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Comparison Between Diabetic Retinopathy And Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive retinopathy is retinal vascular damage caused by hypertension. Signs usually develop late in the disease. Funduscopic examination shows arteriolar constriction, arteriovenous nicking, vascular wall changes, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, yellow hard exudates, and optic disk edema. Treatment is directed at controlling BP and, when vision loss occurs, treating the retina. Acute BP elevation typically causes reversible vasoconstriction in retinal blood vessels, and hypertensive crisis may cause optic disk edema. More prolonged or severe hypertension leads to exudative vascular changes, a consequence of endothelial damage and necrosis. Other changes (eg, arteriole wall thickening, arteriovenous nicking) typically require years of elevated BP to develop. Smoking compounds the adverse effects of hypertensive retinopathy. Hypertension is a major risk factor for other retinal disorders (eg, retinal artery or vein occlusion, diabetic retinopathy). Also, hypertension combined with diabetes greatly increases risk of vision loss. Patients with hypertensive retinopathy are at high risk of hypertensive damage to other end organs. Symptoms usually do not develop until late in the disease and include blurred vision or visual field defects. In the early stages, funduscopy identifies arteriolar constriction, with a decrease in the ratio of the width of the retinal arterioles to the retinal venules. Chronic, poorly controlled hypertension causes the following: Arteriovenous crossing abnormalities (arteriovenous nicking) Arteriosclerosis with moderate vascular wall changes (copper wiring) to more severe vascular wall hyperplasia and thickening (silver wiring) Sometimes total vascular occlusion occurs. Arteriovenous nicking is a major predisposing factor to the d Continue reading >>

Hypertensive Retinopathy Vs Diabeticretinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy Vs Diabeticretinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy vs DiabeticRetinopathy Hypertension (Htn) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) can lead to serious complication for the uncontrolled patients . Hypertensive retinopathy (HR) is a complication of Htn that leads to damage to the retina and retinal circulation due to high BP . Usually they are asymptomatic but may present with decreased vision or headache . Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of DM that can lead to blindness . The longer the disease , the higher risk to get DR . There is no early sign of DR hence , they need to do eye check up to diabetic patients . For macular oedema for instance , it does not have any early symptoms although it can cause rapid loss of vision . They may have difficulty for daily activity like driving because of loss of vision . It is grade based on Keith-Wagener Barker (KWB) system : GRADE 1 : Tortuosity (twisting) of retinal arteries with increased reflectiveness (silver wiring) GRADE 2 : Grade 1 + Arteriovenous napping (thickened retinal arteries pass over retinal veins) GRADE 3 : Grade 2 + flamed shape haemorrhage and cotton wool exudates (due to small infarct) GRADE 4 : Grade 3 + papilloedema (blurry margin of the optic disc) GRADE 1 : Tortuosity of retinal arteries and silver wiring . GRADE 2 : G1 + AV nipping (arrow artery cross over onto vein) . GRADE 3 : G2 + flame-shaped haemorrhage and cotton wool exudate (whitish) . GRADE 4 : G3 + papilloedema (picture below only showing different between normal optic disc and papilloedema) Treatment for HR : Prevent , limit and reverse target organ damage by lowering patients BP level with anti hypertensive drug treatment and reduce the risk for cerebrovascular disease and death . DR can be divided into different classes : Category 1 : Mild Non Proliperative Retinopathy Continue reading >>

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina and retinal circulation due to high blood pressure (i.e. hypertension). Signs and symptoms[edit] Most patients with hypertensive retinopathy have no symptoms. However, some may report decreased or blurred vision,[1] and headaches.[2] Signs[edit] Signs of damage to the retina caused by hypertension include: Arteriolar changes, such as generalized arteriolar narrowing, focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous nicking, changes in the arteriolar wall (arteriosclerosis) and abnormalities at points where arterioles and venules cross. Manifestations of these changes include Copper wire arterioles where the central light reflex occupies most of the width of the arteriole and Silver wire arterioles where the central light reflex occupies all of the width of the arteriole, and "arterio-venular (AV) nicking" or "AV nipping", due to venous constriction and banking. advanced retinopathy lesions, such as microaneurysms, blot hemorrhages and/or flame hemorrhages, ischemic changes (e.g. "cotton wool spots"), hard exudates and in severe cases swelling of the optic disc (optic disc edema), a ring of exudates around the retina called a "macular star" and visual acuity loss, typically due to macular involvement. Mild signs of hypertensive retinopathy can be seen quite frequently in normal people (3–14% of adult individuals aged ≥40 years), even without hypertension.[3] Hypertensive retinopathy is commonly considered a diagnostic feature of a hypertensive emergency although it is not invariably present.[4] Keith Wagener Barker (KWB) Grades[edit] Grade 1 Vascular Attenuation Grade 2 As grade 1 + Irregularly located, tight constrictions - Known as "AV nicking" or "AV nipping" - Salus's sign Grade 3 As grade 2 + Retinal edema, cotton wool s Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy Vs Hypertensive Retinopathy Usmle Black Eye Emoji

