Type 3 Diabetes: Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, And More
Type 3 diabetes is a term used when Alzheimers disease is triggered by insulin resistance in the brain. This condition is most often used to describe people who have type 2 diabetes and are also diagnosed with Alzheimers or dementia. Diabetes refers to a health condition where your body has difficulty converting sugar to energy. Typically, we think of two kinds of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic health condition in which your body doesnt produce enough of the hormone insulin. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition in which your body develops resistance to insulin, and your blood sugar level becomes very high as a result. New research is proposing that Alzheimers disease should also be classified as a type of diabetes, called type 3 diabetes. But this classification is controversial, and most doctors arent ready to use it until more research is done. Keep reading to find out what we know, and what we dont, about type 3 diabetes. There is already an established link between Alzheimers and type 2 diabetes. Since Alzheimers may be triggered by insulin resistance in your brain, some people say that Alzheimers is simply diabetes in your brain. This claim has some science behind it, but its a bit of an oversimplification. Over time, untreated diabetes can cause damage to your blood vessels, including the vessels in your brain. Since many people who have type 2 diabetes dont know that they have the condition, those with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of this kind of damage. Diabetes also throws off the balance of chemicals in your brain, which may trigger Alzheimers. And high blood sugar causes inflammation, which may damage brain cells. For these reasons, diabetes is considered a risk factor for a condition called vascular dementia . Vascular dementia can be a stan Continue reading >>
Faq On Type 4 Diabetes
What is type 4 diabetes? Salk scientists use this to describe age-related insulin resistance that occurs in lean, elderly people. While type 1 diabetes is a result of the immune system destroying insulin-producing cells and type 2 diabetes is caused by diet and obesity, type 4 diabetes is associated with older age, rather than weight gain. Type 3 diabetes is suggested for a type of insulin resistance that results in symptoms mimicking Alzheimer’s disease. What do we know about type 4 diabetes? The Salk Institute labs of Ronald Evans and Ye Zheng discovered that diabetes in aged, lean mice has a different cellular cause than Type 2 diabetes, which results from weight gain. The mice with type 4 diabetes had abnormally high levels of immune cells called T regulatory cells (Tregs) inside their fat tissue. Mice with type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, had abnormally low levels of Tregs within the tissue, despite having more fat tissue. Therapeutic intervention that blocks Treg cells from accumulating in the fat reverses age-associated type 4 diabetes. However, this kind of therapy does not prevent type 2 diabetes insulin resistance. The researchers now want to see if the same process will help humans with this type of diabetes. How can I sign up for a clinical trial on this work? The Salk Institute does not conduct human trials, but we do partner with a variety of research institutes and hospitals to test research. To find information on the current trial related to this work, visit: www.clinicaltrials.gov How can I donate to this work? To donate to the Salk Institute, please visit: To learn more about this research, please visit: Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes
Type 3 diabetes is a proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting in an insulin resistance in the brain. The categorization is not embraced by the medical community, though a limited number of published reviews have forwarded putative mechanisms linking Alzheimer's and insulin resistance. The term has been widely applied within alternative healthcare circles. Other instances of the term: Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes is a form of diabetes that relates to the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas. See also Diabetes mellitus#Classification  Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Dementia - Is There A Connection?
Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? What do diabetes and dementia have in common? Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin it makes properly. Insulin is a hormone used by the body to control glucose levels, or the amount of sugar, in your blood. Glucose is one of the main sources of fuel for the body, providing energy the body needs to perform all necessary functions. There are two main types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. A third type, gestational diabetes, occurs temporarily during pregnancy.Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be a risk factor for Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia and other types of dementia because cardiovascular problems associated with diabetes are also associated with dementia. These include: Heart disease or family history of heart disease Research has also proved that, similar to diabetes, glucose is not used properly in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. This may be caused by nerve cell death, which reduces the brains ability to interpret messages.In the case of vascular dementia, brain cells die due to lack of oxygen, preventing brain cells from communicating with each other. Beta amyloid plaques, which build up in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease, have also been shown to prevent insulin receptors in the brain from doing their job. This can impact insulin production and cause brain cells to become insensitive to insulin. Is Alzheimers disease type 3 diabetes? Recent studies suggest that the brains of people with Alzheimers disease are in a diabetic state, partly due to the decrease in or insensitivity to insulin.There are many similarities in the brains of people with diabetes and the brains of people with Alzh Continue reading >>
Paleo And Alzheimer’s: All About “type 3 Diabetes”
You might have heard Alzheimer’s disease described as “Type 3 Diabetes,” implying that it’s another “disease of civilization,” a consequence of the modern diet and lifestyle more than anything else. The “Diabetes” label in particular makes it seem like Alzheimer’s is all about the carbs. But it’s actually more complicated than that (isn’t it always?). Alzheimer’s Disease probably does have something to do with dietary carbs, but it’s much more complicated than “insulin wrecks your brain.” And it also has connections to other parts of the modern diet, especially overload of Omega-6 fats. So here’s a look at Alzheimer’s from a Paleo perspective, focusing on the potential role of diet in long-term prevention and therapy. This post is not an explanation of how to “cure” Alzheimer’s Disease, or even what causes it, and if you meet anyone trying to tell you either of those things, they’re probably lying. It’s just a look at some possible connections between diet and Alzheimer’s What Is Alzheimer’s Disease? Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive, age-related brain disease that starts off by causing forgetfulness and confusion and progresses to more serious problems like mood, language, and behavioral issues. A few people get it earlier, but it’s primarily found in people in their 60s and up. Alzheimer’s isn’t just an extension of normal age-related forgetfulness, though. In Alzheimer’s Disease, neurons in the brain actually die – this doesn’t happen in normal aging, even though most people’s brains do shrink a little bit with age. In most cases of Alzheimer’s, nobody’s really sure what causes it – we can identify hallmark signs of the disease (amyloid-beta plaques and tangled proteins) and certain genes that m Continue reading >>
Review Is Alzheimer's Disease A Type 3 Diabetes? A Critical Appraisal☆
Highlights • • Molecular and cellular mechanisms between Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease • Role of insulin signaling on amyloid beta oligomers • Recently researchers proposed the term ‘Type-3-Diabetes’ for Alzheimer's disease (ad) because of the shared molecular and cellular features among Type-1-Diabetes, Type-2-Diabetes and insulin resistance associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline in elderly individuals. Recent clinical and basic studies on patients with diabetes and AD revealed previously unreported cellular and pathological among diabetes, insulin resistance and AD. These studies are also strengthened by various basic biological studies that decipher the effects of insulin in the pathology of AD through cellular and molecular mechanisms. For instance, insulin is involved in the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which in turn causes phosphorylation of tau, which involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Interestingly, insulin also plays a crucial role in the formation amyloid plaques. In this review, we discussed significant shared mechanisms between AD and diabetes and we also provided therapeutic avenues for diabetes and AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases - edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy. Graphical abstract Download high-res image (63KB) Download full-size image Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes and is currently a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. This is likely to worsen, given the rapidly increasing prevalence of this condition; therefore, an understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is of considerable importance. By definition, patients Continue reading >>
The 'double' Whammy: What Is Type 3 Diabetes?
