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Complications Of Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

On this page: Every day, two more Australian children and as many as six Australians of all ages develop type 1 diabetes, which makes it one of the most common serious diseases among children. Diabetes is a condition of the endocrine system (the system of glands that delivers hormones). To use glucose (blood sugar) for energy, the hormone insulin needs to be secreted by the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen. A person with type 1 diabetes is unable to produce insulin. Treatment involves closely monitoring blood sugar levels, modifying diet and taking daily injections of insulin. Type 1 diabetes can affect anyone, but is more common in people under 30 years and tends to begin in childhood. Other names for type 1 diabetes have included juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Approximately one in every ten Australians with diabetes has type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is much more common in Australia than in other countries. The pancreas and type 1 diabetes The digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. This simple sugar is then transported to each cell via the bloodstream. The pancreas secretes the hormone insulin, which allows the glucose to migrate from the blood into the cells. Once inside a cell, the glucose is ‘burned’, along with oxygen, to produce energy. The pancreas of a person with type 1 diabetes doesn’t make enough insulin to keep blood glucose normal. Without insulin, the glucose remains in the bloodstream at high levels. The body recognises the problem and tries to provide the cells with other sources of fuel, such as stored fats. Extensive fat burning can release by-products called ketones, which are dangerous in high amounts. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes The symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: excessive t Continue reading >>

Complications And Screening In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Complications And Screening In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, is caused by insulin deficiency resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. (See "Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus".) In children and adolescents with T1DM, the most common complications include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and psychiatric disorders. The pathogenesis of long-term vascular sequelae including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease begins in childhood, although clinical manifestations of these complications are uncommon before adulthood. Vascular complications and mortality during adulthood are discussed in a separate topic review. (See "Glycemic control and vascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus".) The chronic complications of T1DM that occur in childhood will be presented here. Other issues related to the management of T1DM in children are discussed separately: (See "Epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents".) Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

People with type 1 diabetes lack the hormone insulin, which regulates the body's use of glucose for energy. This results in high blood glucose, or hyperglycemia, as glucose builds up in the bloodstream. The main treatment for type 1 diabetes is lifelong insulin therapy, which lowers blood glucose and allows the body to use glucose as fuel. High blood glucose is associated with a number of symptoms, such as increased urination, extreme thirst or hunger, and slow-healing sores. Over time, elevated blood glucose levels can also lead to various complications in different areas of the body, since hyperglycemia damages many different types of tissue. Diabetic Neuropathy Neuropathy is a type of nerve damage, or nerve dysfunction. In people with diabetes, neuropathy may develop when high blood glucose levels damage blood vessels that supply oxygen to nerves. As many as 60 to 70 percent of all people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy, according the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. A common form of diabetic neuropathy is peripheral neuropathy, which causes numbness, pain, and weakness in the toes, feet, legs, hands, or arms. Because of this widespread complication, people with diabetes must take special care of their feet. Nerve damage may cause people to lose feeling in their feet, leading to unnoticed injuries that may become infected (poor blood flow can also lead to slower healing). What's more, nerve damage may cause foot deformations that lead to additional pressure at certain points on the feet — and these pressure points may develop into blisters, sores, or ulcers. Diabetic neuropathy may also affect various other areas of the body, including the digestive tract, heart, sex organs, facial muscles, buttocks, and urinary tract. Di Continue reading >>

Diabetes (mellitus, Type 1 And Type 2) (cont.)

Diabetes (mellitus, Type 1 And Type 2) (cont.)

