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Depression And Diabetes

Is There A Link Between Diabetes And Depression? Know The Facts

Is There A Link Between Diabetes And Depression? Know The Facts

Some studies show that having diabetes doubles your risk of developing depression. If diabetes-related health problems emerge, your risk for depression can increase even further. It remains unclear exactly why this is. Some researchers suggest that this could be due to diabetes' metabolic effect on brain function as well as the toll day-to-day management can take. It’s also possible that people with depression are more likely to develop diabetes. Because of this, it’s recommended that people who have a history of depression be screened for diabetes. Keep reading for more on the connection between diabetes and depression, as well as information on diagnosis, treatment, and more. Although more research is needed to fully understand the link between diabetes and depression, it’s clear that there’s a connection. It’s thought that alterations in brain chemistry tied to diabetes may be related to the development of depression. For example, damage resulting from diabetic neuropathy or blocked blood vessels in the brain may contribute to the development of depression in people with diabetes. Conversely, changes in the brain due to depression may cause an increased risk for complications. Studies have shown that people with depression are at higher risk for diabetes complications, but is has been difficult to determine which causes which. It hasn’t been determined if depression increases the risk for complications, or vice versa. Symptoms of depression can make it more difficult to successfully manage diabetes and prevent diabetes-related complications. A 2011 study found that people who have type 2 diabetes and experience symptoms of depression often have higher blood sugar levels. Additionally, the results of a separate 2011 study suggest that people who have both Continue reading >>

The Emotional Side Of Diabetes

The Emotional Side Of Diabetes

Dealing with diabetes puts a lot of attention on blood glucose monitoring and insulin and medications—and those are important, of course. But there is an emotional side to diabetes and effects on your mental health that should be addressed, too. Diabetes interrupts your workday when you have to check your blood glucose. Diabetes means you can't just grab food whenever you want—you have to plan for it. Diabetes prolongs getting ready in the morning as you wash and inspect your feet. Diabetes frustrates you when your taste buds cry out for a pastry instead of an apple. Diabetes makes you worry about your future. All of the time, effort, money, and stress interrupts your emotional stability and introduces emotional complications—and it's okay to be frustrated or overwhelmed or scared. Diabetes and "Being in Control" Let's face it: most of us like being in control, and we don't like feeling that anything is out of our control. When it comes to diabetes, you can feel simultaneously in control and out of control. Out of control: Because of how diabetes affects your body, it is possible to feel that nothing is in your control anymore. You can't eat what you want when you want. You have to take medications or give yourself injections. You can start, perhaps, to feel that your body isn't your own anymore. How to counteract that "out of control" feeling: Taking a step back and an objective look at the situation may help. You can say to yourself, "Yes, diabetes makes me do these things, but diabetes does not run my life." A mantra along those lines—repeated at moments when you're feeling particularly out of control—can help. Also, you can do a mental mind shift: all these steps you're taking to manage your diabetes are actually proactive, healthy steps. You are taking co Continue reading >>

The Association Between Diabetes Mellitus And Depression

The Association Between Diabetes Mellitus And Depression

Go to: Depression occurrence is two to three times higher in people with diabetes mellitus, the majority of the cases remaining under-diagnosed. The purpose of this review was to show the links between depression and diabetes, point out the importance of identifying depression in diabetic patients and identify the possible ways to address both diseases. Possible common pathophysiological mechanisms as stress and inflammation were explained, while emphasis was made on screening for depression in diabetic patients. An important aspect for the diabetic specialist would be the understanding of the common origins of diabetes and depression and the awareness of this quite common comorbidity, in order to improve the outcomes of both diseases. Abbreviations: DALYS = disability adjusted life years, DSM-5 = American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DM1 = Type 1 diabetes mellitus, DM2 = Type 2 diabetes mellitus, HPA-axis = hypothalamus – pituitary – adrenal axis, SNS = sympathetic nervous system, BDI = Beck Depression Inventory, CES-D = Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, PHQ = Patient Health Questionnaire. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, depression, comorbidity, epidemiology Continue reading >>

