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Cost Of Diabetes In Europe

Cost, Outcomes, Treatment Pathways And Challenges For Diabetes Care In Italy

Cost, Outcomes, Treatment Pathways And Challenges For Diabetes Care In Italy

Cost, outcomes, treatment pathways and challenges for diabetes care in Italy Grimaccia and Kanavos; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2014 In Italy both incidence and prevalence of diabetes are increasing and age at diagnosis is decreasing in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is one of the major causes of morbidity in Italy, causing several disabilities and affecting the economically active population. The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss costs, outcomes and some of the challenges of diabetes care in Italy in the context of recent policy changes. The study collected data and evidence from both primary and secondary sources. A total of 10 experts, including clinicians (diabetologists/endocrinologists) and decision makers, both at national and regional levels, were interviewed through face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The secondary sources include peer review literature from Medline, grey literature, reports from national and international sources, including professional bodies and organizations. The total direct cost of diabetes for the Italian NHS in 2012 is estimated to be above 9 billion, of which more than half for hospital admissions (57%), and the remaining half for drugs (30%) and outpatient care (13%). However, there is scant evidence on indirect and intangible costs of diabetes in Italy. The quality of care addressed via the AMD Annals found overall good performance with both process and intermediate outcome indicators showing positive and improving results from 2004 to 2011, except for few parameters, including renal function and foot monitoring, which are still inadequate. Major challenges are the rising diabetes prevalence, the difficulty in meeting the rising demand for care and the scant development of multidisciplinary delivery of care, especia Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Eus Heavy Burden

Diabetes: The Eus Heavy Burden

An estimated 32 million people in the European Union (8.1%) were living with diabetes in 2013. Although policymakers are now paying special attention to the issue and to obesity-related conditions more generally, health experts say more can be done to tackle what the EU considers as a chronic disease. Every two minutes, an EU citizen dies of diabetes-related diseases, according to the European Diabetes Leadership Forum (EDLF), a stakeholder organisation initiated by pharma company Novo Nordisk, ?which aims to move diabetes up the public health agenda. 50% of all people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease, making diabetes the fourth most common cause of death in Europe, EDLF figures show. Meanwhile, 10-20% die of kidney failure, 10% develop severe visual impairment and 50% suffer from diabetic neuropathy, it says. However, governments are not whole-heartedly engaging in effective measures to curb obesity, according to the European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE), a think tank. This is despite calls from the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) among others,to halt and revert obesity trends, which are driving diabetes. In a policy document from 2013 , the ECIPE says special attention should be paid to diabetes, which is considered a chronic disease linked to heart problems and strokes. Around 9.3% of the EU's total health budget is spent on diabetes. Diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin, due to insufficient pancreatic production or high blood sugar levels. It can also develop from insulin resistance, a case where the pancreas produces insulin that is rejected by the body. EU member states have been experimenting with measures to prevent obesity and excessive weight gain, which Continue reading >>

Developing Countriesdeveloping Countries

Developing Countriesdeveloping Countries

COSTS OF DIABETES IN COSTS OF DIABETES IN Jonathan Betz Brown, MPP, PhD Chair, International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Diabetes Health Economics Senior Investigator, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon, USA [email protected] Complications of Diabetes � Coronary Artery Disease � Stroke �Heart Failure � Peripheral Neuropathy � Peripheral Artery Diseaseà Amputation � Blindness �Renal Failure � Acute Hyperglycemic Symptoms � Tuberculosis, HIV MILLIONS Global Deaths by CauseGlobal Deaths by Cause 1.21.2Malaria 2.62.6HIV/AIDS 13.413.4CVD (w/ DM) 3.83.8Diabetes DeathsDeaths Sources: International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas, Third Ed., 2006. World Health Organization. Global Burden of Disease Project. 2003 THOUSANDS, AGED 20-79 2007 Deaths from Diabetes2007 Deaths from Diabetes 337 297 721 242 189 1017 978 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 AFRAFRAFRAFR EMMEEMMEEMMEEMME EUREUREUREUR NANANANA SACASACASACASACA SEASEASEASEA WPWPWPWP Source: International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas, Third Ed., 2006. Health Care Expenditures for Health Care Expenditures for Diabetes, 2007Diabetes, 2007 USD 350 billionUSD 350 billion2002 2002 Intern’lIntern’l $$ USD 300 billionUSD 300 billion2002 2002 US DollarsUS Dollars Source: International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas, Third Ed., 2006 ESTIMATED DIABETES-CAUSED Spending Per Capita w/ DM, 2007 10641064318318South AfricaSouth Africa 75753333NigeriaNigeria 56562424TanzaniaTanzania 1251253434KenyaKenya 1221225656CameroonCameroon 303066BurundiBurundi 6231623162316231USAUSA IDIDUSDUSD Source: IDF Diabetes Atlas, Third Edition, 2007 664966496649 BILLIONS OF USD 2002, R=2BILLIONS OF USD 2002, R=2 2007 Health Expenditures for Diabetes2007 Continue reading >>

