diabetestalk.net

Conversion Of D-glucose To D-mannose

D-mannose Transport And Metabolism In Isolated Enterocytes

D-mannose Transport And Metabolism In Isolated Enterocytes

D-mannose transport and metabolism in isolated enterocytes Dept. Fisiologa y Biologa Animal, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain To whom correspondence should be addressed; e-mail: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: Dept. Fisiologa y Biologa Animal, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain Search for other works by this author on: Dept. Fisiologa y Biologa Animal, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain Search for other works by this author on: Dept. Fisiologa y Biologa Animal, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain Search for other works by this author on: Glycobiology, Volume 14, Issue 6, 1 June 2004, Pages 495500, Juan M. Durn, Mercedes Cano, Mara J. Peral, Anunciacin A. Ilundin; D-mannose transport and metabolism in isolated enterocytes, Glycobiology, Volume 14, Issue 6, 1 June 2004, Pages 495500, D-mannose transport and metabolism has been studied in enterocytes isolated from chicken small intestine. In the presence of Na+, the mannose taken up by the cells either remains free, is phosphorylated, is catabolized to H2O, or becomes part of membrane components. The mannose remaining free in the cytosol is released when the cells are transferred to an ice bath. The Na+-dependent D-mannose transport is electrogenic and inhibited by ouabain and dinitrophenol; its substrate specificity differs from SGLT-1 transporter. The Glut2 transporter inhibitors phloretin and cytochalasin B added following 30-min mannose uptake reduced the previously accumulated D-mannose, whereas these two agents increased the cell to external medium 3-O-methyl-glucose (3-OMG) concentration ratio. D-mannose efflux rate from preloaded D-[2-3H]-mannose enterocytes is N Continue reading >>

Bio Chem Carbs And Glycobiology Ch 7

Bio Chem Carbs And Glycobiology Ch 7

generally, substituents in the equatorial less sterically hindered by neighboring substituent conformers with bulky substituent in equatorial boat conformation is seen only in derivatives with disaccharide made two mono saccharides joined by -Disaccharides maltose, lactose, and sucrose not involved in the glycosic bond, has free anomeric carbon vary in repeating sugar units length of their chains, types of bonds linking the units level of branching Storage - Starch(plants) , glycogen(bacteria and animal cells), Homo polysaccharides have Structural roles- -branched and smaller than glycosaminoglyca -Immunoglobulins (antibodies) and follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, -oligosaccharides form the hydrophilic head groups - carbohydrates high specificity and affinity -cell-cell recognition, signaling,a nd adhesion processes and newly intracellular targeting of newly synthesized protein Which bond(s) in a-glucose must be broken to change its configuration to B-D- glucose? --Which bond(s) to convert D -glucose to D-mannose? ---Which bond(s) to convert one "chair" form of D-Alucoseto the other? ---does and not require bond breakage,critical distinction btw configuration and confirmation Is D-2-deoxygalactos the same chemical as D-2-deoxyglucose Explain A di-saccharide, which you know to be either maltose or sucrose, is treated with Fehling's - anomeric carbons of both monsac. involved glycosicd bond One critical function of chondroitin sulfate is to act as a lubricant in skeletal joints by creating a gel like medium that is resilient to friction and shock function seems to be related distinctive property of chondroitin sulfate: volume occupied by the molecule is much greater solution than in the dehydrated solid Why is the volume Continue reading >>

Mechanism Of The Interconversion Of D-glucose, D-mannose, And D-fructose In Acid Solution

Mechanism Of The Interconversion Of D-glucose, D-mannose, And D-fructose In Acid Solution

Hydrogen transfer reactions, apparently intramolecular, were found to occur during the acid-catalyzed isomerization of aldoses to ketoses and ketoses to aldoses. D-Glucose-2-3H, in acid, gave D-fructose-1-3H with the tritium nearly evenly distributed between the pro-1-R and pro-1-S positions (by enzymic assay). (1R)-D-Fructose-1 - 3H acid gave both D-glucose-3H and D-mannose-3H with specific radioactivities 18 and 85% of the starting compound, respectively. The tritium in the glucose (by enzymic analysis) was at C-1 (16%) and at C-2 (79%); in the mannose (by both chemical and enzymic analysis) it was at C-1 (11%), at C-2 (66%), and elsewhere (23%, by difference). The data are consistent with a mechanism involving, in part, a 1 2 hydride shift for the isomerization and are thus quite different from the reaction in base where no transfer reactions are observed and substantial solvent isotope exchange occurs. Except for the random stereochemistry of the reaction, it is similar to enzymatic transformations catalyzed by isomerases. Do you want to read the rest of this article? ... [16, 17] Two pathways were proposed: one that involves the isomerization of acyclic intermediates and another that proceeds through the transformation of ring structures. While several authors have suggested that glucose isomerization to fructose by enolization or hydride shift in the acyclic pathway is required for dehydration, [17, we note that fructose was never observed experimentally in this study nor in our earlier work on the dehydration of glucose. [4] Recent computational work suggested that a precursor to 5-HMF can be formed directly from glucose upon protonation of the 2-OH hydroxyl group. ... Continue reading >>

