Is It Possible To Prevent Type 1 Diabetes By Avoiding Cow’s Milk?
The long-awaited result of the TRIGR Study, published in JAMA, shows that baby formula in which the cow’s milk proteins have been split does not prevent type 1 diabetes in children with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Previous studies have indicated that early exposure to complex foreign proteins, such as cow’s milk proteins, increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. “In 2002, we therefore embarked on a large-scale study on 2159 infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes to find an answer to the question whether delaying the exposure to complex foreign proteins will decrease the risk of diabetes”, says Professor Mikael Knip from the University of Helsinki, the leader of the international TRIGR Study. After breastfeeding, infants were weaned either to a special formula (extensively hydrolyzed casein formula), with the cow’s milk proteins split into small peptides (small pieces of the protein), or to a regular cow’s milk based formula with intact cow’s milk proteins. Infants received the study formula for at least 2 months until the age of 6-8 months and at the same time avoided cow´s milk proteins from all other food sources. All subjects were followed for at least 10 years to assess the numbers of children who developed diabetes. The results show that in this large international randomized trial weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula during infancy did not result in a reduction in the incidence of type 1 diabetes compared to regular intact cow’s-milk-based formula after about 11.5 years of follow up. Accordingly there is no evidence to revise the current dietary recommendations for infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes. The study c Continue reading >>
Effect Of Cow's Milk Exposure And Maternal Type 1 Diabetes On Cellular Andhumoral Immunization To Dietary Insulin In Infants At Genetic Risk For Type 1diabetes. Finnish Trial To Reduce Iddm In The Genetically At Risk Study Group.
Effect of cow's milk exposure and maternal type 1 diabetes on cellular andhumoral immunization to dietary insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1diabetes. Finnish Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk Study Group. Paronen J(1), Knip M, Savilahti E, Virtanen SM, Ilonen J, Akerblom HK, Vaarala O. (1)Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland. [email protected] Type 1 diabetes is considered to be a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease in whichinsulin-producing beta-cells are destroyed. Immunity to insulin has beensuggested to be one of the primary autoimmune mechanisms leading to islet celldestruction. We have previously shown that the first immunization to insulinoccurs by exposure to bovine insulin (BI) in cow's milk (CM) formula. In thisstudy, we analyzed the development of insulin-specific T-cell responses byproliferation test, emergence of insulin-binding antibodies by enzymeimmunoassay, and insulin autoantibodies by radioimmunoassay in relation to CMexposure and family history of type 1 diabetes in infants with a first-degreerelative with type 1 diabetes and increased genetic risk for the disease. Theinfants were randomized to receive either an adapted CM-based formula or ahydrolyzed casein (HC)-based formula after breast-feeding for the first 6-8months of life. At the age of 3 months, both cellular and humoral responses to BIwere higher in infants exposed to CM formula than in infants fully breast-fed (P = 0.015 and P = 0.007). IgG antibodies to BI were higher in infants who received CM formula than in infants who received HC formula at 3 months of age (P = 0.01),but no difference in T-cell responses was seen between the groups. T-cellresponses to BI at 9 months of age (P = 0.05) and to human insulin at 12 (P =0.014) a Continue reading >>
Does Cow Milk Prevent The Risk Of Developing Type 1 Diabetes In Children?
Cow milk has known to be a healthy potion for many; thanks to the many health benefits it has to offer. However, a study published in the journal JAMA says that drinking cow's milk does not prevent type 1 diabetes in children with genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. Previous studies have indicated that early exposure to complex foreign proteins, such as cow's milk proteins, increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. In the year 2002, the researchers had embarked on a large scale study on 2159 infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with genetic risk of type 1 diabetes to find an answer to the question whether delaying the exposure to complex foreign proteins will decrease the risk of diabetes. After breastfeeding, the babies were weaned either to a special formula, with the cow's milk proteins split in to small peptides, which are small pieces of proteins, or to regular cow's milk based formula with intact cow's milk proteins. Babies received the study formula for at least two months until the age of around six to eight months and at the same time avoided cow's milk proteins from all other food sources. All the subjects of the research were followed for at least 10 years to assess the numbers of children who developed diabetes. The results of the research showed that in this large international randomized trial weaning to an extensively hydrolysed casein formula during infancy did not result in a reduction in the incidence of type 1 diabetes compared to regular intact cow's milk based formula after about 11.5 years of follow up. Accordingly there is no certain evidence to revise the current dietary recommendations for infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes. Continue reading >>
Nutrition And Type 1 Diabetes — Can Diet Reduce Risk?