A A A Type 1 diabetes (T1D): The body stops producing insulin or produces too little insulin to regulate blood glucose level. Type 1 diabetes affects about 10% of all people with diabetes in the United States. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. It used to be referred to as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Insulin deficiency can occur at any age due to destruction of the pancreas by alcohol, disease, or removal by surgery. Type 1 diabetes also results from progressive failure of the pancreatic beta cells, the only cell type that produces significant amounts of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes require daily insulin treatment to sustain life. Type 2 diabetes (T2D): Although the pancreas still secretes insulin, the body of someone with type 2 diabetes is partially or completely incapable of responding to insulin. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. The pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by secreting more and more insulin. People with insulin resistance develop type 2 diabetes when they fail to secrete enough insulin to cope with their body's demands. At least 90% of adult individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed during adulthood, usually after age 45 years. It was once called adult-onset diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because type 2 diabetes does occur in young people, and some people with type 2 diabetes require insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled with diet, weight loss, exercise, and/or oral medications. However, more than half of all people with type 2 diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar levels at some point during the course of their i Continue reading >>

Complications

Complications

If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems. High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs. Even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn't cause any symptoms can have damaging effects in the long term. Heart disease and stroke If you have diabetes, you're up to five times more likely to develop coronary heart disease (CHD) or have a stroke. Prolonged, poorly controlled blood glucose levels increase the likelihood of developing atherosclerosis (furring and narrowing of your blood vessels). This may result in a poor blood supply to your heart, causing angina (a dull, heavy or tight pain in the chest). It also increases the chance that a blood vessel in your heart or brain will become completely blocked, leading to a heart attack or stroke. Nerve damage High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels of your nerves. This can cause a tingling or burning pain that spreads from your fingers and toes up through your limbs. It can also cause numbness, which can lead to ulceration of the feet. Damage to the peripheral nervous system (the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord) is known as peripheral neuropathy. If the nerves in your digestive system are affected, you may experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is where the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye, becomes damaged. The retina needs a constant supply of blood, which it receives through a network of tiny blood vessels. Over time, a persistently high blood sugar level can damage these blood vessels and affect your vision. Annual eye checks are usually organised by a regional photographic unit. If significant damage is detected, you may be referred to a docto Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus, or simply, diabetes, is a disease that damages the body when the blood glucose (sugar) is allowed to remain too high for too many years. Major Types of Diabetes There are several major types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is the form that used to be called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It starts most often in childhood. The patient has an absolute need for the hormone insulin, since his pancreas, the organ that makes insulin, can no longer do so. The insulin is usually given by injection and must be balanced by food intake in order to keep the blood glucose as normal as possible. Type 2 diabetes is the form that used to be called adult-onset diabetes. It is a lifestyle disease, resulting from excessive weight gain and lack of exercise. The patient does not lack insulin, but has insensitivity to his own body’s insulin. Treatment is started with diet and exercise but may ultimately require pills or insulin. Gestational diabetes is the form that occurs in pregnancy when the hormones of pregnancy overwhelm the body’s insulin so that the blood glucose rises. It can cause problems with the growing fetus who tends to grow large and have a difficult delivery. Gestational diabetes can also become type 2 diabetes later in life. Diagnosis of Diabetes The diagnosis of all types of diabetes is made when the blood glucose in the overnight fasting state is 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or higher on more than one occasion. The diagnosis may also be made if the blood glucose after eating rises to 200 mg/dl or higher on more than one occasion. Recently the finding of a level of 6.5 percent or greater in a blood test called a hemoglobin A1c has been added to the recommended way of making a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The different types o Continue reading >>

Risk Of Complications Of Pregnancy In Women With Type 1 Diabetes: Nationwide Prospective Study In The Netherlands

Risk Of Complications Of Pregnancy In Women With Type 1 Diabetes: Nationwide Prospective Study In The Netherlands