Diabetic Retinopathy Vs Hypertensive Retinopathy Usmle Black Eye Emoji

Blackout Mask is an Australian made, 100% natural face mask, formulated by three key ingredients. You are here: Home / ttudss eyes / Diabetic Retinopathy Vs Hypertensive Retinopathy Usmle Black Eye Emoji Diabetic Retinopathy Vs Hypertensive Retinopathy Usmle Black Eye Emoji BARU dan ditingkatkan CarotoMax sekarang dengan Astaxanthin Manfaat yang Apa astaxanthin ? Nutrisi Balita nyeri haid obat sembelit omega guard omega I have a shot here of a family member with in a family group portrait who has a horrible lazy Cataracts Corneal Conditions Cosmetic Surgery Diabetic Retinopathy Vs Hypertensive Retinopathy Usmle Black Eye Emoji Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Movement Disorders Glaucoma Hereditary Alumni Fellows. Read more about Smartphones may raise myopia risk on Business Standard. Diabetic Retinopathy Vs Hypertensive Retinopathy Usmle Black Eye Emoji * ASTAXANTHIN 4mg x150Sgels Healthy Origins. Previous Article Tampons with Glyphosate: Underpinnings of Modern Period Problems? thrush symptoms nhs direct Rosco swims in a small body These include: Tear Replacement; Luication; The pain often starts around the eye and may then radiate to other parts of the head including the face and down to the neck and even the shoulders. How to stop/retard myopia progression (How to In order to avoid getting into high myopia The full power one is for emergency or driving. Josh Richardson signs rookie deal Surgery usually improves the conditions though the results are rarely perfect. for Color Blindness Another Test for Color Blindness Shareware software for the color blind Blindness (Color Vision Deficiency) Lifes minor Eyelid swelling is weak eye muscles with double vision a liver failure and in pregnant Home; Optic neuritis. British Thursday it was right to look at British Diabetic Retinopa Continue reading >>

Chapter 4: Beginner's Guide To The Retina - Timroot.com

Chapter 4: Beginner's Guide To The Retina - Timroot.com

The retina can be intimidating as its not easy to visualize the posterior pole and there is a bunch of pathology back there. There are many things I could cover in this chapter, but Ive decided to keep things simple and only discuss a few topics like diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachments. Other disease processes that involve the retina will be covered in other chapters. Diabetes is a common disease and many affected patients have vision problems. In fact, diabetics are twenty times more likely to go blind than the general population. Diabetic retinopathy is the term used to describe the retinal damage causing this visual loss. Diabetics have a high prevalence of retinopathy, and one out of every five patients with newly diagnosed diabetes will also show signs of retinopathy on exam. How are the eyes affected? Basically, diabetes is a disease of blood vessels. With large amounts of glucose coursing through the circulatory system, a glycosylation reaction occurs between the sugar and the proteins that make up the vessel walls. Over time, this glycosylation promotes denaturing of collagen protein within the walls, creating capillary thickening and eventually, wall breakdown. While this process occurs throughout the entire body, the microvasculature of certain organs, such as the kidneys and eyes, are more susceptible to damage. Along these lines, a good predictor of microvasculature damage in the diabetic eye is prior evidence of renal microvasculature disease as measured by proteinurea, elevated BUN, and creatinine. Because vessel damage accumulates over time, the most accurate predictor of retinopathy is duration of diabetes. After 10 years, more than half of patients will show signs of retinopathy, and after 15 years this number increases to nearly 90%. The rela Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

An ocular manifestation of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy is the result of weakening on the blood vessels within the lining of the inner eye called the retina and is the leading cause of blindness in American adults. Vision symptoms are usually rare in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, however, intermittent blur and seeing spots in the vision can be warning signs. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy include, poorly controlled diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and being diabetic for ten years or more. Typically affecting patients who have had diabetes for ten years or more, the longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Annual eye exams are strongly recommended for all diabetic patients. At Excellence in Vision, we use retinal photography methods to detect retinal blood vessel problems and to monitor changes from exam to exam. There are multiple forms of diabetic retinopathy, and Dr. Byland orDr. Eenigenburgcan determine your particular form. With one form, blood vessels may swell and leak fluid. In another, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. Watch the video to learn more. If you have diabetes and are concerned about diabetic retinopathy, schedule an appointment with Dr. Byland orDr. Eenigenburgfor a comprehensive eye exam and be sure to include it on your patient history form. Continue reading >>

