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Dangers Of Diabetes Type 2

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Diabetes is an ancient disease, but the first effective drug therapy was not available until 1922, when insulin revolutionized the management of the disorder. Insulin is administered by injection, but treatment took another great leap forward in 1956, when the first oral diabetic drug was introduced. Since then, dozens of new medications have been developed, but scientists are still learning how best to use them. And new studies are prompting doctors to re-examine a fundamental therapeutic question: what level of blood sugar is best? Normal metabolism To understand diabetes, you should first understand how your body handles glucose, the sugar that fuels your metabolism. After you eat, your digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars that are small enough to be absorbed into your bloodstream. Glucose is far and away the most important of these sugars, and it's an indispensable source of energy for your body's cells. But to provide that energy, it must travel from your blood into your cells. Insulin is the hormone that unlocks the door to your cells. When your blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the beta cells of your pancreas spring into action, pouring insulin into your blood. If you produce enough insulin and your cells respond normally, your blood sugar level drops as glucose enters the cells, where it is burned for energy or stored for future use in your liver as glycogen. Insulin also helps your body turn amino acids into proteins and fatty acids into body fat. The net effect is to allow your body to turn food into energy and to store excess energy to keep your engine running if fuel becomes scarce in the future. A diabetes primer Diabetes is a single name for a group of disorders. All forms of the disease develop when the pancreas is unable to Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications Occurring Frequently In Young People With Type 2

Diabetes Complications Occurring Frequently In Young People With Type 2

Young people with Type 2 diabetes are developing complications such as kidney, nerve, and eye disease more often than those with Type 1 diabetes in the years soon after being diagnosed, according to new research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). An estimated 29.1 million people in the United States are living with diabetes, with an estimated 5,000 Americans under the age of 20 receiving a Type 2 diagnosis each year. Type 2 diabetes is a condition characterized by insulin resistance (in which the cells do not use insulin efficiently) and insufficient insulin secretion by the pancreas. In past years, Type 2 was thought to affect only adults, but in the 1990s, endocrinologists began to see the condition in children, and more recently, rates have been surging in those under 20. To determine the prevalence of diabetes complications in young people diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes or Type 2 diabetes as children, researchers looked at 1,176 youth with Type 1 and 272 youth with Type 2 as part of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, the largest study of its kind in the United States. The participants were, on average, about 18 years old and had all been diagnosed before age 20. The researchers found that by age 21, roughly one-third of those with Type 1 and three-quarters of those with Type 2 had or were at high risk for at least one diabetes complication. By the end of the study, of those with Type 2 diabetes, nearly 20% developed a sign of kidney disease, roughly 18% developed nerve disease, and about 9% developed eye disease. Of those with Type 1 diabetes, roughly 6% developed a sign of kidney disease, approximately 9% developed nerve disease, and about 6% developed eye disease. High blood pressure and art Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Main Document Diabetes is referred to by the medical world as, 'Diabetes Mellitus,' and is a set of diseases where the person's body is unable to regulate the amount of sugar in their blood. The particular form of sugar that the person with diabetes is unable to regulate is called, 'glucose,' and is used in the body to give the person energy in order to do things in daily life such as walking, running, riding a bike, exercising, or other tasks. From food that people eat, the liver produces glucose and puts it into their blood. In persons without diabetes, glucose levels are regulated by a number of hormones including one known as, 'Insulin.' An organ called the, 'Pancreas,' produces insulin, and also secretes additional enzymes which aid in the digestion of food. Insulin helps the movement of glucose through a person's blood into different cells, including muscle, fat, and liver cells so it can be used to fuel activity. Several forms of diabetes involve the inability to both produce or use insulin properly. Persons with diabetes are unable to move glucose from their blood into their cells. The result is that the glucos Continue reading >>