By Janice H. Dada, MPH, RD, CSSD, CDE, CHES Today’s Dietitian Vol. 12 No. 8 P. 36 Although science has yet to prove a way to prevent the disease, some research suggest factors such as breast-feeding and vitamin D supplementation may have risk-reducing effects. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) accounts for approximately 5% to 10% of all diabetes cases. Unlike type 2 diabetes, T1DM is an autoimmune condition—that is, the immune system has “attacked” the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, creating a total insulin deficiency. Various environmental factors may trigger this attack, including several dietary factors, which this article will discuss. Based on studies of monozygotic twins, experts believe that genetics account for 30% to 40% of the risk for T1DM and that a person’s environment (including diet) makes up 60% to 70% of the risk, based on temporal trends and migrant studies.1 Breast-Feeding vs. Early Introduction of Cow’s Milk The hypothesis that early exposure to cow’s milk or a lack of breast-feeding may predispose a child to T1DM dates to the 1980s.2 In 1994, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) began recommending that infants with a strong family history of T1DM be breast-fed and that the introduction of cow’s milk be delayed.3 Since then, many researchers have examined this proposed mechanism. Ecologic Studies Ecologic studies have made several associations between early cow’s milk exposure and an increased incidence of T1DM. Several investigations have revealed a high correlation between the per capita consumption of cow’s milk and the prevalence of T1DM between and within countries.4-6 Scott evaluated milk consumption data from 13 countries and found a significant positive correlation with T1DM incidence.4 This research also Continue reading >>
Cow's Milk Exposure And Type I Diabetes Mellitus. A Critical Overview Of Theclinical Literature.
Cow's milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of theclinical literature. (1)Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Comment in Diabetes Care. 2001 Jan;24(1):180-2. OBJECTIVE: To critically review and summarize the clinical evidence relating ashort duration of breast-feeding or early cow's milk exposure toinsulin-dependent (type I) diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All relevant citations retrieved throughcomprehensive searching of the medical literature were critically reviewed andanalyzed. Those case-control studies that minimized the possibility of bias were meta-analyzed to determine overall odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs).RESULTS: Ecological and time-series studies consistently showed a relationshipbetween type I diabetes and either cow's milk exposure or diminishedbreast-feeding. In the case-control studies, patients with type I diabetes weremore likely to have been breast-fed for < 3 months (overall OR 1.43; 95% CI1.15-1.77) and to have been exposed to cow's milk before 4 months (overall OR1.63; 95% CI 1.22-2.17). Slightly lower ORs were obtained when all of thecase-control studies were meta-analyzed in a sensitivity analysis.CONCLUSIONS: Early cow's milk exposure may be an important determinant ofsubsequent type I diabetes and may increase the risk approximately 1.5 times. Continue reading >>
Early Exposure To Cows' Milk Raises Risk Of Diabetes In High Risk Children
The controversial link between drinking cows' milk during infancy and the risk of developing diabetes may have been strengthened by a new study that finds that exposure early in life to cow's milk may increase the lifetime risk of developing diabetes in high risk children. In children diagnosed at a young age with diabetes, insulin autoantibodies are particularly present and are believed by some researchers to be the primary event in the process leading to type 1 diabetes. Exposure to cows' milk has previously been shown to cause the body to mount an immune response to insulin in some children and may precipitate the development of these autoantibodies, but the link has been disputed by at least one major study. In the current study Dr Johanna Paronen from University of Helsinki, Finland, and colleagues studied infants with relatives who had diabetes. The authors analysed the development of insulin specific T cell responses, the emergence of insulin binding antibodies by enzyme immunoassay, as well as the development of insulin autoantibodies by radioimmunoassay, in relation to exposure to cows' milk and family history of type 1 diabetes. All the infants included in the study had a first degree relative with type 1 diabetes and therefore were at an increased genetic risk of developing the disease (Diabetes 2000;49:1657-65). The infants were randomised to receive either cows' milk or a non-cows' milk hydrolysed casein based formula while also being breast fed for the first 6 to 8 months of life. According to the protocol, all infants were supposed to receive either cows' milk or formula for a minimum of two months. Breast feeding was encouraged, and the mothers were asked to add cows' milk or formula to their infant's diet at age 6 months at the latest, although most inf Continue reading >>
Formula Made With Cows Milk Does Not Increase Diabetes Risk
Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) A 15-year global study of children genetically predisposed to developing Type 1 diabetes found that drinking formula made with cows milk did not increase their risk for developing the disease. A 15-year global study of children genetically predisposed to developing Type 1 diabetes found that drinking formula made with cows milk did not increase such childrens risk for developing the disease. The findings provide a long-awaited answer to the question of whether infant formula made with cows milk plays a role in the development of Type 1 diabetes, according to an international team of researchers that includes scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The findings are published Jan. 2 in JAMA. Previous studies have indicated that early exposure to complex foreign proteins, such as the proteins in cows milk, may increase the risk of Type 1 diabetes in people with genetic risk for the disease, said one of the studys authors, Neil H. White, MD , a Washington University professor of pediatrics and of medicine. The question was whether delaying the exposure to complex foreign proteins will decrease the risk of diabetes. The answer is no. In the U.S., about 200,000 youth under the age of 20 have Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease caused when the pancreas stops producing the hormone insulin, which regulates the bodys blood-sugar levels. Beginning in 2002, White and his research colleagues examined 2,159 infants in 15 countries. Each infant had a family member affected by Type 1 diabetes, as well as a genetic propensity for the disease that was determined with a blood test given at birth. The babies were assigned randomly to one of two formulas designed for the study. A group of 1,078 infants receive Continue reading >>
The Cow-milk Type 1 Diabetes Connection
Cow-Milk Type 1 Diabetes Connection (Excerpt with permission from the McDougal Newsletter, July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 7) The following are excerpts from an excellent article, published by Dr. John McDougal in his free monthly newsletter, regarding the Cow-Milk Type 1 Diabetes Connection. The Pancreas – Under Attack by Cow-Milk Most likely you will never know you have a pancreas, yet without it you would become very sick, and likely die. So this little organ is working 24/7 for you, most of the time without a single complaint. Anatomically, the pancreas is about six inches long and two inches wide, weighs about 3 ounces, and is situated in the posterior, upper left part of your abdomen. In the butcher shop this organ is sold as sweetbread (from a cow). Based on its functions, the pancreas would best be thought of as two separate organs: the organ that makes digestive juices (the exocrine pancreas) and the one that makes hormones for the whole body (endocrine pancreas). The “exocrine pancreas” produces enzymes (delivered through a duct to the first part of the small intestine) that digest proteins, fats and carbohydrates, so they can be absorbed through the intestine. The “endocrine pancreas” produces hormones, like insulin, which regulate the use and storage of the body’s main energy sources, glucose (sugar) and fats. These hormones (delivered through the blood stream) are produced in very specific clumps of cells (islets). The insulin-producing cells are called beta cells. Type 1 (Childhood) Diabetes – The Milk-Drinkers Disease Type 1 diabetes is often referred to as childhood type diabetes, because this has historically been the most common kind of diabetes in children, and also as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), because patients must take daily in Continue reading >>
Cow's Milk And Other Early Nutritional Influences
There is evidence dating back to the 1980s that prolonged breast-feeding offers modest protection against later development of type 1 diabetes. This could mean either that breast milk is protective or that constituents of cow's milk products or other factors in infant feeds might in some way predispose to diabetes. The focus on cow's milk was supported by animal studies in which diabetes-prone rodents fed with hydrolysed milk (hydrolysis disrupts its constituent proteins) had a lower risk of diabetes. These observations prompted a major intervention study called TRIGR in which neonates have been randomized to standard or modified feeds upon weaning. The trial has completed recruitment, and has reported lower levels of diabetes-related autoantibodies in children who avoided cow's milk, but it has yet to be seen whether they will have a lower rate of diabetes. Milk and other early nutritional influences Coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes have common features, including overlap between HLA haplotypes conferring susceptibility. The environmental agent responsible for coeliac disease is well known, but the condition may nonetheless develop years or even decades following first exposure to dietary gluten. Could dietary constituents encountered early in life (and the immune responses these provoke) play a similar role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes? There has been controversy for 15 years as to whether early exposure to cow’s milk predisposes to childhood diabetes; similar arguments have taken place in other diseases, including asthma and multiple sclerosis, but remain equally inconclusive. Animal studies have shown that elimination of milk proteins (present in standard laboratory chow) from the early diet greatly reduces the risk of diabetes in the BB rat, with sim Continue reading >>
Cow's Milk Is Not A Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes, Suggests Long-term Study
Cow's milk is not a cause of type 1 diabetes, suggests long-term study Cow's milk is not a cause of type 1 diabetes, suggests long-term study Smart InPen device launches in the US 19 December 2017 A new study shows no evidence that cow's milk is a causal factor in type 1 diabetes. Researchers have been trying to work out what causes type 1 diabetes to develop for many years. It is difficult to work out what causes a disease to develop and what causes autoimmune diseases , like type 1 diabetes , remains one of the biggest challenges facing medical science. The idea that cow's milk may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes has been one of the more promising theories. Previous research has shown evidence of an association between introducing cow's milk earlier in a child's life and the development of type 1 diabetes late into childhood. However, the results of the new study suggest that cow's milk as a cause of type 1 diabetes is very unlikely. The study is the result of a 15-year study of very young children at a genetically high risk of developing type 1 diabetes. A total of 2,159 newborn infants were enrolled into the study between May 2002-January 2007. Each of the infants had a first-degree relative (parent or sibling) with type 1 diabetes and additional signs of susceptibility (human leukocyte antigenconferred disease susceptibility). The study was global, with children being enrolled across 15 different countries. The infants were randomly assigned to be weaned on different milk formulas. Approximately half were weaned on an adapted cow's milk formula and the other half were weaned on extensively hydrolysed casein formula. The infants were given their assigned formula for at least 60 days within the first 6-8 months of life. The children were then monitored for at l Continue reading >>
