diabetestalk.net

Complications Of Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Include All Of The Following Except

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>

Nutritional Recommendations For Individuals With Diabetes

Nutritional Recommendations For Individuals With Diabetes

Go to: INTRODUCTION This chapter will summarize current information on nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes for health care practitioners who treat them. The key take home message is that the 1800 calorie ADA diet is dead! The modern diet for the individual with diabetes is based on concepts from clinical research, portion control, and individualized lifestyle changes. It cannot simply be delivered by giving a patient a diet sheet in a one-size-fits-all approach. The lifestyle modification guidance and support needed requires a team effort, best led by an expert in this area; a registered dietitian (RD), or a referral to a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program that includes instruction on nutrition therapy. Dietary recommendations need to be individualized for and accepted by the given patient. It’s important to note that the nutrition goals for diabetes are similar to those that healthy individuals should strive to incorporate into their lifestyle. Leading authorities and professional organizations have concluded that proper nutrition is an important part of the foundation for the treatment of diabetes. However, appropriate nutritional treatment, implementation, and ultimate compliance with the plan remain some of the most vexing problems in diabetic management for three major reasons: First, there are some differences in the dietary structure to consider, depending on the type of diabetes. Second, a plethora of dietary information is available from many sources to the patient and healthcare provider. Nutritional science is constantly evolving, so that what may be considered true today may be outdated in the near future. Different types of diabetes require some specialized nutritional intervention; however, many of the basic dietary princ Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitusclinical Presentation

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitusclinical Presentation

Type 1 Diabetes MellitusClinical Presentation Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... The most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, along with lassitude, nausea, and blurred vision, all of which result from the hyperglycemia itself. Polyuria is caused by osmotic diuresis secondary to hyperglycemia. Severe nocturnal enuresis secondary to polyuria can be an indication of onset of diabetes in young children. Thirst is a response to the hyperosmolar state and dehydration. Fatigue and weakness may be caused by muscle wasting from the catabolic state of insulin deficiency, hypovolemia, and hypokalemia. Muscle cramps are caused by electrolyte imbalance. Blurred vision results from the effect of the hyperosmolar state on the lens and vitreous humor. Glucose and its metabolites cause osmotic swelling of the lens, altering its normal focal length. Symptoms at the time of the first clinical presentation can usually be traced back several days to several weeks. However, beta-cell destruction may have started months, or even years, before the onset of clinical symptoms. The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 DM to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which may occur de novo or secondary to the stress of illness or surgery. An explosive onset of symptoms in a young lean patient with ketoacidosis always has been considered diagnostic of type 1 DM. Over time, patients with new-onset type 1 DM will lose weight, despite normal or increased appetite, because of depletion of water and a catabolic state with reduced glycogen, proteins, and triglycerides. Weight loss may not occur if treatment is initiated promptly after the onset of the Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology Exam 2 - Part A

Pathophysiology Exam 2 - Part A

Shared Flashcard Set Details Title Pathophysiology Exam 2 - Part A Description Quiz questions Total Cards 147 Subject Pathology Level Undergraduate 3 Created 11/05/2010 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Pathology Flashcards Cards Term What event initiates the process of atherosclerosis? Definition Endothelial injury and release of cytokines Term Factors associated with endothelial injury in atherosclerosis include all of the following except: A) autoimmunity. B) anemia. C) bacterial infection. D) smoking. Definition B - anemia Term What form of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis? Definition High LDL Term An unstable plaque in the coronary arteries can result in which complication? Definition Myocardial infarction Term In the development of primary hypertension, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity causes: A) decreased heart rate. B) increased renal excretion of sodium. C) peripheral vasoconstriction. D) decreased insulin resistance. Definition C - peripheral vasoconstriction Term A risk factor that is associated with both atherosclerosis and primary hypertension is what? Definition Advanced age Term Complications of sustained hypertension include which of the following? A) Retinal damage B) Stroke C) Renal disease D) All of the above Definition D - all of the above Term Atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause isolated systolic hypertension by: A) promoting thrombus formation. B) stimulating increased cardiac output. C) decreasing arterial distensibility. D) increasing lumen diameter. Definition C - decreasing arterial distensibility Term A ruptured cerebral aneurysm often will result in what? Definition Stroke Term Clinical manifestation Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Long-term Effects