Avoiding Complications Of Diabetes

Avoiding Complications Of Diabetes

It can take work to get your diabetes under control, but the results are worth it. If you don't make the effort to get a handle on it, you could set yourself up for a host of complications. Diabetes can take a toll on nearly every organ in your body, including the: Heart and blood vessels Eyes Kidneys Nerves Gastrointestinal tract Gums and teeth Heart and Blood Vessels Heart disease and blood vessel disease are common problems for many people who don’t have their diabetes under control. You're at least twice as likely to have heart problems and strokes as people who don’t have the condition. Blood vessel damage or nerve damage may also cause foot problems that, in rare cases, can lead to amputations. People with diabetes are ten times likelier to have their toes and feet removed than those without the disease. Symptoms: You might not notice warning signs until you have a heart attack or stroke. Problems with large blood vessels in your legs can cause leg cramps, changes in skin color, and less sensation. The good news: Many studies show that controlling your diabetes can help you avoid these problems, or stop them from getting worse if you have them. Diabetes is the leading cause of new vision loss among adults ages 20 to 74 in the U.S. It can lead to eye problems, some of which can cause blindness if not treated: Glaucoma Cataracts Diabetic retinopathy, which involves the small blood vessels in your eyes Symptoms: Vision problems or sudden vision loss. The good news: Studies show that regular eye exams and timely treatment of these kinds of problems could prevent up to 90% of diabetes-related blindness. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, if patient is taking acetaminophen, or if symptoms/expectations do not match CGM readings, and if not pe Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Seniors

Diabetes In Seniors

What is diabetes? Diabetes (also called diabetes mellitus) is a chronic (ongoing) condition characterised by high blood glucose (blood sugar) levels due to the body’s inability to produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that allows blood glucose to enter the cells of the body and be used for energy. Why are seniors at risk of diabetes? Of course, seniors (those over 65) are not the only people to be affected by diabetes: type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes) is usually diagnosed during childhood, while type 2 diabetes (previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes), the most common type, is usually diagnosed in adults over the age of 45, although a growing number of young people are developing type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy. Type 2 diabetes is linked to an unhealthy lifestyle. Major risk factors for diabetes include age, being overweight, genetic predisposition to diabetes, and a reduction in activity levels. The rates of type 2 diabetes steadily increase with age. Type 2 diabetes is most likely to occur if you: are over 45 years old and have high blood pressure; are over 45 years old and are overweight; are over 45 and have (or have had) one or more family members with diabetes; are over 55 years of age; have had a heart attack in the past; have heart disease; have or have had a blood sugar test that is borderline-high; have or have had high blood sugar levels during pregnancy (a condition called gestational diabetes); have polycystic ovary syndrome and are overweight; are an Aboriginal Australian or Torres Strait Islander and are over 35 years old (or younger if overweight); or are a Pacific Islander, are from a Chinese c Continue reading >>

Recent Advances In The Pathogenesis, Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications

Recent Advances In The Pathogenesis, Prevention And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications

DOI: 10.5772/1541 Edited Volume Type 2 diabetes "mellitus" affects nearly 120 million persons worldwide- and according to the World Health Organization this number is expected to double by the year 2030. Owing to a rapidly increasing disease prevalence, the medical, social and economic burdens associated with the microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes are likely to increase dramatically in the coming decades. In this volume, leading contributors to the field review the pathogenesis, treatment and management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. They provide invaluable insight and share their discoveries about potentially important new techniques for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diabetic complications. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Poorly controlled diabetic patients are at risk for numerous oral complications such as periodontal disease, salivary gland dysfunction, infection, neuropathy, and poor healing. Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a common chronic disease of abnormal carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism that affects an estimated 20 million people in the United States, of whom about one third are undiagnosed. There are two major forms recognized, type-1 and type-2. Both are characterized by inappropriately high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). In type-1 diabetes the patient can not produce the hormone insulin, while in type-2 diabetes the patient produces insulin, but it is not used properly. An estimated 90% of diabetic patients suffer from type-2 disease. The causes of diabetes are multiple and both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its development. The genetic predisposition for type-2 diabetes is very strong and numerous environmental factors such as diet, lack of exercise, and being overweight are known to also increase one’s risk for diabetes. Diabetes is a dangerous disease which affects the entire body and diabetic patients are at increased risk for heart disease, hypertension, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, neuropathy, and infection when compared to nondiabetic patients. Diabetic patients also have impaired healing when compared to healthy individuals. This is in part due to the dysfunction of certain white blood cells that fight infection. The most common test used to diagnose diabetes is the fasting blood glucose. This test measures the glucose levels at a specific moment in time (normal is 80-110 mg/dl). In managing diabetes, the goal is to normalize blood glucose levels. It is generally accepted that by maintaining normalized blood glucose levels, one Continue reading >>

