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Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

'The C-word is controversial within diabetes circles, yet the City of Hope had no reticence about making the claim.' - Jack Woodfield. Dr Bart Roep is the director of the diabetes research facilityat the City of Hope's Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute. Born in the Netherlands, he leads a team whose mission is to cure type 1 diabetes, and while their ambitions are lofty, so is their early success. In March, Dr Roep's team published the results of a 14-year-boy with type 1 diabetes who underwent stem cell transplantation. The boy has since been free from insulin without any side effects for eight years. This, Dr Roep said, was the first definitive proof that type 1 diabetes can be cured. But there are still several critical questions to be answered. Dr Roep acknowledges that cure is "a dangerous word to use" in regard to type 1 diabetes research. "What we are trying to do is understand why people get type 1 diabetes and to translate this to find a cure," Roep said. "That is, of course, a dangerous word to use. But we think that we are onto a couple of leads." One of these leads is islet cell transplantation, a procedure that involves transplanting islet (insulin-producing) cells into patients from donor pancreases. In some cases, the transplants can help a patient come off insulin, but other times the cells are rejected or attacked by the immune system unless immunosuppressant drugs are also given, which can cause side effects. Dr Roep's team made a significant discovery along the way: by reading the immune signatures of patients they were able to predict how successful transplantation would be. Dr Roep says this is the first step towards personalising medicine in type 1 diabetes. "It turns out we can predict before surgery who has a fantastic chance of lasting Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Increasing levels of a certain protein in blood stem cells so that the immune system stops attacking insulin cells in the pancreas could be a way to halt type 1 diabetes, according to a new study reported in Science Translational Medicine. Researchers led by those at Harvard Medical School's Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts found that they could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by modifying their defective blood stem cells to increase production of a protein called PD-L1. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. Without sufficient insulin, the body cannot convert blood sugar, or glucose, into energy for cells, with the result that it builds up in the bloodstream. Over time, high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, leads to serious complications such as vision problems and damage to blood vessels, nerves, and kidneys. Immune system attacks beta cells Around 5 percent of the 23.1 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the United States have type 1 diabetes. The body produces insulin in the pancreas, which is an organ that sits just behind the stomach. It contains insulin-producing beta cells that normally sense glucose levels in the blood and release just the right amount of insulin to keep sugar levels normal. In type 1 diabetes, a fault in the immune system makes inflammatory T cells — which usually react to "foreign" material — attack beta cells in the pancreas. Nobody knows exactly how this comes about, but scientists suspect that a virus, or some other trigger in the environment, sets it off in people with certain inherited genes. The "holy grail" of scientists seeking a cure for type 1 diabetes is to find a way to prevent or stop the immune attack on the beta cells. Several approaches have been tried, including "cytostatic Continue reading >>

See More Of Type 1 Diabetes Cure Related Research News On Facebook

See More Of Type 1 Diabetes Cure Related Research News On Facebook

Stanford researchers devise method for bone marrow transplants without using chemotherapy. "Once a patient's blood and immune system can safely be replaced, any disease caused by the patient's own blood and immune cells could potentially be cured by a one-time application of blood stem cell transplantation, they said. Safely replacing a patient's blood and immune cells will get rid of the cells that attack their own tissues and produce disease like rheumatoid arthritis and Type 1 diabetes." Tightly and automatically matching the release of hormones such as insulin to control blood sugar levels for Type 1 diabetics is the Holy Grail in the development of an artificial pancreas. Now researchers may have come one step closer with a fully implantable insulin delivery and glucose sensing system that is guided by a novel algorithm. The device is intended to be implanted in the intraperitonea... See More Continue reading >>

Immunotherapy May Reverse Type 1 Diabetes Laurie Toich, Assistant Editor Publish Date: Friday, December 08, 2017

Immunotherapy May Reverse Type 1 Diabetes Laurie Toich, Assistant Editor Publish Date: Friday, December 08, 2017

