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Controlled Diabetes

Managing Diabetes With Blood Glucose Control

Managing Diabetes With Blood Glucose Control

There are two common ways that physicians assess how well diabetes is controlled: [1] Frequent measurements of blood glucose, and [2] measurement of glycohemoglobin (A1c). Each method has its good and bad points, but combined they give a fairly accurate picture of the state of glucose control in a diabetic. Most physicians will use both methods. Why Tight Blood Glucose Is Important Measurement of Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar) When we speak about measuring blood glucose levels, it can be done 2 different ways. Blood glucose can be measured randomly from a sample taken at any time (called a "random blood sugar" or RBS). Blood glucose can also be measured in the "fasting" state, meaning that the person has not eaten or taken in any calories in the past 8 hours (usually this is done overnight and it is referred to as an overnight fast and is called a "fasting blood sugar" or FBS). In a person with normal insulin production and activity (a non-diabetic) blood sugar levels will return to "fasting" levels within 3 hours of eating. People with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) may not be able to get their blood glucose down this quickly after a meal or drinking a calorie-containing drink. More about this can be found on our Diagnosing Diabetes page. Learn More about How to Manage Diabetes Remember, the normal fasting blood glucose level is between 70 and 110 mg/dL. Frequent Measurements of Blood Glucose. The goal in this part of diabetes management is to strive to keep fasting blood sugars under 140 mg/dL and preferably closer to the 70 to 120 mg/dL range. Ideally, one could monitor blood sugars 4 times per day (or more) to follow how well the sugars are controlled. This information could be used to adjust your diet and medications to achieve this goal. Usually blood glucose measureme Continue reading >>

The 16 Best Foods To Control Diabetes

The 16 Best Foods To Control Diabetes

Figuring out the best foods to eat when you have diabetes can be tough. The main goal is to keep blood sugar levels well-controlled. However, it's also important to eat foods that help prevent diabetes complications like heart disease. Here are the 16 best foods for diabetics, both type 1 and type 2. Fatty fish is one of the healthiest foods on the planet. Salmon, sardines, herring, anchovies and mackerel are great sources of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, which have major benefits for heart health. Getting enough of these fats on a regular basis is especially important for diabetics, who have an increased risk of heart disease and stroke (1). DHA and EPA protect the cells that line your blood vessels, reduce markers of inflammation and improve the way your arteries function after eating (2, 3, 4, 5). A number of observational studies suggest that people who eat fatty fish regularly have a lower risk of heart failure and are less likely to die from heart disease (6, 7). In studies, older men and women who consumed fatty fish 5–7 days per week for 8 weeks had significant reductions in triglycerides and inflammatory markers (8, 9). Fish is also a great source of high-quality protein, which helps you feel full and increases your metabolic rate (10). Fatty fish contain omega-3 fats that reduce inflammation and other risk factors for heart disease and stroke. Leafy green vegetables are extremely nutritious and low in calories. They're also very low in digestible carbs, which raise your blood sugar levels. Spinach, kale and other leafy greens are good sources of several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C. In one study, increasing vitamin C intake reduced inflammatory markers and fasting blood sugar levels for people with type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure Continue reading >>

7 Signs Your Blood Sugar Is Out Of Control

7 Signs Your Blood Sugar Is Out Of Control

Thinkstock A Silent Danger When you have type 2 diabetes, your main goal should be controlling your blood sugar. Without adequate blood sugar control, your risk for serious health complications — stroke, heart disease, nerve damage, blindness, and more — skyrockets. But here’s the tricky part: You might not even know your blood sugar levels are out of control. “Not everyone will have the same symptoms, and some individuals have no symptoms at all,” says Lori Zanini, RD, CDE, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Because proper blood sugar maintenance is vital to your overall health with type 2 diabetes, you need to take action if you think your levels may be out of control. “Since symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes may not appear until prolonged hyperglycemia has been present, it’s important for individuals with diabetes to monitor their glucose and adjust their medication based on the results,” explains Mary Ann Emanuele, MD, an endocrinologist, professor, and medical director of Inpatient Diabetes at Loyola University Medical Center in Mayfield, Illinois. Here are signs of uncontrolled blood sugar to look for: Continue reading >>