The Cost Of Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Greece: A Retrospective Analysis Of 10-year Patient Level Data “the Hercules Study”

The Cost Of Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Greece: A Retrospective Analysis Of 10-year Patient Level Data “the Hercules Study”

Copyright © 2015 Ilias Migdalis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Objective. This study aimed to estimate the mean annual cost of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM) including complications and comorbidities in Greece. Design. A noninterventional retrospective study was based on patient level data analysis (bottom-up approach) from medical records, with at least 10-year-follow-up data. Results. The total annual cost per patient for managing diabetes in Greece was estimated at € 7,111 and was, statistically significantly, higher for patients with inadequate glycemic control () versus patients with adequate control () (€ 7,783 versus € 6,366, resp.; ). This was mainly attributed to difference in CV hospitalizations between groups 14/111 versus 4/100, respectively, (95% CI: 1.10–10.9) for inadequately controlled patients. The largest component of cost was management of comorbidities, accounting for 48% of costs, and pharmaceutical treatment at 35.9% while only 14.9% was attributed to diabetes treatment per se. Obese men and patients with poor education are the groups with higher treatment costs. Conclusions. This is the first study to capture all cost components and the real burden of diabetes in Greece. Comorbidities were found to account for almost half of total cost, significantly higher in nonoptimally controlled diabetes patients. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition primarily defined by the level of hyperglycemia giving rise to risk of microvascular and macrovascular damage [1, 2]. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) comprises 90% Continue reading >>

Data And Statistics

Data And Statistics

The challenge of diabetes There are about 60 million people with diabetes in the European Region, or about 10.3% of men and 9.6% of women aged 25 years and over. Prevalence of diabetes is increasing among all ages in the European Region, mostly due to increases in overweight and obesity, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Worldwide, high blood glucose kills about 3.4 million people annually. Almost 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and almost half are people aged under 70 years. WHO projects diabetes deaths will double between 2005 and 2030. Risk factors Patterns of disease differ by ethnic group: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common among those of African and African-Caribbean origin. Diet: Eating high levels of refined carbohydrates and saturated fat and not enough fruits and vegetables contributes to weight gain, thereby increasing the risk of diabetes. Physical inactivity: Studies have shown that just 30 minutes of moderate exercise a day, five days a week is enough to promote good health and reduce the chance of developing type 2 diabetes. Overweight and obesity (BMI over 25 kg/m2) have been estimated to account for about 65–80% of new cases of type 2 diabetes. The risk is a function of the age of onset and the duration of obesity, and weight gain during adult life. Overweight people run a lower relative risk than obese people, however the fraction of disease attributable to overweight may be as high as, if not higher than, that due to obesity. This demonstrates the importance of preventing weight gain in all ranges. Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Age: The older a person is, the greater their risk of dia Continue reading >>

World Diabetes Day: Where In Europe Is The Disease Most Rife?

World Diabetes Day: Where In Europe Is The Disease Most Rife?

Aa Aa Portugal, Romania, Germany and Malta are the worst in the European Union for diabetes, new figures have revealed. More than one in 12 adults in the quartet are estimated to have the disease, according to data released to mark World Diabetes Day. Ireland has the lowest proportion of adults aged 20-79 suffering from diabetes in the EU, with just over one-in-25. Diabetes sees high amounts of sugar or glucose in the blood because the pancreas cannot produce the insulin required to break down the carbohydrates we eat. It also prevents the glucose from getting to the body’s cells, where it is used for energy. It’s a mixed picture across Europe, where 8.8% of adults have the disease, compared with 13% in North America and the Caribbean and 3.3% in Africa. A slim majority of the 35 countries in Europe that we looked at have seen diabetes prevalence get worse since 2010. Lithuania and Estonia have seen the biggest falls, while Iceland and Turkey have seen the largest hikes, according to data from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Globally the number of people living with diabetes has increased by 10 million since 2015, say IDF. The vast majority of those affected have type 2 diabetes, which is linked to obesity and lack of exercise, and the epidemic is spreading particularly fast in poorer countries as people adopt Western diets and urban lifestyles. The total number of diabetics is now 451 million and is expected to reach 693 million by 2045 if current trends continue. The high price of dealing with the disease reflects not only the cost of medicines but also the management of a range of complications, such as limb amputations and eye problems. Continue reading >>