Immunotherapy May Reverse Type 1 Diabetes Researchers recently cured type 1 diabetes (T1D) by infusing mice models with blood stem cells that are engineered to overproduce the PD-L1 protein, which is deficient in T1D, according to a study published by Science Translational Research. The experimental approach was observed to dampen the autoimmune reaction against pancreatic islet cells in both humans and mice. Additionally, the infusion reversed the condition in mice models, according to the study authors. Notably, nearly all of the mice achieved short-term reversal of diabetes, with one-third maintaining normal blood glucose levels throughout their lives, according to the study. If similar results are achieved in humans, infusions of modified blood stem cells may provide a cure for T1D. Theres really a reshaping of the immune system when you inject these cells, said senior investigator Paolo Fiorina, MD. When administered in mice, the stem cells traveled to the pancreas where insulin-producing cells are formed. The authors noted that the immunotherapy was effective regardless of whether PD-L1 production was increased via gene therapy or small molecule therapy. Previous research has explored immunotherapy for T1D in an attempt to inhibit the bodys attack on islet cells; however, these approaches have been unsuccessful. The authors of the current study found that autologous bone marrow transplants have been able to reboot certain patients immune systems but not others, according to the study. Blood stem cells have immune-regulatory abilities, but it appears that in mice and humans with diabetes, these abilities are impaired, Dr Fiorina said. We found that in diabetes, blood stem cells are defective, promoting inflammation and possibly leading to the onset of disease. The Continue reading >>

Possible Cures For Type-1 In The News (december)

Possible Cures For Type-1 In The News (december)

Here are some "bits and pieces" updates for December. Update on Dr. Faustman's Phase-II Trial of BCG Dr. Faustman's lab has published their Fall 2017 newsletter, which you can read here: This newsletter includes more information on her research, especially from the 3rd International BCG conference, The BCG Working Group, and the 2nd edition of the BCG and Autoimmunity book she edited. There are three pieces of new news there: The phase-II trial was fully enrolled in Summer of 2017. This is important because we now know when the trial will end. Since this is a five year study, they should finish collecting data in Summer of 2022 and publish before Summer of 2023. They have given BCG to the three untreated patients from their phase-I trial, so they will have data from six people to report in the future. The lab is going to be recruiting for more studies in the future, so would like to hear from anyone who is interested in participating. No details on future trials were provided. Another piece of news is that Dr. Faustman is branching out, and trying to apply BCG treatment to Fibromyalgia. This research is being done in collaboration with EpicGenetics, and they hope to start the trial in early 2018. If anything applicable to the type-1 world comes up in this research, I'll report it. Since Fibromyalgia is not generally considered an autoimmune disease, I'm not sure how much "cross pollination" of results there will be. You can read more about it here: DILfrequency Trial Completed There is a lot of research ongoing on IL-2 which is part of the immune system. About 18 months ago, I summarized all this research here: with an update here: One of those clinical trials was called "DILfrequency" and that trial has finished, and the results published. The purpose of that trial was Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Trial Reaches Full Enrollment

Type 1 Diabetes Trial Reaches Full Enrollment

Type 1 diabetes trial reaches full enrollment Interim data analysis from T-Rex study expected in the first quarter SIOUX FALLS, S.D. - A clinical trial studying type 1 diabetes has reached full enrollment. The Sanford Project: T-Rex Study, a Phase 2 clinical trial conducted collaboratively by Sanford Health and Caladrius Biosciences, Inc., (Caladrius)(Nasdaq: CLBS), has completed enrollment of 110 children with type 1 diabetes. The study started with two sites at Sanford Health in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and Fargo, North Dakota, and expanded to 13 additional sites across the United States. The project is studying the potential of CLBS03, Caladrius' cell therapy consisting of each patient's own regulatory T cells, or Tregs, to help the body fight type 1 diabetes. Subjects will be followed for two years, with the primary endpoint of persistence of insulin production at one year after treatment. A planned, interim analysis of the first half of the participants at six months after treatment is expected by the end of the first quarter. "I am thrilled to have reached this important milestone," said Kurt Griffin, M.D., Ph.D. , director of clinical trials for The Sanford Project. "It has taken a tremendous amount of work from a large team to get this far. We still have another year of follow-up before we can really see how this treatment may be working." Griffin and Fargo-based pediatric endocrinologist Luis Casas, M.D. , are the study's principal investigators at Sanford Health. Individuals with type 1 diabetes experience a loss of insulin-producing beta cells as their immune system targets these cells inappropriately. Treg cells usually keep the immune system under control, but they are lacking in number and activity in people with type 1 diabetes. The Sanford Project: T- Continue reading >>