Tight Blood Sugar Control In Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Fewer Heart Attacks And Strokes

Tight Blood Sugar Control In Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Fewer Heart Attacks And Strokes

Diabetes damages every part of the body, from the brain to the feet. High blood sugar, the hallmark of diabetes, wreaks havoc on blood vessels. It makes sense that keeping blood sugar under control should prevent diabetes-related damage — but how low to push blood sugar is an open question. A study published in today’s issue of The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) provides reassuring evidence that so-called tight blood sugar control is good for the heart and circulatory system. “Tight blood sugar control represents a new age of diabetes care,” says Dr. David Nathan, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and director of both the General Clinical Research Center and the Diabetes Center at Massachusetts General Hospital. The hazards of high blood sugar Type 2 diabetes is marked by high levels of blood sugar. Over time, high blood sugar damages small blood vessels throughout the body. This is called microvascular disease. The damage can lead to kidney failure, nerve pain, amputation, and blindness. But the leading cause of complications and death in people with diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which involves the body’s larger blood vessels. (This is also called macrovascular disease.) About two-thirds of people with diabetes die from heart disease, stroke, or other cardiovascular problems. A good measure of blood sugar is the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test. It reveals a person’s average blood sugar level over the previous three months. People without diabetes have an HbA1c level under 5.7%; an HbA1c level of 6.5% or greater usually indicates diabetes. For some people with type 2 diabetes, a healthy diet and regular exercise can keep blood sugar in check, but many need medication as well. People with diabetes are usually urged to aim for tight blo Continue reading >>

5 Tips To Get Your Diabetes Under Control

5 Tips To Get Your Diabetes Under Control

Controlling your diabetes is a daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly challenge, but the effort is worth it. Right away you'll feel better and have more energy.The payoff? You'll live better longer with less risk of problems from diabetes like heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, even blindness. The key to managing your diabetes is to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. It sounds tough, but there are simple steps you can follow. Spot Check Your Sugar You and your doctor will have set a schedule to test your blood sugar. Add an extra check on top. Maybe at breakfast one day, lunch the next, and so on. It's like popping in unannounced. "If you're a supervisor and your workers know that you're only going to come once a day to check on them, chances are they're going to be well-behaved during that particular time and the rest of the day you're going to be doing other things," says Sethu Reddy, MD, chief of the adult diabetes section at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. "If you spot check, you have a much better sense of how things are going." Use that information to adjust your eating and exercise to gain even better control if you need to. Count Carbs They can quickly send your blood sugar on a roller-coaster ride. That's why it's so important to keep track. Most women need 35-45 grams of carbs per meal while guys need 45-60 grams, says Jessica Crandall, a dietitian and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. A cup of rice or pasta is about 45 grams. To make the most of them, pair your carbs with a protein, like nuts. Opt for high-fiber carbs. Both will slow digestion so you feel full without raising blood sugar. "Fiber is really important for blood-sugar control, but it's also a Roto-Rooter to clear out cholesterol building in Continue reading >>

How To Beat Type 2 Diabetes With Diet And Lifestyle Changes

How To Beat Type 2 Diabetes With Diet And Lifestyle Changes

It's no secret that type 2 diabetes is on the rise in the United States and around the world. But if you've been diagnosed with diabetes, there's a lot you can do to improve your health — and the best place to start is likely by making some changes to your lifestyle. “Basic principles of good health like eating right, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy weight can be as effective as medicine in the management of type 2 diabetes for most people,” says Sue McLaughlin, RD, CDE, lead medical nutrition therapist at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha. That's backed up by the Look AHEAD study, a large clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The researchers found that over a four-year period, changes like eating a healthier diet and getting more exercise led to weight loss and improved diabetes control in 5,000 overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes. A December 2016 review in Diabetologia similarly found through 28 studies that participants who were able to achieve about 150 minutes per week of moderate activity lowered their risk of type 2 diabetes by 26 percent compared with nonactive participants. If you're ready to make positive changes to help control diabetes, here's how to get started. Improve Your Diet to Help You Treat Type 2 Diabetes Naturally Keeping close tabs on your diet is a major way to help manage type 2 diabetes. A healthy diet for people with type 2 diabetes includes fresh or frozen fruit and vegetables, whole grains, beans, lean meats, and low-fat or fat-free dairy. Focus on eating fruit and non-starchy vegetables, like broccoli, carrots, and lettuce, and having smaller portions of starchy foods, meats, and dairy products. Be especially careful about loading Continue reading >>