Microbiota Associated With Type 2 Diabetes And Its Related Complications

Microbiota Associated With Type 2 Diabetes And Its Related Complications

1. Introduction The rapid increase of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the past decades has made it a widespread metabolic disorder. In recent years, an increasing understanding of how our microflora is linked to obesity-related T2DM has provided a new potential target for reducing the risk of T2DM. The human body reservoir harbors trillions of bacteria and the genetic content of the gut microbiome is 150 times more than that of other parts of the human body [1]. However, the host–microbe interactions have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this review is to expand our view on key roles of microflora during the onset and development of T2DM as well as its complications. 1.1. Gut microbiota in the pathogensis of type 2 diabetes It is well established that the gut microbiota is involved in the process of energy harvest accounting for the development of obesity [2]. Some researches support the view that the gut microbiota is essential for the host immunity development [3]. As one of the most concerned obesity-related disorders, T2DM is associated with abnormal energy metabolism and low-level chronic inflammation in fat tissues [4,5]. Some hypotheses have proposed its relation with the presence of gut microbiota. Principally, the gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression of prediabetes conditions, such as insulin resistance. Growing evidence in clinical studies suggested that obese people with insulin resistance were characterized by an altered composition of gut microbiota, particularly an elevated Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with healthy people [6,7]. Furthermore, transplantation of the obese gut microbiota in animals greatly affected the energy harvest of hosts [7]. Consequently, it is proposed that altered microbiota in obesit Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Drugs

Type 2 Diabetes Drugs

Type 2 Diabetes Drugs No one wants to believe that the medication they’re taking could make an ailment even worse. This is especially true when the medication is meant to help with something as potentially serious as type 2 diabetes and when making it worse could mean death. Below are some examples of drugs you’ll want to know about because of these very risks. Treating Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes is a condition wherein your body produces blood glucose levels far above what are needed. Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common form and is a result of the body being unable to use insulin correctly. This insulin resistance means that, over time, the pancreas can’t make sufficient levels for normal functioning. There are some ways to treat type 2 diabetes, and even more, medications have been invented to do so. In general, which one a patient will be described will depend on some other factors. The following prescription drugs may be popular, but they have also been the subject of lawsuits because of potential connections they have with serious side effects. Invokana Lawsuits Invokana is a diabetes medication taken orally that is designed to help control blood sugar levels. To do this, it assists with the kidneys cleaning the bloodstream of glucose. It may also lead to kidney failure, heart attacks, and ketoacidosis. That last condition occurs when a high amount of ketones (toxic acids that are the result of the body burning fat instead of glucose) are produced and allowed into the bloodstream. The result could be a diabetic coma and even death. Actos is known as an “insulin sensitizer.” By itself, it will not result in lower blood glucose. However, doctors still prescribe it because the drug is effective at reducing how much glucose is released by the liver. Unfort Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

What are the differences between the causes of type 1 and type 2? The underlying causes of type 1 and type 2 are different. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is believed to be due to an autoimmune process, in which the body's immune system mistakenly targets its own tissues (islet cells in the pancreas). In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas that are responsible for insulin production are attacked by the misdirected immune system. This tendency for the immune system to destroy the beta cells of the pancreas is likely to be, at least in part, genetically inherited, although the exact reasons that this process happens are not fully understood. Exposure to certain viral infections (mumps and Coxsackie viruses) or other environmental toxins have been suggested as possible reasons why the abnormal antibody responses develop that cause damage to the pancreas cells. The primary problem in type 2 diabetes is the inability of the body's cells to use insulin properly and efficiently, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and diabetes. This problem affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that worsens the process of elevated blood sugars. At the beginning, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can at least partially increase production of insulin enough to overcome the level of resistance. Over time, if production decreases and enough insulin cannot be released, blood sugar levels rise. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin, but the body is not able to use it effectively. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the ce Continue reading >>