New Clinical Trial Could Offer A Functional Cure For People With Type 1 Diabetes

New Clinical Trial Could Offer A Functional Cure For People With Type 1 Diabetes

New clinical trial could offer a functional cure for people with type 1 diabetes New clinical trial could offer a functional cure for people with type 1 diabetes The ViaCyte trial is being run at three sites in North America, including University of Minnesota Health. Greg Romero (right) has to live with his type 1 diabetes all day, every day. But a new clinical trial offered through University of Minnesota Health could give him a functional cure for his disease. Greg Romero cant run or hide from his type 1 diabetes . Its the main priority I have, taking care of this disease, he said. Every minute of every day. Romero has been diabetic since he was 11 years old, but in the past several years his disease has become more complicated. Hes developed hypoglycemia unawareness, which means hes not able to feel when his blood glucose drops to dangerously low levels. Even with new technology that routinely provides him insulin and monitors his blood glucose levels, managing his disease is an ever-present responsibility. Now, theres a sign of hope. Romero is one of a handful of people in the world participating in a new clinical trial thats studying whether pancreatic progenitor cells, transplanted into a person with type 1 diabetes, can become cells that produce insulin naturallyeffectively curing the disease. Developed by ViaCyte, the trial is available at three sites in North America, including University of Minnesota Health. Learn more about University of Minnesota Health diabetes care. These pancreatic progenitor cells are a renewable resource. A single progenitor cell source can potentially be used to treat thousands of patients with type 1 diabetes, Dunn said. For this reason, we dont have to wait for a scarce organ donor. As part of the trial, Dunn transplanted several po Continue reading >>

Giant Breakthrough In Type 1 Diabetes Research

Giant Breakthrough In Type 1 Diabetes Research

Diabetes Ireland is delighted to hear of the Harvard success and congratulate Professor Melton and colleagues on figuring out the complex series of steps necessary to turn stem cells into beta cells. Hopefully, they can negotiate the regulations for mass production so that an abundant supply of beta cells is available an new and innovative methods will be developed to cure/treat Type 1 diabetes. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune condition whereby the body kills off its own beta (insulin producing) cells resulting in the need for daily insulin administration through the skin. Replacing beta cells in the first step towards a cure, but the replaced beta cells need to be protected from the body’s autoimmune response. This means protecting them in a coating or taking drugs to prevent the response (possible worse side effects than diabetes). While excited about this major step towards a cure, it may be many years before this is widely available. Other cure options on the horizon include technology cures which may be less invasive. So for people with Type 1 diabetes, there is hope of seeing a cure during your lifetime and therefore, ensure you stay healthy so that when available you can avail of it. Dr Anna Clarke, Health Promotion Manager, Diabetes Ireland Professor Melton’s research project explained Our research partners in the UK, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), have been heavily involved with this project. So what is it? A new method for converting stem cells to beta cells could speed encapsulated cell replacement product development and research to cure type 1 diabetes Insulin therapy has long been the only method of treating type 1 diabetes (T1D), but a major breakthrough in producing replacement beta cells is bringing new hope that more effective, alte Continue reading >>