The 'Double' Whammy: What is Type 3 Diabetes? Being diagnosed with diabetes by your physician is enough of a shocker. Now, some patients are learning that not only do they suffer from one type of diabetes, but two types simultaneously. Indeed, type 3 diabetes – also known as hybrid or double diabetes – is a new and dangerous phenomenon that has many health officials deeply concerned. As we enter National Diabetes Month, learn the signs and symptoms of diabetes as well as how to help loved ones with this disease. What is type 3 diabetes, and how can you prevent it? Read on, and don't forget to take the quiz to test your sugar IQ... There's a new public health threat, and it means business. The phenomenon is known as “double diabetes” or “hybrid diabetes,” and it’s harder to diagnose and significantly more difficult to treat. This new breed of disease is also sometimes referred to as "diabetes 1-1/2 ," or type 3 diabetes. What has been called double diabetes can strike at any age. According to recent reports, physicians are seeing increasing numbers of patients with double diabetes, in which an individual has the symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Treatment is especially difficult in children. Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes, which affects 5% of all diabetics, happens when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. When the body cannot turn blood sugar, or glucose, into energy – either because it does not produce enough insulin or does not use it correctly – diabetes will result. Although it was previously thought that type 1 diabetes only occurs in children, it is now known that it also can develop in adults. However, type 1 is still the rarest form. The majority of diabetics nationwide suffer from type Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms
Why is Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) sometimes called “Type 3 diabetes?” What are the symptoms, and how can it be prevented? Alzheimer’s is a progressive brain disease. People who have this condition gradually lose memory and mental focus. They may have emotional and behavioral changes that put a great load on their families. The course of Alzheimer’s disease varies dramatically. Some people become severely disabled and die from it. Others may experience only a mild slowing of brain function. What causes Type 3 diabetes? How might diabetes cause Alzheimer’s symptoms? Gary Small, MD, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program said that high blood sugars cause inflammation throughout the body and brain. Chronic inflammation has been linked with two brain changes typical of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s, clumps of protein called beta-amyloid plaques form between the brain cells and may block communication. Researchers have discovered that many people with Type 2 diabetes have beta-amyloid deposits in their pancreas like the ones found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s. Tau tangles are twisted-up proteins that form within nerve cells of people with Alzheimer’s, interfering with cell function. We don’t know what causes this nerve damage, but studies done at Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania indicate that insulin resistance, the core of Type 2 diabetes, is a big part of it. Insulin resistance may deprive brain cells of glucose they need to function, causing damage. On Verywell.com, health writer Esther Heerema, MSW, said, “The brains of those with Alzheimer’s disease who did not have diabetes showed many of the same abnormal Continue reading >>
Alzheimer's Is Type 3 Diabetes
The idea that Alzheimer's is a form of diabetic disease has been gaining currency in medical circles for almost ten years. The accumulated evidence is now so strong that many specialists are now comfortable referring to Alzheimer's as type 3 diabetes . This shouldn't come as a surprise. Insulin doesn't merely signal the body's somatic cells to take up glucose; it also governs the brain's uptake of glucose. And glucose is what powers the brain. It's the brain's primary energy molecule. We've known for some time that the brain itself makes a certain amount of insulin, and various parts of the brain are rich in insulin receptors . It's also well established that cognitive decline is correlated with both obesity and metabolic abnormalities involving insulin. (See, for example, the Whitehall II cohort study .) The connection between mental decline and diabetes was actually observed hundreds of years ago by physician Thomas Willis. (Also, in 1935, American psychiatrist William Claire Menninger posited the existence of "psychogenic diabetes" and described a "diabetic personality.") The smoking gun (arguably) for abnormalities in brain insulin as the precipitating factor for Alzheimer's Disease was the publication, in 2011, of the Hisayama Study. This study monitored 1017 initially disease-free patients for 15 years and found: The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance. American physician David Perlmutter, in his book Grain Brain (2013, Little, Brown), lays the blame squarely on diet, saying "Brain dysfunction starts in your daily bread." He lays out a detailed case (backed up by numerous references to the scientifi Continue reading >>
Mayo Clinic Minute: Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