Diabetes Control: Why It's Important

Diabetes Control: Why It's Important

You've probably heard your child's doctor talk a lot about "diabetes control," which usually refers to how close the blood sugar, or glucose , is kept to the desired range. What does this meanand why is it important? What Can Happen if Diabetes Isn't Under Control? Too much or not enough sugar in the bloodstream can lead to short-term problems that must be treated right away, like hypoglycemia , hyperglycemia , or diabetic ketoacidosis . Too much sugar in the bloodstream also can cause long-term damage to body tissues. For example, it can harm vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems. These problems don't usually affect kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. But they can happen in adults with diabetes, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Kids with diabetes who don't control their blood sugar levels may also have problems with growth and development. They might even have a delay in when puberty starts. Puberty is when the body changes as kids start growing into adults. Controlling diabetes means keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. Your child's diabetes medicines (such as insulin ), food, and activity level must be in balance to keep blood sugar levels under control. If any one of these is off, blood sugar levels will be too. Poorly controlled blood sugar levels can be due to: not following the meal plan (like eating too much or not enough food without adjusting medicines) not getting regular exercise or not changing the treatment plan when there's a big change in physical activity level not watching blood sugar levels closely enough so that changes are seen and dealt with quickly What Are the Continue reading >>

Tight Control Of Type 1 Diabetes Saves Lives, But It's Tough

Tight Control Of Type 1 Diabetes Saves Lives, But It's Tough

Here's more evidence that for people with Type 1 diabetes, strict blood sugar control matters – in this case, it actually reduces the risk of early death. But another study reveals the grim reality: Those with the condition still die about a decade sooner than those without. As someone who has lived with Type 1 myself for over 40 years – I was diagnosed in 1973, at age 9 – I can tell you that keeping my blood sugars in control 24/7 is incredibly difficult. And that's despite having the knowledge on how to do it, as well as the health insurance that covers my test strips and insulin pump supplies. Many others with Type 1 diabetes don't, which helps explain the gap between what the studies say is best practice and what happens in real life. Back in 1993, the landmark Diabetes Control and Complications (DCCT) trial demonstrated what many in the field had believed but hadn't proven: If people with Type 1 diabetes strictly controlled their blood sugar levels shortly after being diagnosed they could often avoid the complications that high blood sugar can cause over time. People in the "intensive" treatment group for seven years had dramatically lower rates of eye, nerve and kidney damage. After that study ended, most of the original 1,441 participants have been followed in their regular lives, under the management of their personal physicians. And intensive control is now urged for everyone. The fear of not waking up in the morning because of low blood sugar is a constant in the life of those of us with Type 1 diabetes, and it's one of the main reasons we struggle to stay in control. The study published Tuesday in JAMA, the journal of the American Medical Association, shows that those people now have roughly the same level of blood sugar control, regardless of whether t Continue reading >>

What Is Diet-controlled Diabetes?

What Is Diet-controlled Diabetes?