A1 Beta-casein Milk Protein And Other Environmental Pre-disposing Factors For Type 1 Diabetes
Globally type 1 diabetes incidence is increasing. It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is influenced by environmental factors in people with specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. We propose that a complex interplay between dietary triggers, permissive gut factors and potentially other influencing factors underpins disease progression. We present evidence that A1 β-casein cows’ milk protein is a primary causal trigger of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk factors. Permissive gut factors (for example, aberrant mucosal immunity), intervene by impacting the gut’s environment and the mucosal barrier. Various influencing factors (for example, breastfeeding duration, exposure to other dietary triggers and vitamin D) modify the impact of triggers and permissive gut factors on disease. The power of the dominant trigger and permissive gut factors on disease is influenced by timing, magnitude and/or duration of exposure. Within this framework, removal of a dominant dietary trigger may profoundly affect type 1 diabetes incidence. We present epidemiological, animal-based, in vitro and theoretical evidence for A1 β-casein and its β-casomorphin-7 derivative as dominant causal triggers of type 1 diabetes. The effects of ordinary milk containing A1 and A2 β-casein and milk containing only the A2 β-casein warrant comparison in prospective trials. Type 1 diabetes, one of the most common chronic diseases among children,1 is characterised by the selective loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells in genetically susceptible individuals, but a trigger from the environment is generally needed.2 The appearance at an early age of autoantibodies directed primarily against one or both of insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, but rare Continue reading >>
Does Bovine Insulin In Milk Trigger Type 1 Diabetes?
EquaYona: You raise a point that is often raised. Some thoughts for you: I think the RDA for calcium is based on how much you eat, not how much you absorb. Yes? So, I’m not sure that the comparison here makes sense? . Another thought is that the RDA for calcium is way higher than it needs to be based on the available evidence, especially for people who are on a plant based diet. Dr. Greger recommends about 600 mg : From what I have seen, that recommendation might even be higher than necessary. “…total calcium consumption among women in China, Peru, Sri Lanka, and many other non-Western countries is only about 500 milligrams a day, yet fracture rates are very low.” (from page 9 of Building Bone Vitality) And while the authors of Becoming Vegan, Express Edition recommend the RDA, they do acknowledge, “A somewhat ambiguous and predictable relationship exists between calcium and bone health. While the evidence generally supports a positive association between calcium intake and bone health, some populations who eat less than 400 mg of calcium per day have lower rates of osteoporosis than populations who consume more than 1,00 mg per day. This is because calcium *balance* is more critical than calcium intake.” (from page 41) That point about balance is key. There are a variety of factors in play, so requirements would be different for people depending on their diet and exercise. . Another thought is that people really do eat 12 oz or more of greens a day. For example, people who follow Esselstyn’s or Chef AJ’s diet. Cook 12 oz down and it just slides down pretty quickly/easily. I was eating a pound (16 oz) of broccoli a day for breakfast for a while. . My final thought is that plant based milks have at least as much calcium as dairy milks. At least the packag Continue reading >>
Modifying Baby Formula Doesn't Prevent Type 1 Diabetes In Children
Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Modifying baby formula doesn't prevent type 1 diabetes in children University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences The long-awaited results from the first large international trial to try to prevent type 1 diabetes shows that modified baby formula in which cow's milk proteins have been split does not prevent type 1 diabetes in children with genetic risk factors for the condition. The long-awaited results from the first large international trial to try to prevent type 1 diabetes shows that modified baby formula in which cow's milk proteins have been split does not prevent type 1 diabetes in children with genetic risk factors for the condition, according to researchers at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, the coordinating center for the U.S. arm of the study. The findings were published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Previous studies have reported that early exposure to complex foreign proteins, such as cow's milk proteins, may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in young children with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. In 2002, the research team for TRIGR (Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk), led in the U.S. by principal investigator Dorothy Becker, M.D., professor of pediatrics at Children's Hospital and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, embarked on a large-scale study of 2,159 infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes to find out whether delaying the exposure to complex foreign proteins such as cow's milk proteins would decrease the risk of diabetes. After breastfeeding, infants were either weaned to a special formula (extensively hydrolyzed casein formula), with t Continue reading >>
Is Milk Consumption Linked To Type 1 (juvenile) Diabetes?