Are some cases of Alzheimer's disease triggered by a form of diabetes in the brain? Perhaps they are, according to researchers. Mayo Clinic's campuses in Rochester, Minnesota, and Jacksonville, Florida, recently participated in a multi-institution clinical study, testing whether a new insulin nasal spray can improve Alzheimer’s symptoms. “This study has furthered our understanding of the gene that is the strongest genetic risk factor known for Alzheimer’s disease,” says Dr. Guojun Bu, a Mayo Clinic neuroscientist. "About 20 percent of the human population carries this riskier form of [the gene] APOE, called the E4," says Dr. Bu. It's believed that more than 50 percent of Alzheimer’s cases can be linked to APOE4, according to the study, which was published in Neuron. Watch: The Mayo Clinic Minute Journalists: A broadcast-quality video pkg (1:00) is in the downloads. Read the script. It's an accepted fact that people with Type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease. One reason may be reduced blood flow to the brain because of damaged blood vessels, Dr. Bu explains. "And, therefore, the supply of essential nutrients to the brain is also impaired." Dr. Bu has found genetics may also be to blame. A variant of the so-called Alzheimer’s gene, APOE4, seems to interfere with brain cells' ability to use insulin, which may eventually cause the cells to starve and die. Unofficially, it's called Type 3 diabetes. "What it refers [to] is that their brain's insulin utilization or signaling is not functioning. Their risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease is about 10 to 15 times higher." Researchers wondered if it is diabetes of the brain, could insulin delivered in an intranasal mist help patients? The results of a phase 2 clinical trial have raised hope. "Th Continue reading >>
Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes
Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes ballyscanlon/Digital Vision/ Getty Images Alzheimer's disease is a type of progressive dementia that affects more than 5 million Americans, and those rates are projected to increase dramatically over the next several years. One link to Alzheimer's disease that researchers are exploring is diabetes. There have been several studies that have connected the two diseases together. In fact, some researchers have begun to call Alzheimer's disease "type 3 diabetes." Although a small amount of research found an increased risk of dementia with type 1 diabetes, the vast majority of studies have concluded that this link between diabetes and Alzheimer's is specific to t ype 2 diabetes . Type 2 diabetes develops when insulin becomes less efficient at processing sugar through the bloodstream. Studies show that approximately half of people with type 2 diabetes will go on to develop Alzheimer's disease. With such a strong connection, the focus of some research studies is to explain the connection between the two disease. In type 1 or 2 diabetes, not enough insulin (or none at all) is produced to process glucose (sugar) correctly or the body no longer responds to insulin, and it affects the functioning fn the whole body. In Alzheimer's disease, it appears that a similar problem is occurring, but instead of causing problems in the entire body's functioning, the effects occur in the brain. Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia Newsletter Learn about the effects of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, along with coping skills for you and your loved one. Researchers found interesting evidence of this when they studied people's brains after their death. They noted that the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease who did not have type 1 or type 2 diabe Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
Just in case you need another reason to cut back on junk food, it now turns out that Alzheimer’s could well be a form of diet-induced diabetes. That’s the bad news. The good news is that laying off soda, doughnuts, processed meats and fries could allow you to keep your mind intact until your body fails you. We used to think there were two types of diabetes: the type you’re born with (Type 1) and the type you “get.” That’s called Type 2, and was called “adult onset” until it started ravaging kids. Type 2 is brought about by a combination of factors, including overeating, American-style. The idea that Alzheimer’s might be Type 3 diabetes has been around since 2005, but the connection between poor diet and Alzheimer’s is becoming more convincing, as summarized in a cover story in New Scientist entitled “Food for Thought: What You Eat May Be Killing Your Brain.” (The graphic — a chocolate brain with a huge piece missing — is creepy. But for the record: chocolate is not the enemy.) The studies  are increasingly persuasive, and unsurprising when you understand the role of insulin in the body. So, a brief lesson. We all need insulin: in non-diabetics, it’s released to help cells take in the blood sugar (glucose) they need for energy. But the cells can hold only so much; excess sugar is first stored as glycogen, and — when there’s enough of that — as fat. (Blood sugar doesn’t come only from sugar, but from carbohydrates of all kinds; easily digested carbohydrates flood the bloodstream with sugar.) Insulin not only keeps the blood vessels that supply the brain healthy, it also encourages the brain’s neurons to absorb glucose, and allows those neurons to change and become stronger. Low insulin levels in the brain mean reduced brain funct Continue reading >>
Researchers Link Alzheimer’s Gene To Type 3 Diabetes