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Maria Cristina de Oliveira Izar, ... Francisco Antonio Helfenstein Fonseca, in Handbook of Nutrition, Diet and the Eye , 2014 Blood Pressure and Retinal Vascular Lesions Hypertensive retinopathy is characterized by generalized and focal arteriolar narrowing, flame- and blot-shaped retinal hemorrhages, arteriovenous nicking, optic disc swelling, and cotton-wool spots.24 In the ARIC study,21 hypertension was found to be related to retinopathy, arteriovenous nicking, and focal arteriolar narrowing. In another study with 711 nondiabetic subjects, microaneurysms were associated with hypertension and obesity, although the study did not find further evidence that microvascular retinopathy in patients without diabetes was a consequence of past hyperglycemia.43 Some studies have shown greater expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the hyperinsulinemic state.4447 In this scenario, endothelial dysfunction occurs with minor endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation, diminishing glucose uptake and contributing to higher blood pressure levels. Insulin has an important vasodilatory action via production of nitric oxide; this effect is impaired in an insulin-resistant state, contributing to the association between hypertension and insulin resistance, which is reflected in changes to the retinal microvasculature.48 Carol Yim Lui Cheung, Tien Yin Wong, in Retina (Fifth Edition) , 2013 The presence of hypertensive retinopathy signs is associated with multiple markers of subclinical atherosclerotic diseases, including coronary artery calcification,55 aortic stiffness,56 left ventricular hypertrophy,57 and carotid intima-media thickness.58 There is also evidence that hypertensive retinopathy signs are predictive of clinical coronary artery disease events and congest Continue reading >>

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Hypertension may lead to multiple adverse effects to the eye. Hypertension can cause retinopathy,optic neuropathy, and choroidopathy,. This article focuses upon hypertensive retinopathy, which is the most common ocular presentation, but also includes hypertensive optic neuropathy and choroidopathy. Hypetensive retinopathy includes two disease processes. The acute effects of systemic arterial hypertension are a result of vasospasm to autoregulate perfusion [1] . The chronic effects of hypertension are caused by arteriosclerosis and predispose patients to visual loss from vascular occlusions or macroaneurysms [2] . The arteriosclerotic changes of hypertensive retinopathy are caused by chronically elevated blood pressure, defined as systolic greater than 140 mmHg and diastolic greater than 90 mmHg [2] . Hypertension is usually essential and not secondary to another disease process. Essential hypertension is a polygenic disease with multiple modifiable environmental factors contributing to the disease. However, secondary hypertension can develop in the setting of pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism, cushings syndrome, renal parenchymal disease, renal vacular disease, coarctation of the aorta, obstructive sleep apnea, hyperparathyroidism, and hyperthyroidism [3] . Many young patients with secondary hypertension may actually present to an ophthalmologist with bilateral vision loss due to serous macular detachment, biateral optic disc edema, and exudative retinal detachment. Risk factors for essential hypertension include high salt diet, obesity, tobacco use, alcohol, family history, stress, and ethnic background. The major risk for arteriosclerotic hypertensive retinopathy is the duration of elevated blood pressure. The major risk factor for malignant hypertension i Continue reading >>

How Can Eye Specialists Determine The Difference Between Diabetic And Hypertensive Retinopathy - Doctor Answers

How Can Eye Specialists Determine The Difference Between Diabetic And Hypertensive Retinopathy - Doctor Answers

How can eye specialists determine the difference between diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy? Exam and testing:Dilated fundus exam--diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy typically have different appearances, however they can appear similar with bleeding and ischemic areas of the retina . Areas requiring treatment to save vision (other than improving the underlying disease) can be found using imaging and angiogram diagnostic tests. ...Read more Hypertensive retinopathy is frequently diagnosed in those with elevated blood pressure for a prolonged period of time based upon changes in the vessels in the retina. It also is a pathology of very high blood pressure in which retinal vessels leak fluid leading to radiating patterns of yellow in the retina. ...Read more Yes, big difference.:Aside from being caused by 2 separate diseases, eye manifestations are distinct as well. Hypertensive eye changes occur from chronic affect of high pressure on the small arterioles in eye tissues, may lead to vascular occlusion. Diabetic eye disease affects the smaller capillary vessels, causing leakage and/or blockage of blood. If advanced, diabetic disease may require laser treatment or surgery . ...Read more Absolutely:There's the old saying that the eyes are the window to the soul. It's very true that may diseases are diagnosed by findings in the eye. If your eye dr. Saw changes in your retina caused by hypertension , it definitely raises your possibility of stroke. With 750, 000 strokes happening each year, you need prompt evaluation and treatment. Hypertension:The hypertension has to produce changes in the retinal vessels and this can be seen on a dilated fundus exam. This is a reflection of the acuteness or chronicity of the uncontrolled or untreated hypertension. Ask for an answer on Continue reading >>