Diabetes & Depression: How To Deal With It

Diabetes & Depression: How To Deal With It

When you have diabetes, you are already dealing with a lot. Now add depression into the mix- you now have a double-whammy. This is what happens when you have diabetes- you are at increased risk for developing depression. So when you develop depression in addition to your diabetes, then this makes your diabetes worse. And the diabetes makes the depression worse. So what you get is a negative spiral, with out of control blood sugars, and ever increasing mood symptoms. Therefore, it is imperative to take care of your depression, so that your diabetes treatment can be optimized, and not sabotaged by untreated depression. Depression and Diabetes When you have diabetes, then depression is sure to follow. For people with diabetes, the risk for depression is two to three times higher.1 The reason depression and diabetes go together is that they have similar causes. Both diabetes and depression are caused by poor diet, lack of exercise, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors. These factors cause diabetes and depression via the body’s stress response. So when you are dealing with high pressured stuff (like losing a job, financial difficulties, or relationship problems) or not taking care of your body (not eating properly, not sleeping, not exercising), then your body mounts a stress response. This stress response releases stress hormones (such as cortisol and adrenaline) and activates the sympathetic nervous system, which decreases the ability of your own insulin to utilize blood sugars. In addition, the stress response dumps a lot of glucose into your bloodstream to fuel your stress response, as the body is preparing for fighting or fleeing (or freezing). With chronic activation of the stress response, high blood sugar and diabetes result. This same stress response with the re Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Depression

Type 2 Diabetes And Depression

Chronic illnesses, such as type 2 diabetes, may cause more than physical problems. Dealing with a disease like type 2 diabetes means constantly being aware of what you eat, what you do, and how you live. And adjusting to life with diabetes does take effort. Yet even after you’ve adjusted, there may be times when the stress of a daily illness just gets you down. Most people feel blue from time to time. But depression isn’t just feeling sad or blue. Depression is a serious disorder that interferes with your life. If depression symptoms become severe, they may make it difficult to function well and manage daily activities like going to school or work, meeting family obligations, and monitoring your blood glucose. Depression and Diabetes: Who Is Affected According to statistics, depression affects people with diabetes more often than people without it — up to 15 percent compared with 6.7 percent in the general population. When depression occurs along with a chronic illness like type 2 diabetes, the symptoms tend to hit harder and be more severe. Compounding the problem further, the symptoms of the chronic illness can become worse if depression leads you to miss medication doses, overeat, or skip exercise. This could set off a downward cycle. For people with diabetes, this may mean poorer blood glucose control, which, in turn, means more long-term health complications. Researchers aren’t entirely clear on the relationship between diabetes and depression — is depression caused by diabetes, or do people who are already prone to developing depression experience it more severely if they also have type 2 diabetes? Whatever the connection, both illnesses need to be treated. The good news is that both depression and type 2 diabetes can improve when treated simultaneously. Continue reading >>

The Prevalence Of Comorbid Depression In Adults With Diabetes

The Prevalence Of Comorbid Depression In Adults With Diabetes

Abstract OBJECTIVE—To estimate the odds and prevalence of clinically relevant depression in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Depression is associated with hyperglycemia and an increased risk for diabetic complications; relief of depression is associated with improved glycemic control. A more accurate estimate of depression prevalence than what is currently available is needed to gauge the potential impact of depression management in diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and published references were used to identify studies that reported the prevalence of depression in diabetes. Prevalence was calculated as an aggregate mean weighted by the combined number of subjects in the included studies. We used χ2 statistics and odds ratios (ORs) to assess the rate and likelihood of depression as a function of type of diabetes, sex, subject source, depression assessment method, and study design. RESULTS—A total of 42 eligible studies were identified; 20 (48%) included a nondiabetic comparison group. In the controlled studies, the odds of depression in the diabetic group were twice that of the nondiabetic comparison group (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.8–2.2) and did not differ by sex, type of diabetes, subject source, or assessment method. The prevalence of comorbid depression was significantly higher in diabetic women (28%) than in diabetic men (18%), in uncontrolled (30%) than in controlled studies (21%), in clinical (32%) than in community (20%) samples, and when assessed by self-report questionnaires (31%) than by standardized diagnostic interviews (11%). CONCLUSIONS—The presence of diabetes doubles the odds of comorbid depression. Prevalence estimates are affected by several clinical and methodological variables that do not affect the stab Continue reading >>