Abstract Objective To investigate maternal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes in the Netherlands. Design Nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting All 118 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 323 women with type 1 diabetes who became pregnant between 1 April 1999 and 1 April 2000. Main outcome measures Maternal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy. Results 84% (n = 271) of the pregnancies were planned. Glycaemic control early in pregnancy was good in most women (HbA1c  7.0% in 75% (n = 212) of the population), and folic acid supplementation was adequate in 70% (n = 226). 314 pregnancies that went beyond 24 weeks' gestation resulted in 324 infants. The rates of pre-eclampsia (40; 12.7%), preterm delivery (101; 32.2%), caesarean section (139; 44.3%), maternal mortality (2; 0.6%), congenital malformations (29; 8.8%), perinatal mortality (9; 2.8%), and macrosomia (146; 45.1%) were considerably higher than in the general population. Neonatal morbidity (one or more complications) was extremely high (260; 80.2%). The incidence of major congenital malformations was significantly lower in planned pregnancies than in unplanned pregnancies (4.2% (n = 11) v 12.2% (n = 6); relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.88). Conclusion Despite a high frequency of planned pregnancies, resulting in overall good glycaemic control (early) in pregnancy and a high rate of adequate use of folic acid, maternal and perinatal complications were still increased in women with type 1 diabetes. Neonatal morbidity, especially hypoglycaemia, was also extremely high. Near optimal maternal glycaemic control (HbA1c  7.0%) apparently is not good enough. Introduction Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated Continue reading >>

Complications Of Diabetes

Complications Of Diabetes

Complications are the negative effects of having a condition or illness, and there are a range of complications that may develop with diabetes. However it is important to remember that not everyone with diabetes will develop all or some of the complications. Understanding your diabetes and following the advice of your medical professional will lower your risk. Many of the complications of diabetes are much more likely to occur if you have high blood glucose levels or high blood pressure over long periods of time. Keeping both your blood glucose level and your blood pressure at a healthy range is your best defence against developing the complications of diabetes. Remember that every improvement you make to your blood glucose level or blood pressure will reduce your risk of developing complications. You don’t have to be in the target range to reduce your risks, although you will get the best improvement the closer your blood pressure and blood glucose are to target levels. It may seem daunting, but the good news is that there are things you can do to reduce your risk of developing complications, and if you have already developed a complication it’s likely there are things you can do manage it. On the side bar is more information on different complications and what you can do to stay well. For many years diabetes has been the leading cause of people developing blindness in New Zealand. However, with new advances in how to prevent or… Kidneys Having diabetes can damage the small blood vessels in your body. This is particularly so if your blood glucose levels or blood pressure remain high… Even common foot problems can be dangerous for people with diabetes, as they may lead to more serious foot problems. Impotence is a side effect of diabetes for many men. Impotence Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Normally after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. The insulin can’t be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much-needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system. The effects of diabetes on your body also depends on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur i Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Without Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Without Complications

E10.9 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of E10.9 - other international versions of ICD-10 E10.9 may differ. Approximate Synonyms Diabetes mellitus type 1 Diabetes mellitus type 1 without retinopathy Diabetes type 1 Diabetes type 1, without complication Nutrition therapy for diabetes type 1 done Nutritional therapy for diabetes mellitus type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus Type 1 diabetes mellitus without complication ICD-10-CM E10.9 is grouped within Diagnostic Related Group(s) (MS-DRG v35.0): Code History 2016 (effective 10/1/2015): New code (first year of non-draft ICD-10-CM) 2017 (effective 10/1/2016): No change 2018 (effective 10/1/2017): No change Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of ICD-10-CM codes. Continue reading >>