Hypertensive Retinopathy And High Blood Pressure: Causes And Home Remedies

Hypertensive Retinopathy And High Blood Pressure: Causes And Home Remedies

Vision loss may seem like something that occurs naturally through aging, but this isn’t always the case. There are many other contributing factors that can harm our vision – and controlling these issues can protect our vision even in our old age. You’re probably familiar with vision loss associated with diabetes, but there is another health condition that can affect our vision – it’s hypertension. That’s right, our blood pressure can greatly affect our vision and can lead to hypertensive retinopathy. To understand what hypertensive retinopathy is, it’s important to start with retinopathy. Retinopathy is an eye condition that causes damage to the retina – the part of the eye that senses light – and can lead to partial or complete vision loss. Hypertensive retinopathy then is a type of retinopathy caused by hypertension – or high blood pressure. High blood pressure over time causes damage to the blood vessels – this can occur anywhere in the body and can lead to heart problems. Bleeding, blockages, and thickening of the arteries within the eyes may ultimately affect our vision. Causes of hypertensive retinopathy As we mentioned, hypertensive retinopathy is brought on by the effects of chronic high blood pressure, so the causes are similar for the two conditions. Some of the common causes are: Lack of activity – being overweight Smoking Stress Poor diet – consuming too much processed and fatty foods, salt, and sugar. Difference between diabetic retinopathy and hypertensive retinopathy Diabetes can also lead to retinopathy, but there are some differences to take note of. In hypertensive retinopathy, the blood vessels become damaged and may bleed. In diabetic retinopathy, the vessels actually deteriorate. Fluid can then collect in the retina leading Continue reading >>

Easton Eye Consultants - Diabetic & Hypertensive Retinopathy

Easton Eye Consultants - Diabetic & Hypertensive Retinopathy

Retinopathy refers to a disease of the blood vessels within the retina that causes and changes their size and nature. The blood vessels may swell and leak fluid, or abnormal ones may grow over the surface of the retina and interfere with proper vision. While the presence of retinopathy may not be evident at first, over time it can worsen and lead to loss of vision. Very Severe Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Retinopathy can accompany either hypertension or diabetes (either type 1 or type 2). Close to half the population who have been diagnosed with diabetes will have some stage of diabetic retinopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy, which can be determined during a comprehensive eye exam at Easton Eye Consultants, may be the first sign of hypertension, and occurs mostly among those middle-aged or older. Hypertensive retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy, while being similar in some features, show up differently on the retina. Hypertensive retinopathy has relatively few hemorrhages and a greater number of cotton wool spots than diabetic retinopathy, although there is little to differentiate the two for the patient. The earlier stages of the disease do not normally require treatment, but annual or more frequent examinations should be considered to monitor the progress of the disease. Until the disease reaches its most severe stage, it is sometimes enough to manage retinopathy by controlling the blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugar levels. If the disease advances to the proliferative stage, it can be treated with laser surgery. Two or more sessions are needed to place the one to two thousand laser spots in the areas of the retina away from the macula, which cause the abnormal blood vessels to shrink. This treatment, called Pan Retinal Photocoagulation or si Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy

An ocular manifestation of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy is the result of weakening on the blood vessels within the lining of the inner eye called the retina and is the leading cause of blindness in American adults. Vision symptoms are usually rare in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, however, intermittent blur and seeing spots in the vision can be warning signs. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy include, poorly controlled diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and being diabetic for ten years or more. Typically affecting patients who have had diabetes for ten years or more, the longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Annual eye exams are strongly recommended for all diabetic patients. At Erik A. Ostenso, O.D., we use retinal photography methods to detect retinal blood vessel problems and to monitor changes from exam to exam. There are multiple forms of diabetic retinopathy, and Dr. Ostenso can determine your particular form. With one form, blood vessels may swell and leak fluid. In another, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. Watch the video to learn more. If you have diabetes and are concerned about diabetic retinopathy, schedule an appointment with Dr. Ostenso for a comprehensive eye exam and be sure to include it on your patient history form. It is an ocular manifestation of diabetes, a systemic disease, which affects up to 80 percent of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Despite these intimidating statistics, research indicates that at least 90% of new cases could be reduced by preventative monitoring during regular eye examinations and proper treatment. Th Continue reading >>

Similarities And Differences In Early Retinal Phenotypes In Hypertension And Diabetes.