Researchers have known for several years that being overweight and having Type 2 diabetes can increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. But they’re now beginning to talk about another form of diabetes: Type 3 diabetes. This form of diabetes is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Type 3 diabetes occurs when neurons in the brain become unable to respond to insulin, which is essential for basic tasks, including memory and learning. Some researchers believe insulin deficiency is central to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease. Mayo Clinic’s Florida and Rochester campuses recently participated in a multi-institution clinical study, testing whether a new insulin nasal spray can improve Alzheimer’s symptoms. The results of that study are forthcoming. But how is this tied to the Alzheimer’s gene APOE? A new study from Guojun Bu, Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic neuroscientist and Mary Lowell Leary Professor of Medicine, found that the culprit is the variant of the Alzheimer’s gene known as APOE4. The team found that APOE4, which is present in approximately 20 percent of the general population and more than half of Alzheimer’s cases, is responsible for interrupting how the brain processes insulin. Mice with the APOE4 gene showed insulin impairment, particularly in old age. Also, a high-fat diet could accelerate the process in middle-aged mice with the gene. “The gene and the peripheral insulin resistance caused by the high-fat diet together induced insulin resistance in the brain,” Dr. Bu says. Their findings are published in Neuron. Journalists: Broadcast-quality sound bites with Dr. Bu are in the downloads. The team went on to describe how it all works in the neurons. They found that the APOE4 protein produced by the gene, can bind more aggressively Continue reading >>
Alzheimer’s = Type 3 Diabetes
“My parents are getting older and I want to do everything I can to help them prevent Alzheimer’s, considering both my grandmothers had this disease, and I am worried about getting it too.” writes this week’s house call. “What can we do to prevent dementia?” The truth is, dementia is a very big problem that’s becoming bigger every day. Statistics are grim. 10 percent of 65-year-olds, 25 percent of 75-year-olds, and 50 percent of 85-year-olds will develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. And the fastest growing segment of our population is the 85-year-olds. Researchers predict Alzheimer’s will affect 106 million people by 2050. It’s now the seventh leading cause of death. Scientists now call Alzheimer’s disease “Type 3 diabetes.” What’s the link between Alzheimer’s and diabetes? Well, new research shows insulin resistance, or what I call diabesity (from eating too many carbs and sugar and not enough fat) is one of the major factors that starts the brain-damage cascade, which robs the memory of over half the people in their 80s, leading to a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. But don’t think too much insulin affects only older folks’ memories. It doesn’t just suddenly occur once you’re older. Dementia actually begins when you’re younger and takes decades to develop and worsen. Here’s the bad news/good news. Eating sugar and refined carbs can cause pre-dementia and dementia. But cutting out the sugar and refined carbs and adding lots of fat can prevent, and even reverse, pre-dementia and early dementia. More recent studies show people with diabetes have a four-fold risk for developing Alzheimer’s. People with pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome have an increased risk for having pre-dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). You Continue reading >>
Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed
Go to: Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) has characteristic histopathological, molecular, and biochemical abnormalities, including cell loss; abundant neurofibrillary tangles; dystrophic neurites; amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β (APP-Aβ) deposits; increased activation of prodeath genes and signaling pathways; impaired energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; chronic oxidative stress; and DNA damage. Gaining a better understanding of AD pathogenesis will require a framework that mechanistically interlinks all these phenomena. Currently, there is a rapid growth in the literature pointing toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD-type neurodegeneration, but this surge of new information is riddled with conflicting and unresolved concepts regarding the potential contributions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and obesity to AD pathogenesis. Herein, we review the evidence that (1) T2DM causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, but its aggregate effects fall far short of mimicking AD; (2) extensive disturbances in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling mechanisms represent early and progressive abnormalities and could account for the majority of molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD; (3) experimental brain diabetes produced by intracerebral administration of streptozotocin shares many features with AD, including cognitive impairment and disturbances in acetylcholine homeostasis; and (4) experimental brain diabetes is treatable with insulin sensitizer agents, i.e., drugs currently used to treat T2DM. We conclude that the term “type 3 diabetes” accurately reflects the fact that AD represents a form of diabetes that selectively involves t Continue reading >>