Diet controlled diabetes is when blood sugar levels are controlled through diet and exercise or in other words-a healthy lifestyle. People with type 1 diabetes are unable to control their blood sugar readings from diet and exercise alone and must inject insulin along with following a healthy lifestyle. People with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes may be prescribed to manage their diabetes through diet and exercise alone as they may produce some insulin but not enough that their blood sugar readings are slightly elevated. No matter what route you are prescribed to manage blood sugar levels, diet and exercise are always a part of the prescription. "Diet-controlled" diabetes is essentially type 2 diabetes that is managed through lifestyle measures, particularly with a healthy eating plan, weight control and regular physical activity. The combination of controlling calorie and carbohydrate intake, reaching and maintaining a healthful weight, and being active most days of the week can help many people maintain safe and healthy blood glucose and A1C levels. While many people are able to manage their diabetes for a long period of time in this manner, most people with type 2 diabetes eventually need to take medication as an adjunct to lifestyle measures. The term "diet-controlled" diabetes refers to people who maintain normal glucose levels as long as their weight remains in check through diet and exercise. For many diabetics, adherence to a diet low in simple sugars is also beneficial. Combining this with the principle of eating food with the right amount of effective calories will result in better control of glucose levels. Better sugar control might mean fewer medical problems in the long term. Fit at Fifty and Beyond: A Balanced Exercise and Nutrition Program (A DiaMedica Gui Continue reading >>

Diabetes Management

Diabetes Management

The term diabetes includes several different metabolic disorders that all, if left untreated, result in abnormally high concentration of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes mellitus type 1 results when the pancreas no longer produces significant amounts of the hormone insulin, usually owing to the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus type 2, in contrast, is now thought to result from autoimmune attacks on the pancreas and/or insulin resistance. The pancreas of a person with type 2 diabetes may be producing normal or even abnormally large amounts of insulin. Other forms of diabetes mellitus, such as the various forms of maturity onset diabetes of the young, may represent some combination of insufficient insulin production and insulin resistance. Some degree of insulin resistance may also be present in a person with type 1 diabetes. The main goal of diabetes management is, as far as possible, to restore carbohydrate metabolism to a normal state. To achieve this goal, individuals with an absolute deficiency of insulin require insulin replacement therapy, which is given through injections or an insulin pump. Insulin resistance, in contrast, can be corrected by dietary modifications and exercise. Other goals of diabetes management are to prevent or treat the many complications that can result from the disease itself and from its treatment. Overview[edit] Goals[edit] The treatment goals are related to effective control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids, to minimize the risk of long-term consequences associated with diabetes. They are suggested in clinical practice guidelines released by various national and international diabetes agencies. The targets are: HbA1c of 6%[1] to 7.0%[2] Preprandial blood Continue reading >>

12 Signs Of Uncontrolled Diabetes

12 Signs Of Uncontrolled Diabetes

12 Signs of Uncontrolled Diabetes Blood tests tell you and your doctor when your glucose levels are too high. But signs of uncontrolled diabetes can appear all over your body. High blood glucose can damage nerves, blood vessels, and organs, resulting in a wide array of symptoms. Talk with your doctor if you spot any of them, so you can stay in control of your diabetes and improve your quality of life. © 2016 Healthgrades Operating Company, Inc. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced or reprinted without permission from Healthgrades Operating Company, Inc. Use of this information is governed by the Healthgrades User Agreement. You Might Also Like Continue reading >>

Diabetes Control: Why It's Important

Diabetes Control: Why It's Important

People who have diabetes may hear or read a lot about controlling, or managing, the condition. But what is diabetes control and why is it so important? When you hear your doctors or health care providers talk about "diabetes control," they're usually referring to how close your blood sugar, or , is kept to the desired range. Having too much or too little sugar in your blood can make you feel sick now and cause health problems later. Managing diabetes is like a three-way balancing act: The medicines you take (insulin or pills), the food you eat, and the amount of exercise you getall need to be in sync. don't take diabetes medicines as directed don't follow the meal plan (like eating too much or not enough food without adjusting diabetes medicines) don't get regular exercise or exercise more or less than usual without making changes to the diabetes plan What Can Happen if Diabetes Is Not Under Control? Out-of-control blood sugar levels can lead to short-term problems like hypoglycemia , hyperglycemia , or diabetic ketoacidosis . In the long run, not controlling diabetes can damage important organs, like the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves. This means that heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems can happen to people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens who have had the disease for only a few years, but they can happen to adults with diabetes. Kids and teens with diabetes who don't control their blood sugar levels can be late going into puberty and might not end up as tall as they would have otherwise. The good news is that keeping blood sugar levels under control can help keep you healthy and prevent health problems from happening later. How Do I Know When My Diabetes Is Under Control? If you have diab Continue reading >>