Prosite

Prosite

PROSITE documentation PDOC00589 [for PROSITE entry PS00710] Phosphoglucomutase and phosphomannomutase phosphoserine signature Phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2.2 ) (PGM). PGM is an enzyme responsible for the conversion of D-glucose 1-phosphate into D-glucose 6-phosphate. PGM participates in both the breakdown and synthesis of glucose [ 1 ]. Phosphomannomutase (EC 5.4.2.8 ) (PMM). PMM is an enzyme responsible for the conversion of D-mannose 1-phosphate into D-mannose 6-phosphate. PMM is required for different biosynthetic pathways in bacteria. For example, in enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli there are two different genes coding for this enzyme: rfbK which is involved in the synthesis of the O antigen of lipopolysaccharide and cpsG which is required for the synthesis of the M antigen capsular polysaccharide [ 2 ]. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PMM (gene algC) is involved in the biosynthesis of the alginate layer [ 3 ] and in Xanthomonas campestris (gene xanA) it is involved in the biosynthesis of xanthan [ 4 ]. In Rhizobium strain ngr234 (gene noeK) it is involved in the biosynthesis of the nod factor. Phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (EC 5.4.2.3 ) which converts N-acetyl-D- glucosamine 1-phosphate into the 6-phosphate isomer. The catalytic mechanism of both PGM and PMM involves the formation of aphosphoserine intermediate [ 1 ]. The sequence around the serine residue is wellconserved and can be used as a signature pattern. In addition to PGM and PMM there are at least three uncharacterized proteinsthat belong to this family [ 5 , 6 ]: Urease operon protein ureC from Helicobacter pylori. Continue reading >>

There Is A Specific Enzyme Regulation Point Mentioned

There Is A Specific Enzyme Regulation Point Mentioned

The key regulation point in glucose metabolism is where fructose-6-phosphate becomes doubly phosphorylated, prior to the molecule being sliced in half. When ATP levels in the cell are already high, the enzyme phosphofructose kinaseshuts down so that no more glucose (or ATP) can be made. 3. The outer surface of all your cells is covered with proteins called monosaccharide transporters that serve as sugar receptors (GLUT is for GLUcose Transporter, for instance). These transporters are what enable simple sugars in the blood to bind to and then enter your cells. Once inside, they are combusted to pyruvic acid through the glycolytic pathway. Show how D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-galactose all can be converted to pyruvic acid through the same glycolytic pathway. Based on the structures shown, the question should have asked for how D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose all can be converted to pyruvic acid. The entire 10 step sequence of glycolysis is shown below. This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document. Continue reading >>

D-glucose And D-mannose-based Metabolic Probes. Part 3: Synthesis Of Specifically Deuterated D-glucose, D-mannose, And 2-deoxy-d-glucose

D-glucose And D-mannose-based Metabolic Probes. Part 3: Synthesis Of Specifically Deuterated D-glucose, D-mannose, And 2-deoxy-d-glucose

d-Glucose and d-mannose-based metabolic probes. Part 3: Synthesis of specifically deuterated d-glucose, d-mannose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. d-Glucose and d-mannose-based metabolic probes. Part 3: Synthesis of specifically deuterated d-glucose, d-mannose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose Izabela Fokt, Stanislaw Skora, [...], and Waldemar Priebe Altered carbohydrate metabolism in cancer cells was first noted by Otto Warburg more than 80 years ago. Upregulation of genes controlling the glycolytic pathway under normoxia, known as the Warburg effect, clearly differentiates malignant from non-malignant cells. The resurgence of interest in cancer metabolism aims at a better understanding of the metabolic differences between malignant and non-malignant cells and the creation of novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents exploiting these differences. Modified d-glucose and d-mannose analogs were shown to interfere with the metabolism of their respective monosaccharide parent molecules and are potentially clinically useful anticancer and diagnostic agents. One such agent, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo and also clinically evaluated. Studies clearly indicate that 2-DG has a pleiotropic mechanism of action. In addition to effectively inhibiting glycolysis, 2-DG has also been shown to affect protein glycosylation. In order to better understand its molecular mechanism Continue reading >>

