the current knowledge on the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with diabetes and chronic heart failure, before discussing the causes of the excess risk seen in those with these coexistent conditions. We then describe current strategies for risk stratification and prevention of sudden cardiac death in these patients before discussing the priorities for further study in this area. 1. International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IDF Diabetes Atlas. 6th ed. Brussels, Belgium: IDF, 2013. Google Scholar 2. Authors/Task Force Members; Ryden, L, Grant, PJ, Anker, SD. ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the Task Force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J 2013; 34: 3035–3087. Google Scholar, Medline 3. Mainous, AG, Tanner, RJ, Baker, R. Prevalence of prediabetes in England from 2003 to 2011: population-based, cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2014; 4: e005002. Google Scholar, Crossref 4. Myerburg, RJ, Kessler, KM, Castellanos, A. Sudden cardiac death: structure, function, and time-dependence of risk. Circulation 1992; 85: I2–I10. Google Scholar, Medline 5. Cubbon, RM, Gale, CP, Kearney, LC. Changing characteristics and mode of death associated Continue reading >>

Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Abrupt loss of heart function. Sudden cardiac arrest is often fatal. The victim of sudden cardiac death may or may not have diagnosed heart disease, but the most common cause of sudden cardiac death is coronary heart disease. According to the American Heart Association, sudden cardiac death occurs more than 680 times a day in the United States. The heart has four chambers: two atria at the top and two ventricles at the bottom, which contract to pump blood through the heart. The contractions of the chambers must be precisely coordinated for the heart to pump blood effectively. Cardiac arrest is typically caused by certain cardiac arrhythmias (heart rhythm abnormalities). These include, in particular, ventricular tachycardia (abnormally rapid heart rhythm of the ventricles) and ventricular fibrillation (chaotic rhythm or “flutter” of the ventricles), as well as, less commonly, bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rhythm). The term “massive heart attack” is sometimes used to describe cardiac arrest, but this is an error. Cardiac arrest is not the same as a heart attack. A heart attack (also known as a myocardial infarction or MI) involves destruction of heart tissue from loss of blood supply and does not necessarily cause the heart to stop pumping blood. People can go into cardiac arrest during a heart attack, but these terms do not mean the same thing. In many cases a victim of cardiac arrest can be resuscitated if the proper treatment, known as defibrillation, is administered within a few minutes. Defibrillation is the process of delivering an electric shock to the heart to restore a normal heartbeat. Traditionally, defibrillation has been done in hospital emergency rooms. Recently, however, devices called automated external defibrillators (AEDs), which can be used Continue reading >>

Diabetics Less Likely To Survive In-hospital Cardiac Arrest

Diabetics Less Likely To Survive In-hospital Cardiac Arrest

Patients with high blood sugar run an increased risk of dying if they have a heart attack, and diabetics are less likely to survive in-hospital cardiac arrest than non-diabetics, reveals research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Diabetes is common among patients with coronary artery disease, and this is a potentially lethal combination: a thesis from the University of Gothenburg's Sahlgrenska Academy reveals that diabetes in coronary artery disease patients brings a significantly increased risk of premature death. Smaller chance of surviving Doctoral student and researcher Petur Petursson investigated the connection between blood sugar disorders and survival following heart attacks and cardiac arrest. His thesis shows that patients with diabetes have a smaller chance of surviving in-hospital cardiac arrest. Diabetes and pre-diabetes are also associated with a less favourable prognosis following coronary artery surgery. "Type 2 diabetics with suspected coronary artery disease who are on insulin therapy have lower survival," he explains. "We've not been able to demonstrate the exact cause, but much of it may be because those on insulin therapy have more severe disease." Need for careful management Petur Petursson says that the results underline the need for careful management of patients with coronary artery disease and the importance of accurately diagnosing and managing blood sugar disorders. "Medical personnel can pretty much assume that coronary artery disease patients will have some kind of blood sugar disorder, so there must be established strategies for managing these disorders at every heart clinic in the country." Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And The Risk Of Sudden Cardiac Arrest In The Community

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And The Risk Of Sudden Cardiac Arrest In The Community

Go to: 2 Sudden cardiac arrest SCA, also known as out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to a cardiac etiology, remains a major cause of mortality among the general population and especially among patients with Type 2 diabetes. In the general population, SCA accounts for approximately 10% of total mortality and 40% of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), the major cause of mortality in Western populations [18, 19]. SCA is typically viewed as a heterogeneous condition: a variety of pathologic conditions, electrophysiologic characteristics, and molecular pathways can influence risk of SCA. However, clinical and autopsy studies have consistently demonstrated a predominant, common pathophysiology: the most common pathologic substrate for SCA in adults is atherosclerotic CHD (85%) and the most common electro-physiologic mechanism for SCA is ventricular fibrillation (VF). SCA frequently occurs in the setting of prior MI or heart failure, but it also commonly occurs among those without overt heart disease. For all these substrates, a final common mechanism may be the susceptibility of the myocardium to VF. In the absence of resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation, SCA is uniformly fatal. While the exact molecular mechanism(s) of SCA due to VF is poorly understood, two conditions appear to be important for the initiation of VF that results in SCA: (1) an abnormal substrate leading to aberrant electrogenesis and propagation, and (2) a transient triggering event. The effect of a transient disturbance on a susceptible substrate is thought to lead to electrical instability. The proximal molecular determinants of normal electrogenesis involve ion channel function. However, pathways that influence ion channels, e.g. neurohumoral modulator pathways and intermediary sig Continue reading >>

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