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

Goals For Blood Glucose Control

People who have diabetes should be testing their blood glucose regularly at home. Regular blood glucose testing helps you determine how well your diabetes management program of meal planning, exercising and medication (if necessary) is doing to keep your blood glucose as close to normal as possible. The results of the nationwide Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) show that the closer you keep your blood glucose to normal, the more likely you are to prevent diabetes complications such as eye disease, nerve damage, and other problems. For some people, other medical conditions, age, or other issues may cause your physician to establish somewhat higher blood glucose targets for you. The following chart outlines the usual blood glucose ranges for a person who does and does not have diabetes. Use this as a guide to work with your physician and your healthcare team to determine what your target goals should be, and to develop a program of regular blood glucose monitoring to manage your condition. Time of Check Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people without diabetes Goal plasma blood glucose ranges for people with diabetes Before breakfast (fasting) < 100 70 - 130 Before lunch, supper and snack < 110 70 - 130 Two hours after meals < 140 < 180 Bedtime < 120 90- 150 A1C (also called glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin A1c) < 6% < 7% < = less than > = greater than > = greater than or equal to < = less than or equal to Information obtained from Joslin Diabetes Center's Guidelines for Pharmacological Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Continue reading >>

4 Steps To Manage Your Diabetes For Life

4 Steps To Manage Your Diabetes For Life

This publication has been reviewed by NDEP for plain language principles. Learn more about our review process. Actions you can take The marks in this booklet show actions you can take to manage your diabetes. Help your health care team make a diabetes care plan that will work for you. Learn to make wise choices for your diabetes care each day. Step 1: Learn about diabetes. What is diabetes? There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes – Your body does not make insulin. This is a problem because you need insulin to take the sugar (glucose) from the foods you eat and turn it into energy for your body. You need to take insulin every day to live. Type 2 diabetes – Your body does not make or use insulin well. You may need to take pills or insulin to help control your diabetes. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational (jest-TAY-shun-al) diabetes – Some women get this kind of diabetes when they are pregnant. Most of the time, it goes away after the baby is born. But even if it goes away, these women and their children have a greater chance of getting diabetes later in life. You are the most important member of your health care team. You are the one who manages your diabetes day by day. Talk to your doctor about how you can best care for your diabetes to stay healthy. Some others who can help are: dentist diabetes doctor diabetes educator dietitian eye doctor foot doctor friends and family mental health counselor nurse nurse practitioner pharmacist social worker How to learn more about diabetes. Take classes to learn more about living with diabetes. To find a class, check with your health care team, hospital, or area health clinic. You can also search online. Join a support group — in-person or online — to get peer support with managing your Continue reading >>

Your A1c Results: What Do They Mean?

Your A1c Results: What Do They Mean?

If you have diabetes, you should have an A1C test at least twice each year to find out your long-term blood glucose control. The A1C test measures your average blood glucose during the previous 2-3 months, but especially during the previous month. For people without diabetes, the normal A1C range is 4-6%. For people with diabetes, the lower the A1C value, the better the diabetes control and the lower the risk of developing complications such as eye, heart, and kidney disease. Your goal should be to have A1C values less than 7%. That may be a hard target to hit, but it is important to try because the lower your A1C, the lower your health risk. The table on this page shows what your A1C results say about your blood glucose control during the past few months. Some people are surprised when they have a high A1C result because when they check their blood glucose with their meter, they have relatively low numbers. But remember that checking your blood glucose gives you only a momentary sample of your blood glucose control. The A1C test measures your blood glucose control at all times during the previous 2-3 months, even times such as after meals or when you are asleep, when you don't usually check your blood glucose. Think of the A1C test as feedback to help you better control your diabetes and improve your diabetes care habits. By giving you important information about your long-term control, the A1C test can help you stay motivated to do your best on diabetes self care. Talk with your doctor and other members of the health care team about your A1C results and how you can use them to better manage diabetes. Within the next few months, the federal government will implement the first major reorganization of the Medicare system for many years: the Medicare Prescription Drug Imp Continue reading >>

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