The Direct Medical Costs Of Outpatient Cares Of Type 2 Diabetes In Iran: A Retrospective Study

The Direct Medical Costs Of Outpatient Cares Of Type 2 Diabetes In Iran: A Retrospective Study

The Direct Medical Costs of Outpatient Cares of Type 2 Diabetes in Iran: A Retrospective Study 1Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Pharmaceutical Management and Economics Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 1Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Pharmaceutical Management and Economics Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 4Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 5Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Correspondence to: Prof. Mohsen Hosseini, Center for Research in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: [email protected] Received 2013 May 17; Accepted 2015 Sep 22. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which many factors are involved and is developing considerably worldwide. Increasing aging population and obesity in the societies has improved the scale of the type 2 diabetes significantly. The aim of this study was to determine the direct medical costs of outpatient cares of diabetes in Iran. Active patients of Isfahan Endocrinology and Metabolism Rese Continue reading >>

The Humanistic Burden Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Europe: Examining Health Outcomes And The Role Of Complications

The Humanistic Burden Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Europe: Examining Health Outcomes And The Role Of Complications

The Humanistic Burden of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Europe: Examining Health Outcomes and the Role of Complications Affiliation: Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, United States of America Diagnoses of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in Europe appear to be on the rise. Therefore it is imperative that researchers understand the potential impact that increases in prevalence could have on the affected individuals as well as on society as a whole. Accordingly this study examined the humanistic and economic burden of T1DM in patients relative to those without the condition across a number of health outcomes including health status, work productivity loss, activity impairment, and healthcare resource use. Survey data from a large, representative sample of EU adults (The EU National Health and Wellness Survey) were examined. Results suggest that overall burden is higher for those diagnosed with T1DM than respondents without diabetes and that burden increases as complications associated with T1DM increase. Taken together, these results suggest that treatment strategies for T1DM should balance clinical, humanistic, and economic burden and patients should be educated on the role of complications in disease outcomes. Citation: Rydn A, Srstadius E, Bergenheim K, Romanovschi A, Thorn F, Witt EA, et al. (2016) The Humanistic Burden of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Europe: Examining Health Outcomes and the Role of Complications. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0164977. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164977 Editor: Massimo Pietropaolo, Baylor College of Medicine, UNITED STATES Received: April 1, 2016; Accepted: October 4, 2016; Published: November 3, 2016 Copyright: 2016 Rydn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestric Continue reading >>

Who/europe | Diabetes Epidemic In Europe

Who/europe | Diabetes Epidemic In Europe

About 60 million people in the WHO European Region have diabetes: about 10.3% of men and 9.6% of women aged 25 years and over. Prevalence is increasing among all age groups in the Region, mostly owing to increases in lifestyle-related risk factors. Lifestyle choices are putting more people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Studies suggest that potentially modifiable risk factors including overweight and obesity, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, as well as socioeconomic disadvantage account for 80% of the increase in cases. The remaining 20% arises from non-modifiable risk factors, such as an ageing population and longer survival. The only sure way to control the diabetes epidemic is to stop people getting diabetes, said Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe. World Diabetes Day 2011, on 14 November 2011, focuses on education and prevention. Diabetes is seen as a continuum, affecting people ranging from those who are healthy through those with overweight and impaired glucose metabolism, to those with diabetes who may or may not be diagnosed and suffer from complications. In general, preventing type 2 diabetes means moving people to the healthy group (from the right to the left, as shown by blue arrows in the figure). Emphasis must be given to reducing the risk of progression to type 2 in people without diabetes, and to providing health care interventions to people with diabetes that focus on improving glucose control and reducing complications. Evidence indicates that prevention can work. Most of it comes from studies on high-risk groups: overweight people with some disturbance of glucose metabolism but no diabetes yet. A study in Finland (1), for example, found that people at high risk of diabetes, who were given a behavioural intervention to Continue reading >>