The Dangers Of Skipping Meals When You Have Diabetes

The Dangers Of Skipping Meals When You Have Diabetes

It's tempting -- and even sounds logical -- to skip meals: You're busy, you're not hungry, you're trying to lose weight, or your blood sugar is too high. Skipping meals, however, may actually increase your blood sugar and cause you to gain weight. Here are seven rewards of eating regularly scheduled meals when you live with diabetes. Reward 1: Improve fasting blood glucose numbers. During sleep, when you're not eating, the liver sends more glucose into the blood to fuel the body. For many people during the early years of having type 2 diabetes, the liver doesn't realize there is already more than enough glucose present. "Your morning (fasting) blood sugars have much more to do with your liver and hormonal functions than what you ate for dinner last night," says Kathaleen Briggs Early, Ph.D., RD, CDE, assistant professor of biochemistry and nutrition at Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences in Yakima, Washington Get more information about why your morning blood sugar is high and tips to help control fasting blood sugar. Real-life example: Until recently, if Cheryl Simpson's blood glucose meter flashed a high reading before breakfast, she might delay eating until midafternoon in an attempt to lower that number. Now Cheryl, PWD type 2, won't leave home without eating breakfast. Her blood glucose numbers have improved. "Plus, eating breakfast makes it a whole lot easier to make good food choices later on," she says. Tip: Pack a grab-and-go breakfast with these 13 quick-fix ideas! Reward 2: Stay off the blood sugar roller coaster. Irregular eating can have you "bouncing back and forth between normal blood sugars and high blood sugars," Early says. A meager meal can give you a meager rise in blood sugar. If you take one or more blood glucose-lowering medications tha Continue reading >>

Complications

Complications

Know the difference between acute and chronic complications. Acute complications can arise quickly. Chronic complications tend to arise over years or decades. Know the differences and you will be able to take effective precautions against both. Acute Complications Serious, life-threatening complications can arise quickly. Fortunately, such complications can go away just as quickly if you – and those closest to you — know what to do and how to do it. Acute complications arise from uncontrolled high blood sugars (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugars (hypoglycemia) caused by a mismatching of available insulin and need. In short, you either have taken too much diabetes medication or too little. Some acute complications require immediate medical attention. These emergencies include: Chronic Complications Chronic complications tend to arise over years or decades. Often, there is damage before there are symptoms so routine screening is recommended to catch and treat problems before they occur or get worse. Learn more about chronic complications. Problems include: VIGILANCE AND A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE PUT YOU IN CONTROL Self-assessment Quiz Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in this website. To find out how much you have learned about Diabetes Complications, take our self assessment quiz when you have completed this section. The quiz is multiple choice. Please choose the single best answer to each question. At the end of the quiz, your score will display. If your score is over 70% correct, you are doing very well. If your score is less than 70%, you can return to this section and review the information. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: What Termites Can Teach Us About The Dangers Of High Blood Sugar

Type 2 Diabetes: What Termites Can Teach Us About The Dangers Of High Blood Sugar