Rare Tumor Could Help Produce Insulin For Type-1 Diabetics, Studyshows

Rare Tumor Could Help Produce Insulin For Type-1 Diabetics, Studyshows

NEW YORK (CBSNewYork) Researchers have a found a surprising potential ally in the search for a cure for Type-1 diabetes. Its a rare tumor that produces a lot of what diabetics are missing insulin. Type-1 diabetics have two problems. Their own immune system destroys the beta-cells that make insulin. To cure diabetes, you have to stop that autoimmune attack and then replace the destroyed beta-cells. CBS2s Dr. Max Gomez first met diabetic Alecia Wesner shortly after she was diagnosed with Type-1 diabetes at age 6. Her continuous glucose monitor and a small insulin pump have made managing her blood sugar easier, but not easy. Theres no break from Type-1 diabetes, theres no vacation, she said. Trying to manage all of this with a lot of things that beep to wake me up if something has gone too high or two low is a tremendous amount of work. What gives Alecia a lot of hope for the future is whats being done in the lab of Dr. Andrew Stewart at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. He explains that even though Alecia has had diabetes for almost four decades, she still has a few beta-cells left. The key to getting them to replicate Alecias destroyed beta-cells, says Dr. Stewart, may lie in the DNA of rare benign tumors called beta-cell insulinomas. Those small insulinoma tumors in the pancreas have the genomic recipe, if you will, Dr. Stewart said. They now have the genomic wiring diagram or roadmap for knowing how to make beta-cells replicate. By sequencing every gene in these tumors, Dr. Stewart found the ones that put the brakes on beta-cell regeneration. As it turns out, certain drugs can take the brakes off the genes in normal beta-cells so they can start to divide. We found lots of candidates and were in the process now of screening drugs that take off these other br Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Atom RSS Feed Type 1 diabetes (also known as diabetes mellitus) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The loss of insulin leads to the inability to regulate blood sugar levels. Patients are usually treated by insulin-replacement therapy. Continue reading >>

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists in California think they may have found a way to transplant insulin-producing cells into diabetic patients who lack those cells — and protect the little insulin-producers from immune rejection. Their system, one of several promising approaches under development, hasn't yet been tested in people. But if it works, it could make living with diabetes much less of a burden. For now, patients with Type-1 diabetes have to regularly test their blood sugar levels, and inject themselves with insulin when it's needed. Some researchers are developing machines to automate that process. But Crystal Nyitray, founder and CEO of the biotechnology startup Encellin, in San Francisco, didn't want to use a machine to treat diabetes. As a graduate student in bioengineering at the University of California, San Francisco a few years ago, Nyitray wanted to try something different: living cells. "Cells are the ultimate smart machine," she says. Clinical trials that transplant insulin-making pancreatic cells into people with diabetes have been underway for several years, with some success. But the recipient's immune system is hard on these transplanted cells, and most patients still need insulin injections eventually. Nyitray and colleagues designed a system that would encase live islet cells from the pancreas in a flexible membrane that could be implanted under the skin. Insulin and blood sugar could pass through the membrane, but cells from the recipient's immune system would be kept out, preventing immune rejection. "I think of it like if you're sitting in a house and you have the window open with a screen," Nyitray says. "So you can feel the breeze of the air outside, and smell everything, but the bugs and the flies aren't able to get through because you have the screen in place. Continue reading >>

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes may soon have access to improved approaches to treat the disease, courtesy of new research out of Sydney's Westmead Institute for Medical Research. The team of researchers, led by Professor Jenny Gunton, discovered that pancreatic islets transplants delivered into the quadriceps muscle work just as successfully as the current clinical practice of transplanting islets into a patient's liver via the portal vein. Lead researcher Ms Rebecca Stokes said that transplants into the liver can present certain risks for the patient, so their research investigated safer and more beneficial treatment options for transplant recipients. "Islets are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin," Ms Stokes explained. "Pancreatic islet transplantation is used as a cure for type 1 diabetes as it allows the recipient to produce and regulate insulin after their own islet cells have been destroyed by the disease. "Currently, islet transplants are infused into a patient's liver via the portal vein. This site is used for islet transplants due to its exposure to both nutrients and insulin in the body. "However, islet infusion into the liver also presents certain risks for the patient, including potential complications from bleeding, blood clots and portal hypertension. "This suggests that there may be better treatment options for patients receiving islet transplants. "We investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and mouse islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. "Colleagues in Professor Wayne Hawthorne's group also tested similar sites for pig islet transplants in their companion paper. "Professor Hawthorne's research examining xenotransplantation - the process of transp Continue reading >>