D-mannose: Properties, Production, And Applications: An Overviewan Overview Of D-mannose

D-mannose: Properties, Production, And Applications: An Overviewan Overview Of D-mannose

d-Mannose: Properties, Production, and Applications: An OverviewAn overview of d-mannose Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety d-Mannose: Properties, Production, and Applications: An OverviewAn overview of d-mannose Original ArticleOriginal Articles applications bioprocessing characteristics d-mannose functionality Introduction As a natural bioactive monosaccharide, d-mannose is a popular nutritional and health-beneficial food supplement all over the world (Ichikawa and others ; Kim and others ), especially used as a dietary supplement influencing glyconutrient contribution on human health. Nowadays, diabetes and obesity have become major public health concerns worldwide, with the number of cases increasing dramatically. For example, the Intl. Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that there were approximately 382 milliondiabetics worldwide in 2013, with the figure expected to increase to 642 million by 2040 (2016 DIABETES ATLAS). In the recent era, public awareness toward diet effects on human health has been greatly increasing, with significant emphasis on dietary modifications. According to the dietary criteriaof the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), optimum intake of dietary carbohydrates should provide 50% to 75% of the total caloric intake, indicating their role as an essential macronutrient (Astrup ; Mann and others ). New innovations in food and nutrition have led to the conclusion that novel carbohydrates may improve nutrition. Generally speaking, d-mannose is used as a dietary supplement influencing glyconutrient contribution on human health. d-Mannose has been a focus of interest among numerous industrial sectors because of its valuable properties, and presently there is great Continue reading >>

Converting A Fischer Projection To A Haworth (and Vice Versa)

Converting A Fischer Projection To A Haworth (and Vice Versa)

Converting a Fischer Projection To A Haworth (And Vice Versa) Heres a relatively common problem in the realm of sugar chemistry: Convert this (sugar) from the Fischer projection to a cyclic pyranose form as a Haworth projection. (the reverse question can be asked too: convert a sugar drawn in a Haworth to an open-chain Fischer. ) Well, there are a couple of tricks, and thats what this post is about. (Well show how to deal with furanoses too.) 1. Converting A Fischer to a Haworth (The Long Way) Lets start with the example of converting D-glucose drawn in a Fischer projection to a pyranose (i.e. hexagonal) depiction in the Haworth projection the long way. [The shortcut is above, BTW. If you want to skip to some practice examples, theyre below]. Well start by remembering what the Fischer projection really represents. Although all the bonds in the Fischer might be drawn flat, its not meant to be understood that way! [See this earlier post on D and L sugars , for example]. By convention, the horizontal bonds on a Fischer projection actually point out of the page. One way this was taught to me was to remember that the arms come out to hug you.In other words, theyre wedged. The first step in converting a Fischer to a Haworth is to draw in these wedges and to number the carbons. Next, lets turn this molecule on its side, 90 degrees clockwise. [it must be clockwise see note] This sets us up to form a bond between the C5-OH and the carbonyl carbon (C-1), which will make a new ring. [If this is unclear, see this earlier post on ring-chain tautomerism for more examples.] Its helpful to perform a bond rotation on the C5 carbon to make the stereochemistry on the ring clearer. Interchanging any three groups on a carbon does a bond rotation. So well make the following three moves: Aft Continue reading >>

Mannose_6_phosphate

Mannose_6_phosphate

Mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (PDB ID: 3H1Y) from Salmonella typhimurium Mannose-6-phosphateisomerase ( 3H1Y ) from Salmonellatyphimurium is involved with glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Mannose-6-phosphate isomerase is a monomerwhich can be found in the cytoplasm of the cell. Under the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI)superfamily, mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (MPI) acts as an enzyme formonosaccharide conversion. MPIs aredivided into two groups, type I and type II.The mannose-6-phosphate isomerase bound to a substrate and metal atom isclassified as a type I MPI. The bindingof metal ions increases binding of the substrate to the active site. Theisomerase catalyzes the interconversion of D-mannose-6-phosphate to D-fructose-6-phosphate,an aldose and a ketose. (Wu) When fructose-6-phosphate(F6P) is converted to mannose-6-phosphate (M6P), gluconeogenesis occurs andglucose is generated; the resulting M6P can also act as a cellular identifierfor transport and membrane identification. When the reverse occurs, the isomeraseprepares fructose-6-phosphate for glycolysis.Along with the conversions, the ring is opened and closed throughout thereaction. His99 and Asp270 may catalyzethe ring opening step. The isomerizationoccurs due to acid/base catalysis with proton transfer between the first Catoms of the substrate. MPI first bindsby coordination to zinc; its electrophilic nature results in the transfer ofthe carbonyl oxygen double bond. As theenzyme, zinc stabilizes the intermediate through charge neutralization. Thezinc coordinates with the ligand carbonyl and hydroxyl oxygens on C-1 and C-2to form the transient enediol intermediate.(Gracy) MPI has a significant pHactivity range from 6.5-9.0 with its most optimal activity at pH of 8.5. In terms of structure, mannose-6-phosphate cons Continue reading >>