Similarities And Differences In Early Retinal Phenotypes In Hypertension And Diabetes.

Similarities and differences in early retinal phenotypes in hypertension and diabetes. J Hypertens. 2011 Sep;29(9):1667-75. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283496655. The use of retinal photography in clinical practice and research has substantially increased the knowledge about the epidemiology, natural history and significance of diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy. Early retinopathy signs, including retinal microaneurysms, blot hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots and hard exudates, are common vascular abnormalities found in middle-aged to older people with diabetes and hypertension. The presence of these early retinopathy signs is associated with an increased risk of systemic vascular diseases, such as stroke, cognitive impairment, coronary heart disease, heart failure and nephropathy. These retinopathy lesions may therefore be considered as biomarkers of systemic microvascular processes caused by diabetes and hypertension. Nevertheless, whereas the interest in retinopathy assessment continues to grow, a core concept remains undefined: what is the relative importance and contribution of diabetes and hypertension in the development of early retinopathy signs? The answer of this fundamental question holds the key to better understanding of the systemic associations of early hypertensive and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, we summarize the similarities and differences of early retinopathy signs seen in diabetes and hypertension, and discuss the conceptual relevance from epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinical perspectives. Continue reading >>

Eye And Retina

Eye And Retina

Home Page | Our Locations / Contact Us Set Text Size: A A A In this section, we provide some basic information about the eye as well as the most common signs, symptoms and disorders of the Retina and Vitreous. We eagerly await your feedback so as to provide only the most useful information to our valuable patrons. Choose a topic below to learn more: Unfortunately, Diabetes has assumed epidemic proportions in the USA and a lot of other countries in the world. The culprit is none other than our own eating habits (excessive sweets) and certain ingredients such as corn syrup (present in many food items) that lead to unwarranted carbohydrate levels in the body. Sedentary life-styles and lack of exercise/fitness regime are highly contributory to the same. Diabetes often accounts for changes in the Retina, i.e. Diabetic Retinopathy. These unwanted changes occur after a decade or more of diabetes in an individual, but are asymptomatic to begin with and remain so for a long period of time (especially in Type- 2 diabetics). Early signs of Diabetic Retinopathy include small hemorrhages in the eye, as well as dilations known as "microaneurysms" within the tiny ocular blood vessels. The first symptoms will include reduction in vision, though gradually. The Retina under such circumstances is deprived of adequate blood supply. This results in the Retina sending out "chemical signals" to demand more blood supply. The unfortunate response to this signal is the development of the small, abnormal blood vessels in the Retina, known as "Neovascularization." This condition constitutes "Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy." It is of paramount importance for diabetic individuals to have a regular retinal eye exam for early detection of this condition, if at all. At times, these changes in the R Continue reading >>

Are There Relationships Between Soft Exudates, Hard Exudates And Cotton Wool Spots In Retinopathy?

Are There Relationships Between Soft Exudates, Hard Exudates And Cotton Wool Spots In Retinopathy?

Excellent question! I think it is helpful to make sure the definitions of each are understood, then their relationships. Cotton-wool spots (CWS), also sometimes referred to as 'soft exudates', are nerve fiber layer infarcts, or pre-capillary arterial occlusions. In other words they are an ischemic event of a very small amount of tissue. Hard exudates represent the accumulation of lipid in or under the retina secondary to vascular leakage. The aqueous portion of the transudative or exudative fluid is absorbed much more rapidly than the lipid component. Thus, the lipid builds up in or under the retina, and becomes visible as discrete yellowish deposits. Capillary occlusion occur in both diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HTN), thus CWS occur in both conditions. (Hard) Exudate is quite common in diabetic retinopathy (actually diabetic macular edema) due to leakage from damaged blood vessels, and VEGF induced leakage. Exudate is not very common in HTN, it is usually only seen in malignant hypertension. After the great clarification of Collin, I can tell you that the lipid deposits in the macula are direct associated with hiperlipidemia and in patients with great improvement of macular thickness after therapy for DME can loss vision because of a concentration of lipids under the retina. Thanks collins for your clarification simply put cws is an internal event and hard exudates is external from leakage. but why does the difficulty arise in some cases where the becomes a little difficult to differentiate. think of a DR with exudates but not macula star. With experience you will find that it becomes easier and easier to distinguish "soft' form 'hard' exudates. Soft exudates, or CWS, usually have a somewhat fluffy border that is perpendicular to the course of the nerve fibers Continue reading >>

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