Acute And Chronic Complications Of Diabetes

Acute And Chronic Complications Of Diabetes

Acute untreated hyperglycaemia will ultimately result in death, either through hyperosmolar coma or through diabetic keto-acidosis. Thus, when insulin became available in 1921, two things about the life of those with diabetes drastically altered. The good news was that their life-expectancy dramatically increased. The bad news was that living with diabetes and chronic hyperglycaemia for a long time exposes a person to a burden of many complications. Thus, diabetes is now one of the leading causes of acquired blindness and renal failure. In addition, diabetes patients, particularly those with type 2 diabetes, are at an increased risk for myocardial infarction and stroke. Painful neuropathy, diabetic foot ulceration and lower extremity amputations are some of the other common complications, but diabetes complications come in many forms and guises. To aggravate all of this, many of the therapies used to treat diabetes come with side effects. The most common of these is hypoglycaemia, which can vary from mild (but annoying) to serious, with epileptic insults, coma or even death. Reducing the risk of all these complications and side effects has turned out to be the challenge of diabetes treatment in the last century. Pathogenesis of diabetes complications Despite an enormous amount of research, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the complications of diabetes are still far from clear. Initially, research was mainly focused on the harmful effects of glucose. In his pivotal 2005 Banting Lecture[1], Michael Brownlee suggested a unifying theory where the root cause of hyperglycaemic complications is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, most notably superoxide, in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This was supposed to be the initiating step that led t Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don't react to insulin This topic is about type 1 diabetes. Read more about type 2 diabetes Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear following birth. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. You should therefore visit your GP if you have symptoms, which include feeling thirsty, passing urine more often than usual and feeling tired all the time (see the list below for more diabetes symptoms). Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it's the most common type of childhood diabetes. This is why it's sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) doesn't produce any insulin – the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. This is why it's also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body's organs. In type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop l Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

How To Avoid Complications From Type 1 Diabetes

How To Avoid Complications From Type 1 Diabetes

Having type 1 diabetes means your body doesn’t make insulin. This hormone moves sugar (glucose) from your bloodstream into your cells, where it’s used for energy. Without insulin, too much sugar builds up in your blood. That can damage your nerves and blood vessels, leading to serious health problems. When you don't manage your diabetes and control your blood sugar, your whole body can pay the price. Some of the most common complications are: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve disease (neuropathy) Foot problems, including ulcers Eye disease (retinopathy) Skin infections Gum disease (inflammation and infection) You can’t completely erase your chances of developing these conditions, but you can lower the odds. High blood sugar levels can cause real damage to your body. That's why it’s important to keep your numbers in check every day. Ask your doctor about getting an A1c test. This tracks your average blood sugar over a period of a few months. It gives you a better, bigger picture of how well you’re managing your diabetes. You're much more likely to have a heart attack or stroke than people without diabetes are, but you can lower your risk. Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol in the healthy range. High numbers for both are common with diabetes, so remember to get them checked. Make smart food choices to help manage your blood sugar levels and keep your heart and kidneys healthy. Fill up on produce, fiber, and good fats. Avoid foods high in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Exercise can lower your blood sugar level and your risk for all sorts of problems, like heart disease and stroke. It’s also good for your blood pressure and cholesterol. Talk with your doctor before you get started, though. They might warn you against some workouts with high-impac Continue reading >>

Cns Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (type 1 Diabetic Encephalopathy)

Cns Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (type 1 Diabetic Encephalopathy)

1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus type1 (T1D) or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an endocrine metabolic disorder which is defined by absolute or partial lack of insulin and hyperglycemia (1).Traditionally the complications of diabetes were classified as acute complications like diabetic keto acidosis (DKA) and chronic complications. Chronic complications comprise vascular and nonvascular complications. The vascular complications are further subdivided into microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular complications (coronary artery disease, CAD, and cerebrovascular disease) (2). Despite the first record of diabetes-related cognitive dysfunctions in 1922 (3), for a long period diabetic nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and retinopathy were considered as late diabetes microvascular complicationsand it was believed that central nervous system (CNS) as an insulin independent organ, spares from diabetic complications. However in recent decades studies have provided evidence that indicate the deleterious effects of T1DM on structure and functions of the brain (4-6). Duration related or chronic effects of T1DM on the brain, T1DM encephalopathy, are manifested at the all levels of CNS from microscopic to macroscopic level. Macroscopically neuroimaging studies have demonstrated a high incidence of abnormalities like temporal lobe sclerosis, decreases in white matter volume in parahippocampus, temporal and frontal lobes as well as decreased gray matter volumes of the thalami, hippocampi, and insular cortex, decreased gray matter densities of superior and middle temporal gyri and frontal gyri (7, 8).In experimental models of T1DM a vast spectrum of neuronal changes have been reported. These pathological abnormalities include synaptic an Continue reading >>

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