General Reference (not clearly pro or con) The American Diabetes Association defined diabetes on its website (accessed Sep. 21, 2007): "Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. The cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise appear to play roles. There are 20.8 million children and adults in the United States, or 7% of the population, who have diabetes... Type 1 diabetes [Juvenile] Results from the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that 'unlocks' the cells of the body, allowing glucose to enter and fuel them. It is estimated that 5-10% of Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 1 diabetes." Sep. 21, 2007 - American Diabetes Association Inga Thorsdottir, PhD, Chairman of the Icelandic Nutrition Council at the Public Health Institute, et al., in their 2000 study titled "Different Beta-Casein Fractions in Icelandic Versus Scandinavian Cow's Milk May Influence Diabetogenicity of Cow's Milk in Infancy and Explain Low Incidence of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Iceland," published in Pediatrics: "Breastfeeding and cow's milk consumption in infancy were similar among the IDDM [Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, aka type 1 diabetes] patients and controls, which is in accordance with some previous studies. However, other studies have found a shorter duration of breastfeeding or an earlier consumption of cow's milk in infancy among IDDM patients than among controls, suggesting a causative relationship between cow's milk consumption and IDDM. This relationship seems, therefore, to exist in some countries and n Continue reading >>
- Fluoride Consumption Linked To Diabetes? Researchers Find Potential Link Using Mathematical Models
- Woodford and Swinburn offer new evidence that type-1 diabetes is linked to the level of A1 beta-casein in most types of cows milk
- New evidence that type 1 diabetes is linked to the level of A1 beta-casein in most types of cow milk
Dairy And Type 1 Diabetes In Children: The Science Explained
This video from Dr. John McDougall provides a clear explanation of how and why dairy products are thought to trigger type 1 diabetes in children and young adults, in addition to allergies, asthma, and other autoimmune diseases. Mothers’ milk is species specific: the composition of each animal’s milk has evolved over millions of years to perfectly meet the unique nutritional needs of the young of that species exclusively. Since a calf doubles its birth weight nearly four times faster than a human infant does, the concentration of protein in cows’ milk is 3 to 4 times higher than that found in human breast milk, and whereas breast milk contains just the right ratio of fatty acids, lactose, vitamins and amino acids for human digestion, brain development, and growth, cows’ milk contains these things in concentrations designed to turn an 80-pound calf into an 800-pound cow by 1 year of age. Because human bodies are not designed to consume it, cows’ milk is a major cause of childhood allergies, asthma, ear infections, skin rashes, and a host of other maladies; causes premature cholesterol build-up in arteries, the main precursor to heart disease; and is consistently linked to several cancers and other serious illnesses later in life. Dairy consumption not only causes completely unnecessary suffering and death for millions of cows every year in the U.S. alone, but it’s also harmful for the humans who consume it. Ditching dairy doesn’t have to be difficult; for tips on tons of delicious plant-based milks, creams, cheeses, yogurts and more, check out our Guide to Going Dairy Free. For a look at peer-reviewed scientific studies that highlight the link between cows’ milk consumption and incidence of type 1 diabetes in children, see the following summaries: Nutritio Continue reading >>