One Saturday morning several years ago, on my way to the kitchen I noticed something peculiar about the molding above my front doors. There was a six-inch section of molding just above the point where both doors meet where if I didn’t know better I’d think someone had punched it in with their fist. In disbelief I walked up close and felt the molding with two fingers. What was left of the wooden molding in that spot crumbled and fell to the floor. You see, just underneath the paper-thin layer of wood was nothing but air. Termites had quietly and methodically eaten away the wood beneath the surface. Curious to see if the termites had done any more damage, I felt to the left and to the right of the spot. Although the surrounding molding looked to be unaffected by the termites, I was surprised to see that when I poked on that area, it too collapsed, having nothing but air behind it. After carefully probing all of the molding around my front doors, it turned out that all of it had been at least partially chewed on by the termites. In fact, I found that some of the termites were just sitting down for their next meal when I discovered them. What was most surprising was how, except for that one six-inch section of molding, the rest of the molding around my front doors had appeared to be fine, until I pressed on it. Without poking at the molding you would never have known that the termites were destroying the wood around my door because on the surface everything looked fine. It was only after the termites had really done a lot of damage beneath the surface layer of wood that I noticed there was a problem. This same scenario can be applied to type 2 diabetes. People will often take their diabetes casually, particularly if they don’t notice feeling any different after they d Continue reading >>

Dangers Of Not Addressing Type 2 Diabetes

Dangers Of Not Addressing Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is, in fact, the most common form of diabetes. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 90 percent of people around the world who suffer from diabetes suffer from type 2 diabetes. What is T2D? T2D causes your blood glucose levels to rise above normal levels due to your body’s inability to use insulin properly. Insulin transforms glucose from the foods we eat into energy. When the body can’t produce enough insulin or it uses it improperly, glucose just stays in the blood. This can cause some major problems, that ultimately have no cure. Causes of T2D Two of the most common causes of type 2 diabetes is obesity and lack of physical activity. Many other risk factors include high blood pressure, high blood triglyceride, high fat and carbohydrate diets and high alcohol intake. T2D has also been linked to people of certain age and ethnicity, and research on its strong genetic link is being conducted. Dangers of Not Addressing T2D Unfortunately, if you don’t begin to address your type 2 diabetes it is very likely for death. It is crucial you begin implementing solutions the moment you are diagnosed. You have to do something whether it is drug therapy or lifestyle changes. Risks of T2D Having type 2 diabetes means you have constant high blood sugar. This makes you more at risk for: Blood Clots: These are caused when the blood isn’t flowing properly. High Blood Pressure: This raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, eye problems and kidney disease. Pulmonary Embolisms: This is a condition in which the arteries in the lungs become blocked by a blood clot. Amputations: This is due to the restricted blood circulation. Gangrene: This is the death of tissue caused by an infection or loss of blood flow. Neuropathy: This is basically nerve d Continue reading >>

7 Scary Things That Can Happen When You Don't Treat Your Diabetes

7 Scary Things That Can Happen When You Don't Treat Your Diabetes

Swallowing pills, checking your blood sugar all the time, or sticking yourself with needles full of insulin probably doesn't sound like your idea of a good time. But taking steps to keep your diabetes under control is your best shot at preventing a slew of frightening complications. If you don't take care of yourself, "diabetes complications typically start within 5 years; within 10 to 15 years, the majority of patients will progress to have multiple health issues," says Betul Hatipoglu, MD, an endocrinologist at Cleveland Clinic. Fortunately, eating a nutritious diet, exercising, and taking your medication may not only stop complications from progressing, but can also reverse them, she says. Need motivation to stick to your treatment plan? Here's what can happen when you slack off. With type 1 diabetes, your body stops producing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar; with type 2 diabetes, your body can't properly use the insulin you do produce. In turn, your HDL (or "good") cholesterol lowers, and your levels of harmful blood fats called triglycerides rise. Insulin resistance also contributes to hardened, narrow arteries, which in turn increases your blood pressure. As a result, about 70% of people with either type of diabetes also have hypertension—a risk factor for stroke, heart disease, and trouble with thinking and memory. (Add these 13 power foods to your diet to help lower blood pressure naturally.) Failing to control high blood pressure and high cholesterol, either with diet and exercise alone or by adding medications, accelerates the rate at which all your other complications progress, says Robert Gabbay, MD, PhD, chief medical officer at Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. More than 4 million people with diabetes have some degree of retinopathy, or dam Continue reading >>

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