Depression And Its Relationship To Type 1

Depression And Its Relationship To Type 1

Editor’s Note: This is part of our Mental Health series. Type 1 isn’t just about counting carbs, checking BGLs and administering insulin. The disease takes an emotional and psychological toll as well. Check out other clinical information and personal stories about Mental Health. Are depression and diabetes related? The simple answer: yes. Research shows that if you have diabetes, your risk of developing depression more than doubles. In fact, some studies show, that it could be as high as four times more likely. And while this information may seem like just one more thing to worry about, it’s important to address and discuss, because doing so has the potential of improving your quality of life. And who doesn’t want that? Someone once said, “Diabetes is a full-time job that you didn’t apply for, you can’t quit and there’s no vacation or pay.” (We’re nodding.) Agreed — no one lined up for the diabetes merry-go-round or the diabetes loop-dee-loop, because diabetes isn’t fun. Actually, it’s a royal pain. And you never get a break. You know the drill: count carbs, administer insulin, (factor in activity, stress and consider what’s happened before), monitor blood sugars, rest, eat or compensate. And no matter how vigilant you are and how meticulously carbs are counted and insulin accordingly dosed, you’ll get the rogue BGL, the unexpected zinger that just makes you feel like chucking that juice box or screaming or crying or crawling into a ball and giving up because sometimes you can’t be perfect — no, you aren’t perfect and this diabetes thing is hard, really hard and just when you think you got it right and you’re really hitting your stride … you’re tested, you’re thrown and have to try again then again and again. It’s no wonder Continue reading >>

Are Depression And Diabetes Linked?

Are Depression And Diabetes Linked?

Are Depression and Diabetes Linked? Yes. Studies indicate that people with diabetes may be four times as likely to become depressed as people without diabetes. Why? If you consider that a feeling of helplessness is one of the most common causes of depression, it is easy to understand how the frustration and unpredictability of blood glucose control could lead to feeling helpless despite one's best efforts. There is a difference between clinical depression and common sadness or grief. The main difference is in time and intensity. Clinical depression is more than the normal response of feeling down for a couple of hours or days. It is more dramatic and it takes you down further and longer. A psychologist would diagnose clinical depression if a patient had five or more of these symptoms for at least two weeks: ·Depressed mood (feeling sad or empty) most of the day, nearly every day ·Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities of the day, nearly every day ·Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day ·Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much nearly every day ·Feeling agitated or sluggish nearly every day ·Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day ·Feeling worthless or excessively or inappropriately guilty nearly every day ·Diminished ability to think or concentrate or make decisions, nearly every day ·Recurrent thoughts of death (not just a fear of dying) or suicide, or suicide attempt or plan to commit suicide. We know from studies that about two-thirds of doctors fail to recognize depression. It may be because they didn't ask or the patient didn't tell. In any case, if you think you fit the above criteria, you should talk with you Continue reading >>

Depression In Diabetes Mellitus: A Comprehensive Review

Depression In Diabetes Mellitus: A Comprehensive Review

Go to: Mental disorders, in general, in patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) Patients with DM seem not to be at higher risk for a mental disorder in general compared to non-diabetic individuals. In a cross-sectional population-based study by Kruse et al1 among 141 patients with DM, identified out of a community sample of 4169 individuals, the prevalence of any mental disorder - assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) - was comparable between the patients with DM and the non-diabetic individuals [26.6% vs 26.0%; Odds Ratio(OR)=1.11; Confidence Interval (CI):0.73-1.69]. Notably, after adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic and family status, no significant difference between the two groups was found, concerning affective, somatoform, substance abuse/dependence disorders; only anxiety disorders were found to be significantly more prevalent in the diabetic group (OR=2.05; CI:1.22-3.43). Das-Munshi et al2 in another cross-sectional population-based study of 249 patients with diabetes, identified out of a sample of 8580 individuals, reported that the prevalence of any mental disorder - assessed with the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) - was 21.6% in the diabetic group vs 16.3% in the non-diabetic group. The crude (unadjusted) odds ratio was non-significant (OR=1.4; CI:1.0-2.0), whereas after adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomical status it became significant (OR=1.5;1.1-2.2; p<0.05). Finally, after adjusting further for impairment in everyday functioning and medical comorbidity, the odds ratio was attenuated again in non-significant levels (OR=1.3; CI:0.9-1.9). The same pattern also apllied to mixed anxiety and depression, whereas the odds ratio concerning depressive, anxiety, comorbid anxiety depressive disorders was not statistica Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Depression