Cost Of Diabetes Vs Other Diseases – In The Us And Globally

Cost Of Diabetes Vs Other Diseases – In The Us And Globally

What is the cost of diabetes in and within the US? Diabetes has affected approximately 29 million adults and children in the United States. That number does not include the whopping 86 million people who currently have prediabetes and are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The most shocking part of all this is that most of the population with prediabetes are not even aware that they have it. These numbers are only expected to grow in the upcoming years if we do not do take any preventive measures against it. According to the leading diabetes website, the American Diabetes Association, the cost associated with diagnosed diabetes was $245 billion in 2012 compared to $174 billion in 2007. That is a 41% increase in just a period of five years. Out of the $245 billion, $176 billion were the direct medical costs of diabetes. The breakdown of the medical expenditures are the following: Hospital inpatient care Prescription medications that help in treating the complications of diabetes Doctor visits Nurses and staying in the hospital Diabetes supplies The costs of medical spending are 2.3 higher in people diagnosed with diabetes than those who do not have diabetes. More than $1 out of $5 of heath care money in the United states is due to diabetes. The price of insulin has increased 3 times between 2002 and 2013. While diabetes is taking the nation by storm, there are other medical conditions that are also draining our pockets. I advise reading the following: We want to look specifically at the numbers and compare them to the cost of diabetes. The comparison will give us a good look at where the future of medical burden is heading and where diabetes sits amongst them all. Cost of other diseases and conditions Let us look at the costs associated with the other top medi Continue reading >>

News: Reducing The Burden Of Diabetes In Europe: London School Of Economics And Policy Recommendations | Health First Europe

News: Reducing The Burden Of Diabetes In Europe: London School Of Economics And Policy Recommendations | Health First Europe

On 25 January, Health First Europe attended the launch of the London School of Economic Policy Recommendations for Reducing the Burden of Diabetes in Europe. The event was hosted by MEP Christel Schaldemose (S&D, Denmark) along with the Parliament Magazine and Novo Nordisk and aimed to highlight the significant burden diabetes places on patients, carers and health systems throughout Europe in order to initiate concrete coordination and support amongst Member States to tackle diabetes. The Danish Minister for European Affairs, Mr. Nicolai Wanmen, began the event by declaring the priorities of the Danish presidency in health which will focus on chronic diseases and healthcare innovation. He expressed that the Presidency goals are prevention (addressing the underlying causes of disease) and patient empowerment (increasing patient self-management capability) in order to combat the economic and demographic challenges the Europe currently faces. The Danish Presidency refers to its health programme as Smart health, better lives which it believes can address many of the complications European health systems have. The economic impact of diabetes is clearly significant as shown by the study authored by London School of Economics Professor Panos Kanavos. The study looked to identify and compare 5 EU Member States evidence on the burden, cost and management of diabetes and then offer policy recommendations based on the information gathered. Mr. Kanavos explained in detail how the differences in monitoring prevalence and delivering diabetes care make it difficult to fully grasp the incidence and impact of diabetes. However, the research showed that key cost drivers for health systems both direct and indirect costs (such as social benefits, early retirement, absenteeism, etc.) are t Continue reading >>

Revealing The Cost Of Type Ii Diabetes In Europe.

Revealing The Cost Of Type Ii Diabetes In Europe.

Revealing the cost of Type II diabetes in Europe. Centre for Health Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, 113 83, Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected] 'The Cost of Diabetes in Europe-Type II study' is the first coordinated attempt to measure total healthcare costs of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Europe. The study evaluated more than 7000 patients with Type II diabetes in eight countries - Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. A bottom-up, prevalence-based design was used, which optimised the collection of data at the national level while maintaining maximum international comparability. Effort was made to ensure consistency in terms of data specification, data collection tools and methods, sampling design, and the analysis and reporting of results. Results are reported for individual countries and in aggregate for the total study population. The total direct medical costs of Type II diabetes in the eight European countries was estimated at EUR 29 billion a year (1999 values). The estimated average yearly cost per patient was EUR 2834 a year. Of these costs, hospitalisations accounted for the greatest proportion (55%, range 30-65%) totalling EUR 15.9 billion for the eight countries. During the 6-month evaluation period, 13% of the Type II diabetic patients were hospitalised, with an average of 23 days in hospital projected annually. In contrast, drug costs for managing Type II diabetes were relatively low, with antidiabetic drugs and insulin accounting for only 7% of the total healthcare costs for Type II diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is a common disease and the prevalence is expected to increase considerably in the future, especially in developing countries. Current compreh Continue reading >>