This Common Medication Can Actually Prevent Type 1 Diabetes

This Common Medication Can Actually Prevent Type 1 Diabetes

This Common Medication Can Actually Prevent Type 1 Diabetes There's new hope for stopping Type 1 diabetes in its tracks after researchers discovered an existing drug can prevent the condition from developing and the same techniques used here could also be applied to other diseases. The drug in question is methyldopa , currently on the World Health Organisation's list of essential drugs having been used for more than 50 years to treat high blood pressure in pregnant women and children. By running an analysis of thousands of drugs through a supercomputer, the team of researchers was able to pinpoint methyldopa as a drug able to block the DQ8 molecule . The antigen is found in a proportion of the population and has been implemented in auto immune responses. It appears in some 60 percent of people at risk from developing Type 1 diabetes. "This is the first personalised treatment for Type 1 diabetes prevention," says one of the team , Aaron Michels from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. "This is very significant development." Based on the supercomputer calculations, the scientists found that methyldopa not only blocked the binding of DQ8 but didn't harm the immune functions of other cells, which is often the case with drugs that interfere with the body's immune system. Overall, the research covered a period of 10 years after the supercomputer analysis, the drug was tested in mice and in 20 patients with Type 1 diabetes through a clinical trial. The new drug is taken orally, three times a day. While it's not a full cure ( work on that continues ), methyldopa could help delay, or even limit the onset of Type 1 diabetes a disease that currently starts mostly in childhood. "We can now predict with almost 100 percent accuracy who is likely to get Type 1 diabete Continue reading >>

Researchers May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 1 Diabetes

Researchers May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 1 Diabetes

Image Point Fr/Shutterstock A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes means a lifetime of constant diligence. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 usually develops early in life. Those diagnosed have to check blood sugar several times a day and take insulin as needed; the process is difficult, expensive, and potentially dangerous. That helps explain the excitement about a potential cure for type 1 diabetes using an already approved treatment. Doctors diagnose more than 18,000 children and teens with type 1 diabetes every year, according to the CDC. These kids lack the ability to make enough insulin, the hormone that processes blood sugar. Using insulin injections to control blood sugar with insulin is tricky because diet, exercise, and stress can quickly alter levels. Without enough insulin, kidney, heart, and nerve damage can be the result. Get too much, and blood sugar levels will plummet dangerously low. (This is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.) Researchers in Israel have tried treating type 1 diabetics with an immune system protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (alpha-1)—it helps target germs. Normally, insulin gets lower and lower over time in diabetics, but extra alpha-1 seems to help the body produce more. Researchers gave 12 recently diagnosed type 1 diabetics an alpha-1 drip once a week for eight weeks in a study in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. For a year and counting following treatment, two of the participants have been making more of their own insulin. Another three saw only minor decreases—which is a good sign. “Compared to the natural course of the disease, which is downhill, even a flat line is considered success,” says study co-author Eli C. Lewis, PhD, biochemical and pharmacology professor at Ben-Gurion University of the N Continue reading >>

Spider's Web Inspires Removable Implant That May Control Type 1 Diabetes

Spider's Web Inspires Removable Implant That May Control Type 1 Diabetes

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Spider's web inspires removable implant that may control type 1 diabetes For the more than 1 million Americans who live with type 1 diabetes, daily insulin injections are literally a matter of life and death. And while there is no cure, a team has developed a device that could revolutionize management of the disease. Doctoral students Alan Chiu, left, and Duo An hold a sample of TRAFFIC (Thread-Reinforced Alginate Fiber for Islets enCapsulation). In the background, left to right, are Minglin Ma, Dan Luo, Meredith Silberstein and Dr. James Flanders. Credit: Lindsay France/University Photography Doctoral students Alan Chiu, left, and Duo An hold a sample of TRAFFIC (Thread-Reinforced Alginate Fiber for Islets enCapsulation). In the background, left to right, are Minglin Ma, Dan Luo, Meredith Silberstein and Dr. James Flanders. Credit: Lindsay France/University Photography For the more than 1 million Americans who live with type 1 diabetes, daily insulin injections are literally a matter of life and death. And while there is no cure, a Cornell University-led research team has developed a device that could revolutionize management of the disease. In Type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing pancreatic cell clusters (islets) are destroyed by the body's immune system. The research group, led by assistant professor Minglin Ma from the Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, has devised an ingenious method for implanting hundreds of thousands of islet cells into a patient. They are protected by a thin hydrogel coating and, more importantly, the coated cells are attached to a polymer thread and can be removed or replaced easily when they have outlived their usefulness. Transplantation of stem Continue reading >>

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