Diabetes And Depression

Managing type 1 or type 2 diabetes, chronic autoimmune diseases, can be highly challenging due to setbacks and many challenges along the way. The constant vigilance required to manage blood sugar, navigate health care services, medication side effects, and other related health conditions can lead to an increased risk of depression. Left untreated, depression can result in poor lifestyle choices that worsen physical health. If you have diabetes, or someone you love does, it’s important to be aware of the risk of developing depression. Researchers have found that the two conditions occur twice as frequently as you would predict based on chance, meaning that diabetes and depression affect each other in some ways. 1 The relationship between type 2 diabetes and depression is bidirectional, meaning that each can put a person at risk for the other.2 If a person has depression, they are at a higher risk of leading a sedentary lifestyle and eating foods that are sugary or fatty, which can lead to type 2 diabetes. If they already have type 2 diabetes, the burnout that can come with managing the disease, can lead to depression. Meanwhile, people with type 1 diabetes— which is not caused by diet or lifestyle factors, but rather a result of a pancreas that cannot manufacture insulin—can also be incredibly challenging to manage, which puts one at risk for developing depressive symptoms.3 Once depressive symptoms develop, it can become increasingly difficult to manage diabetes and can lead to physical complications and decreased life expectancy. If you’re not sure whether you might be suffering from depression, you can look for these signs:4 Lack of interest in activities Depressed mood or irritability Changes in sleep patterns Changes in appetite Feelings of guilt or despair Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Depression

Diabetes And Depression

Depression can strike anyone, but people with diabetes may be at a greater risk. Diabetes is a serious health concern that afflicts an estimated 16 million Americans. Treatment for depression helps people manage symptoms of both diseases, thus improving the quality of their lives. Several studies suggest that diabetes doubles the risk of depression compared to those without the disorder. The chances of becoming depressed increase as diabetes complications worsen. Research shows that depression leads to poorer physical and mental functioning, so a person is less likely to follow a required diet or medication plan. Treating depression with psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of these treatments can improve a patient’s well-being and ability to manage diabetes. Causes underlying the association between depression and diabetes are unclear. Depression may develop because of stress but also may result from the metabolic effects of diabetes on the brain. Studies suggest that people with diabetes who have a history of depression are more likely to develop diabetic complications than those without depression. People who suffer from both diabetes and depression tend to have higher health care costs in primary care. Despite the enormous advances in brain research in the past 20 years, depression often goes undiagnosed and untreated. People with diabetes, their families and friends, and even their physicians may not distinguish the symptoms of depression. However, skilled health professionals will recognize these symptoms and inquire about their duration and severity, diagnose the disorder, and suggest appropriate treatment. The Basics About Depression Depression is a serious medical condition that affects thoughts, feelings, and the ability to function in everyday life. Continue reading >>

Depression In Diabetes: Have We Been Missing Something Important?

Depression In Diabetes: Have We Been Missing Something Important?

An extensive literature has developed to suggest that depression is more common in patients with diabetes than in the general population (1) and is associated with chronic hyperglycemia (2), risk for diabetes complications (3), and mortality (4). Although the causal linkages among these relationships have not been demonstrated, their consistency has led to calls for intensive efforts to identify and treat clinical depression in patients with diabetes, with the reasonable presumption that this will contribute to better diabetes outcomes. Recent studies, however, suggest a more complicated picture and cast doubt on this presumption. Although research has suggested that the prevalence of clinical depression, or major depressive disorder (MDD), among adults with diabetes may be two to three times greater than among community adults (1), recent studies—which have used structured clinical interviews, the gold standard in the diagnosis of MDD—suggest that it is only about 60% more common (5). More importantly, diabetes-related distress, or significant negative emotional reactions to the diagnosis of diabetes, threat of complications, self-management demands, unresponsive providers, and/or unsupportive interpersonal relationships, has been found to be far more common, more chronic, and more closely related to diabetes self-care and glycemic control than MDD (5–7). Symptoms of depression, such as depressed mood, diminished interest, loss of energy, and concentration difficulties, that are elevated but do not meet severity criteria for MDD (referred to here as depressive symptoms) are also quite common among patients with diabetes and are associated with poor self-care (8). Furthermore, increased risk of complications and early mortality is not limited to those with MDD but Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Depression: Coping With The Two Conditions