Cost Of Diabetes Hits 825 Billion Dollars A Year

Cost Of Diabetes Hits 825 Billion Dollars A Year

Number of adults with diabetes reaches 422 million worldwide Boston, MA – The global cost of diabetes is now 825 billion dollars per year, according to the largest ever study of diabetes levels across the world. The research, which was led by scientists from Imperial College London, and involved Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, the World Health Organization, and nearly 500 researchers across the globe, incorporated data from 4.4 million adults in most of the world’s countries. The research team has also created interactive maps and other visuals that show the data for each country, and how they compare to each other. The study, published in the journal The Lancet, compared diabetes levels among adult men and women from 1980 to 2014. Diabetes results in a person being unable to regulate levels of sugar in their blood, and increases the risk of heart and kidney disease, vision loss, and amputations. The team adjusted their results to account for diabetes becoming more common as a person ages and for some countries having older populations. Using age-adjusted figures, they found that in the last 35 years, global diabetes among men has more than doubled—from 4.3% in 1980 to 9% in 2014—after adjusting for the effect of aging. Meanwhile diabetes among women has risen from 5% in 1980 to 7.9% in 2014. This rise translates as 422 million adults in the world with diabetes in 2014—which has nearly quadrupled since 1980 (108 million). The study follows previous work by the same Wellcome Trust-funded team that studied global obesity levels and published in The Lancet last week. The data also revealed that the age-adjusted levels of diabetes in 2014 were lowest in some countries in northwestern Europe, where around 4% of women and 6% of men have diabetes. The prev Continue reading >>

Revealing The Cost Of Type Ii Diabetes In Europe

Revealing The Cost Of Type Ii Diabetes In Europe

, Volume 45, Supplement1 , pp S5S12 | Cite as Revealing the cost of Type II diabetes in Europe The Cost of Diabetes in Europe-Type II study is the first coordinated attempt to measure total healthcare costs of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Europe. The study evaluated more than 7000 patients with Type II diabetes in eight countries Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. A bottom-up, prevalence-based design was used, which optimised the collection of data at the national level while maintaining maximum international comparability. Effort was made to ensure consistency in terms of data specification, data collection tools and methods, sampling design, and the analysis and reporting of results. Results are reported for individual countries and in aggregate for the total study population. The total direct medical costs of Type II diabetes in the eight European countries was estimated at EUR 29 billion a year (1999 values). The estimated average yearly cost per patient was EUR 2834 a year. Of these costs, hospitalisations accounted for the greatest proportion (55%, range 30-65%) totalling EUR 15.9 billion for the eight countries. During the 6-month evaluation period, 13% of the Type II diabetic patients were hospitalised, with an average of 23 days in hospital projected annually. In contrast, drug costs for managing Type II diabetes were relatively low, with antidiabetic drugs and insulin accounting for only 7% of the total healthcare costs for Type II diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is a common disease and the prevalence is expected to increase considerably in the future, especially in developing countries. Current comprehensive economic data on the costs of diabetes are required for policy decision Continue reading >>

Study: The Burden Of Diabetes In Europe

Study: The Burden Of Diabetes In Europe

Study: The burden... Study: The burden of diabetes in Europe Richard Bergstrm discusses a study released today by London School of Economics on the burden of diabetes in Europe Currently 32 million people in the EU have diabetes, with this figure set to grow to 38.3 million by 2030. Treating diabetes and its complications takes up between 10% and 18.5% of EU member States healthcare budgets. According to a new study released today by London School of Economics (LSE) , the rise in diabetes prevalence is driven by: In order to investigate these growing costs and understand how diabetes is being managed, the LSE have conducted a study aimed at identifying and comparing diabetes burden of disease, costs (direct and indirect) and diabetes outcomes, focusing on complications across France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK (EU5). The study shows clearly that diabetes is under-diagnosed and under-treated. Furthermore, it finds that the direct national cost burden of people with diabetes vary substantially across countries, predominantly driven by prevalence, but also due to a higher per patient cost in France, Germany and the UK; contributing to a total of 90 billion in 2010. The recommendations of the study to ease the burden of diabetes in Europe are the following: Establishing diabetes registries, expanding prevention strategies, encouraging tailored high screening programmes to identify patients at an earlier stage and improving primary healthcare to increase adherence. Under the mandate of article 168 of the Lisbon Treaty, the European Union should facilitate the sharing of best practice between countries; monitor and report on data related to cost, prevalence, outcomes, and complications; establish criteria for standardised data that is comparable between Member States; Continue reading >>

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