Diabetes - Long-term Effects

On this page: Diabetes is a condition in which there is too much glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Over time, high blood glucose levels can damage the body's organs. Possible complications include damage to large (macrovascular) and small (microvascular) blood vessels, which can lead to heart attack, stroke, and problems with the kidneys, eyes, gums, feet and nerves. Reducing risk of diabetes complications The good news is that the risk of most diabetes-related complications can be reduced by keeping blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels within recommended range. Also, being a healthy weight, eating healthily, reducing alcohol intake, and not smoking will help reduce your risk. Regular check-ups and screening are important to pick up any problems early Diabetes and healthy eating If you have diabetes it’s important to include a wide variety of nutritious and healthy foods in your diet, and to avoid snacking on sugary foods. Eating healthy foods can help control your blood glucose and cholesterol levels, and your blood pressure. Enjoy a variety of foods from each food group – be sure to include foods high in fibre and low in fat, and reduce your salt intake. It’s helpful to consult with a dietitian to review your current eating plan and provide a guide about food choices and food quantities. Alcohol intake and diabetes Limit alcohol intake. If you drink alcohol, have no more than two standard drinks per day. If you are pregnant or considering pregnancy or are breastfeeding, then zero alcohol intake is recommended. Diabetes and healthy weight If you are overweight, even losing a small amount of weight, especially round the abdomen, helps lower your blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels. It can be daunting trying to lose weight, so Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated — above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become. However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite elevated blood sugars. Early signs and symptoms Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly. Watch for: Frequent urination Increased thirst Blurred vision Fatigue Headache Later signs and symptoms If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in your blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include: Fruity-smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Dry mouth Weakness Confusion Coma Abdominal pain When to see a doctor Call 911 or emergency medical assistance if: You're sick and can't keep any food or fluids down, and Your blood glucose levels are persistently above 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine Make an appointment with your Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

Patho Exam 4

Patho Exam 4

Sort Which of the following types of diabetes is controlled primarily through diet, exercise, and oral medications? A. Diabetes insipidus B. Diabetic ketoacidosis C. Type 1 diabetes mellitus D. Type 2 diabetes mellitus D A client presenting with low levels of adrenocortical hormones in the blood or urine may have which of the following conditions? A. Addison's Disease B. Cushing's syndrome C. Hyperthyroidism D. Hypothyroidism A Secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by which of the following glands controls the rate at which thyroid hormone is released? A. Adrenal gland B. Parathyroid gland C. Pituitary gland D. Thyroid gland C The hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) affect which of the following body processes? A. Blood glucose level & glyconeogenesis B. Growth & development as well as metabolic rate C. Growth of bones, muscles, & other organs D. Bone resorption, calcium absorption, and blood calcium levels B Which of the following groups of hormones are released by the medulla of the adrenal gland? A. Epinephrine & norepinephrine B. Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, & androgens C. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) , and calcitonin D. Insulin , glucagon, and somatostatin A Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which the body's capacity to utilize glucose, fat, and protein are disturbed due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. A. True B. False A Which of the following conditions is caused excessive secretion of ADH (vasopressin)? A. Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) B. Diabetes insipidus C. Primary Adrenocortical insufficiency D. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) D Which of the following disease processes releases enough insulin to prevent ketosis but not enough to prevent hyperglycemia? A. Dia Continue reading >>

5.6 Flashcards | Quizlet

5.6 Flashcards | Quizlet

You are dispatched to a residence for an elderly woman who is "sick." When you arrive and assess her, you note that she is responsive to pain only and has hot, moist skin and rapid, shallow respirations. You find prednisone, Paxil, and multivitamins on her nightstand. Further assessment of this patient will MOST likely reveal: A. a normal blood glucose level and a "moon face" appearance. B. hypoglycemia, hypotension, and ECG evidence of hyperkalemia. C. a blood glucose reading above 400 mg/dL and a fruity breath odor. D. severe hypertension, flattened T waves, and asymmetric pupils. B. hypoglycemia, hypotension, and ECG evidence of hyperkalemia. A 29-year-old man presents with bizarre behavior and profuse sweating. His wife tells you that he has type 1 diabetes and that he took his insulin today. During your assessment, you will MOST likely find that the patient is: A. is not as likely to experience hypoglycemia as a person with type 2 diabetes. B. is often an older person whose pancreas does not produce adequate insulin. C. can often control his or her diabetes with a proper diet and regular exercise. D. generally does not produce any insulin and requires daily insulin injections. D. generally does not produce any insulin and requires daily insulin injections. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to low blood glucose levels because: A. alcohol antagonizes the pancreatic beta cells. B. alcohol destroys any insulin that is produced. C. alcohol depletes glycogen stores in the liver. D. alcohol blocks the pancreatic release of insulin. C. alcohol depletes glycogen stores in the liver. Microvascular complications of diabetes include all of the following, EXCEPT: The MOST common cause of Addisonian crisis is: B. abrupt termination of corticosteroid use. D. acute failure o Continue reading >>

Flashcards - Patho Chapter 18

Flashcards - Patho Chapter 18

The flashcards below were created by user jchikuma on FreezingBlue Flashcards. Which laboratory values would be expected in an individual with SIADH? serum sodium=120mEq/L and urine hyperosmolality Hypopituitarism in an adult male liklely includes all of the following except: Excessive secretion of GH in an adult may cause: The manifestation of hyperthyroidism include all of the following except: hyperthyroidism, associated with autoimmunity, manifested by opthalmopathy Inadequate levels of thyroid hormones at birth may cause: What is the most common cause of acromegaly? If a 19 year old woman were suffering from shortness of breath, weight loss, excessive sweating, exophthalmos, and irritability, which hormone would you expect to find elevated in her serum? A 24 year old female with a history of "juvenile onset" diabetes is found in a stuporous state. She is hypotensive and has cold, clammy skin. What is the likely etiology of her condition? A manifestation shared by both diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus is: A 10 year old male was brought into the emergency room comatose, suffering from metabolic acidosis with a blood glucose level of 800 mg/dl. The most probable disease causing this condition is: Your neighbor, not previously diagnosed as a diabetic, has gained 80 pounds in the past year and is able to produce some insulin. Her fasting blood sugar is always elevated. She is being treated with oral insulin stimulating drugs. Your neighbor is most likely suffering from: Common symptoms and signs of diabetes mellitus include all of the following except: Which laboratory finding is inconsistent with a diagnosis of absolute insulin deficiency? Common complications of diabetes mellitus include all of the following except: retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, nephrop Continue reading >>