Diabetes And Depression: Coping With The Two Conditions

What's the connection between diabetes and depression? How can I cope if I have both? Answers from M. Regina Castro, M.D. If you have diabetes — either type 1 or type 2 — you have an increased risk of developing depression. And if you're depressed, you may have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes. The good news is that diabetes and depression can be treated together. And effectively managing one can have a positive effect on the other. How they're related Though the relationship between diabetes and depression isn't fully understood: The rigors of managing diabetes can be stressful and lead to symptoms of depression. Diabetes can cause complications and health problems that may worsen symptoms of depression. Depression can lead to poor lifestyle decisions, such as unhealthy eating, less exercise, smoking and weight gain — all of which are risk factors for diabetes. Depression affects your ability to perform tasks, communicate and think clearly. This can interfere with your ability to successfully manage diabetes. Managing the two conditions together Diabetes self-management programs. Diabetes programs that focus on behavior have been successful in helping people improve their metabolic control, increase fitness levels, and manage weight loss and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. They can also help improve your sense of well-being and quality of life. Psychotherapy. Similarly, participants in psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, have reported improvements in depression, which has resulted in better diabetes management. Medications and lifestyle changes. Medications — for both diabetes and depression — and lifestyle changes, including different types of therapy coupled with regular exercise, can improve both conditions. C Continue reading >>

Diabetes May Cause Depression, Depression Can Cause Diabetes

Diabetes May Cause Depression, Depression Can Cause Diabetes

The link between depression and diabetes risk works the other way round too; diabetes can cause depression. Put simply, diabetes can cause depression and depression can cause diabetes, researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health wrote in Archives of Internal Medicine. Over 10% of all US adults have diabetes; for those aged at least 60 years the figure is 23%. About 14.8 million Americans are affected by a major depressive disorder annually. The authors explained: "Although it has been hypothesized that the diabetes-depression relation is bidirectional, few studies have addressed this hypothesis in a prospective setting." An Pan, Ph.D., and team gathered data on 65,381 adult females aged 50 to 75 to see what the relationship between diabetes and depression might be. The women had to fill in an initial questionnaire with details about health practices and their medical history. Follow-up questionnaires were completed every two years for ten years until the end of 2006. The investigators classified participants with depression as those diagnosed with the disease by a doctor, and/or taking antidepressants. Those who said they had depression were given another questionnaire to fill in with questions about their depression, including symptoms, treatments and diagnostic tests. Depression to diabetes risk During the whole study period 2,844 females developed type 2 diabetes and 7,415 were identified with depression. Those with depression had a 17% higher risk of developing diabetes - even after the researchers ruled out certain risk factors, such as BMI (body mass index) and physical activity. The women on antidepressant medications had a 25% higher risk of developing diabetes compared to those without depression. Diabetes to depression risk The investigators also foun Continue reading >>

New Links Seen Between Depression And Diabetes

New Links Seen Between Depression And Diabetes

Archives of Internal Medicine. "People usually think of these as two isolated conditions, but there is growing evidence that they are linked behaviorally and biologically,” says study researcher Frank Hu, MD, PhD, MPH, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston. “This data provide strong evidence that we should not consider these two isolated conditions any longer.” About 23.5 million Americans have diabetes, and about 14.8 million Americans have major depressive disorder in a given year, according to statistics in the new report. Of the 65,381 women aged 50 to 75 in 1996 who were study participants, 2,844 women were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 7,415 women developed depression in the ensuing 10 years. Depression and Diabetes Risk Depression increased the risk for diabetes, and diabetes increased the risk for depression, the study shows. Specifically, women who were depressed were 17% more likely to develop diabetes even after the researchers adjusted for other risk factors such as weight and lack of regular exercise. Those women who were taking antidepressants were 25% more likely to develop diabetes than their counterparts who were not depressed, the study shows. Women with diabetes were 29% more likely to develop depression after taking into account other depression risk factors, and those women who took insulin for their diabetes were 53% more likely to develop depression during the 10-year study. While certain factors such as physical activity and body mass index may partially explain the link between depression and diabetes, they do not completely explain the connection, Hu tells WebMD. The common denominator may be stress, Hu says. People who are depressed have elevated levels of stress hormones such Continue reading >>

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