An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie

An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie

An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie This site uses cookies to improve performance. If your browser does not accept cookies, you cannot view this site. There are many reasons why a cookie could not be set correctly. Below are the most common reasons: You have cookies disabled in your browser. You need to reset your browser to accept cookies or to ask you if you want to accept cookies. Your browser asks you whether you want to accept cookies and you declined. To accept cookies from this site, use the Back button and accept the cookie. Your browser does not support cookies. Try a different browser if you suspect this. The date on your computer is in the past. If your computer's clock shows a date before 1 Jan 1970, the browser will automatically forget the cookie. To fix this, set the correct time and date on your computer. You have installed an application that monitors or blocks cookies from being set. You must disable the application while logging in or check with your system administrator. This site uses cookies to improve performance by remembering that you are logged in when you go from page to page. To provide access without cookies would require the site to create a new session for every page you visit, which slows the system down to an unacceptable level. This site stores nothing other than an automatically generated session ID in the cookie; no other information is captured. In general, only the information that you provide, or the choices you make while visiting a web site, can be stored in a cookie. For example, the site cannot determine your email name unless you choose to type it. Allowing a website to create a cookie does not give that or any other site access to the rest of your computer, and only the site that created the cookie can read it. Continue reading >>

Epimers And Epimerization (molecular Biology)

Epimers And Epimerization (molecular Biology)

Epimers and Epimerization (Molecular Biology) Epimers are diastereomers that are related by the inversion of configuration at a single chiral center (1). This definition extends the original meaning of epimer, which was used to identify sugars that differed in configuration at C2 (2). This definition intentionally excludes enantiomers, such as D- and L-alanine, since they are not diastereomers. It also excludes diastereomers that are related by the inversion of more than a single chiral center. Thus, D-glucose and D-mannose are epimers, as are D-glucose and D-galactose. D-mannose and D-galactose are not epimers, however, because they are related by inversion at two chiral centers, C2 and C4 (Fig. 1) Figure 1. Stereochemical drawings of glucose, mannose, and galactose, with their four chiral carbons. The configurations at C2 and C4 are labeled and distinguish these three sugars. Glucose is an epimer of both mannose and galactose because they differ by the configuration of a single chiral center. Mannose and galactose have different configurations at both C2 and C4 and are not epimers. The chemical conversion of one epimer to another is called epimerization. If this interconversion is catalyzed by an enzyme, the enzyme is an epimerase. As an example, UDP-glucose-4-epimerase catalyzes the epimerization of the C4 carbon of glucose. In the reaction, UDP-glucose is epimerized to UDP-galactose. When the inversion of configuration occurs to interconvert enantiomers instead of diastereomers, the reaction is a racemization. Continue reading >>

Us4421568a - Process For Making L-sugars And D-fructose - Google Patents

Us4421568a - Process For Making L-sugars And D-fructose - Google Patents

US4421568A - Process for making L-sugars and D-fructose - Google Patents Process for making L-sugars and D-fructose US4421568A US06296403 US29640381A US4421568A US 4421568 A US4421568 A US 4421568A US 06296403 US06296403 US 06296403 US 29640381 A US29640381 A US 29640381A US 4421568 A US4421568 A US 4421568A Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.) Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.) C07HSUGARS; DERIVATIVES THEREOF; NUCLEOSIDES; NUCLEOTIDES; NUCLEIC ACIDS C07H3/00Compounds containing only hydrogen atoms and saccharide radicals having only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING C12PFERMENTATION OR ENZYME-USING PROCESSES TO SYNTHESISE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION OR TO SEPARATE OPTICAL ISOMERS FROM A RACEMIC MIXTURE C12P19/00Preparation of compounds containing saccharide radicals C13KSACCHARIDES, OTHER THAN SUCROSE, OBTAINED FROM NATURAL SOURCES OR BY HYDROLYSIS OF NATURALLY OCCURRING DI-, OLIGO- OR POLYSACCHARIDES YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US