Diabetes Practice Questions

Diabetes Practice Questions

1. The risk factors for type 1 diabetes include all of the following except: a. Diet b. Genetic c. Autoimmune d. Environmental 2. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately what percentage of all cases of diabetes in adults? a. 55%-60% b. 35%-40% c. 90-95% d. 25-30% 3. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include all of the following except: a. Advanced age b. Obesity c. Smoking d. Physical inactivity 4. What percentage of women with gestational diabetes is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes following pregnancy? a. 25%-30% b. 5%-10% c. <5% d. 20%-25% 5. Untreated diabetes may result in all of the following except: a. Blindness b. Cardiovascular disease c. Kidney disease d. Tinnitus 6. Prediabetes is associated with all of the following except: a. Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes b. Impaired glucose tolerance c. Increased risk of heart disease and stroke d. Increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes 7. Diabetics are at increased risk of heart disease if they also: a. Smoke b. Have high HDL cholesterol levels c. Take aspirin d. Consume a high-fiber diet 8. Blood sugar is well controlled when Hemoglobin A1C is: a. Below 7% b. Between 12%-15% c. Less than 180 mg/dL d. Between 90 and 130 mg/dL 9. Excessive thirst and volume of very dilute urine may be symptoms of: a. Urinary tract infection b. Diabetes insipidus c. Viral gastroenteritis d. Hypoglycemia 10. Among female children and adolescents, the first sign of type 1 diabetes may be: a. Rapid weight gain b. Constipation c. Genital candidiasis d. Insomnia 11. Untreated hyperglycemia may lead to all of the following complications except: a. Hyperosmolar syndrome b Vitiligo c. Diabetic ketoacidosis d. Coma 12. Hyperinsulinemia may be caused by all of the following except: a. An insulinoma b. Nesidioblastosis c. Insulin Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Complications

Type 2 Diabetes Complications

With type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus), if you don’t work hard to keep your blood glucose level under control, there are short- and long-term complications to contend with. However, by watching the amount and types of food you eat (your meal plan), exercising, and taking any necessary medications, you may be able to prevent these complications. And even if you have some of the long-term, more serious complications discussed below when you’re first diagnosed, getting tight control of your blood glucose will help prevent the complications from becoming worse. (It is possible with type 2 diabetes to already have some of these complications when you’re first diagnosed. That’s because type 2 develops gradually, and you may not realize that you have high blood glucose for quite some time. Over time, high blood glucose can cause serious damage. You can learn more about that in this article on the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.) Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It is possible for your blood glucose to drop, especially if you’re taking insulin or a sulfonylurea drug (those make your body produce insulin throughout the day). With these medications, if you eat less than usual or were more active, your blood glucose may dip too much. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and too much alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). Rapid heartbeat Sweating Whiteness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech Mild cases of hypoglycemia can be treated by drinking orange juice or eating a glucose tablet—those will quickly rai Continue reading >>

Diabetes Study Set Flashcards | Quizlet

Diabetes Study Set Flashcards | Quizlet

Which statement is true regarding the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus? A. Type 2 diabetes has decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance. B. Type 2 diabetes has a total dependency on an outside source of insulin. C. Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in older, obese adults. D. Type 1 diabetes can result in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS). Type 2 diabetes has decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance. Which finding is the best indication that the patient needs instruction regarding consistent control of her diabetes? A. Fasting serum glucose level is 150 mg/dL. B. Postprandial glucose level is 140 mg/dL. D. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) level is 9%. D. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) level is 9%. The patient has vision problems. What intervention can help the patient independently manage her insulin administration? A. Use an insulin pen, listening to the clicks. B. Have family members prefill syringes for a month ahead of time. C. Ask the physician to change the prescription to oral insulin. D. Mix the basal insulin with rapid-acting insulin in the same syringe. A. Use an insulin pen, listening to the clicks. The patient has a 3:00 AM blood glucose level of 50 mg/dL and a 7:00 AM glucose level of 150 mg/dL. What is the proper explanation of these findings and anticipated intervention? A. Somogyi effect with need for less insulin at night B. Somogyi effect with need for a snack at 3:00 AM C. Dawn phenomenon with need for more insulin in the morning D. Dawn phenomenon with need for less food in the morning Somogyi effect with need for less insulin at night What is the correct teaching regarding oral antidiabetic medications? A. Double the glipizide (Glucotrol) dose if consuming alcohol. B. Hold all antidiab Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

More in diabetes