D-mannose

D-mannose

General information: D-Mannose is an isomer (epimer) of -> D-glucose and naturally occurs as a monosaccharide in fruits like pineapple and cranberry as well as in the cell wall glycoproteins of algae and fungi. It can be found in cell walls of brown algae (kelp), where it is a component of a long chained polysaccharide named mannan. As an ingredient of foods, free mannose can be found whenever the food was thickened with mannanes. Mannose is produced by hydrolysis of mannanes which are often derived from guar beans (cluster beans), locust beans (carobs), or brown algae. Dietetics: Mannose has the same caloric value as glucose and other carbohydrates. Despite of the caloric value, mannose is suitable for a diabetic diet. In humans, a substantial amount of mannose is absorbed into the bloodstream mostly unchanged; only a minor amount of mannose is metabolized and converted to glycogen for storage. Chemistry: Containing six carbon atoms, mannose belongs to the hexoses and within this group to the aldoses because it has an aldehyde group (-CHO group). The elemental formula is: C6H12O6. There are two mirror isomers, D- und L-mannose, but L-mannose does not naturally occur. Mannose exists mainly in its ring form which can be a pyranose (a six-membered ring) or a furanose (a five-membered ring). The main ring form is pyranose. Usage: D-Mannose has been postulated to prevent the adhesion of bacteria to the epithelium of the urinary tract and urinary bladder. This is thought to prevent and/or heal inflammations. Thus mannose is placed on the market as a dietary supplement. Continue reading >>

Mannose - Wikipedia

Mannose - Wikipedia

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25C [77F], 100kPa). Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates . Mannose is a C-2 epimer of glucose . Mannose is important in human metabolism, especially in the glycosylation of certain proteins. Several congenital disorders of glycosylation are associated with mutations in enzymes involved in mannose metabolism. [1] Mannose is not an essential nutrient; it can be produced in the human body from glucose, or converted into glucose. Mannose provides 2-5 kilocalories per gram. Mannose is partially excreted in the urine. Mannose commonly exists as two different sized rings, the pyranose (six-membered) form and the furanose (five-membered) form. Each ring closure can have either an alpha or beta configuration at the anomeric position. The chemical rapidly undergoes isomerization among these four forms. Metabolism of common monosaccharides and related reactions While much of the mannose used in glycosylation is believed to be derived from glucose, in cultured hepatoma (cancerous cells from the liver) cells, most of the mannose for glycoprotein biosynthesis comes from extracellular mannose, not glucose. [2] Many of the glycoproteins produced in the liver are secreted into the bloodstream, so dietary mannose is distributed throughout the body. [3] Mannose is present in numerous glycoconjugates including N-linked glycosylation of proteins. C-Mannosylation is also abundant and can be found in collagen-like regions. The digestion of many polysaccharides and glycoproteins yields mannose which is phosphorylated by hexokinase to generate mannose-6-phosphate. Mannose-6-phosphate is converted to fructose-6-phosphate , by Continue reading >>

Untitled

Untitled

1. Draw the structure of D-erythrose as (1) a Fischer Projection(2) a wedge-and-dash structure and (3) a Newman projection. Whatkind of conformation does this represent? How many stereocentersdoes D-erythrose have? How many stereoisomers are there? How manydiastereoisomers? Draw the Fischer structures of the other stereoisomersof D-erythrose. Which one is L-erythrose? Why is erythrose termedan "aldotetrose"? 2. Draw the Fischer structures of all of the diastereoisomericD- aldopentoses. Which one is D-ribose? Which one is D-arabinose? 3. Draw the Fischer structures of D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-fructose.Number the carbon atoms of each. Explain and sketch mechanisticallyhow D-glucose can be converted to D-mannose? Can D-glucose bereadily converted to L-glucose? If so, how? Show how D-glucoseand D-mannose can be converted, in part, to D-fructose. 4. Draw the conformational structures of D-glucopyranose and D-mannopyranose.Which one is more thermodynamically stable? Why? Of the two anomersof D-glucopyranose, which is imore stable, the alpha or beta?Why? What principle is involved? Explain, on thermodynamic grounds,why the cyclic hemiacetal form is favored over the acyclic form.In forming the cyclic hemiacetal form, which hydroxyl group ofthe acyclic form must add to the carbonyl group in order to givethe six-membered ring? 5. Explain why, when pure b-D-glucopyranoseis dissolved in water, the specific rotation gradually changesand then becomes steady. Explain why this steady state specificrotation is the same whether we start with the alpha or beta anomer.What is this phenomenon called? Sketch the mechanism for the interconversionof the alpha and beta anomers. What key intermediate is involved? 6. Write a mechanism for the conversion of b-D-glucopyranoseto the correspondin Continue reading >>

More in diabetes