diabetestalk.net

Compare The Basic Treatments For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes And Exercise

Type 2 Diabetes And Exercise

When you have type 2 diabetes, physical activity is an important component of your treatment plan. It’s also important to have a healthy meal plan and maintain your blood glucose level through medications or insulin, if necessary. If you stay fit and active throughout your life, you’ll be able to better control your diabetes and keep your blood glucose level in the correct range. Controlling your blood glucose level is essential to preventing long-term complications, such as nerve pain and kidney disease. Exercise has so many benefits, but the biggest one is that it makes it easier to control your blood glucose (blood sugar) level. People with type 2 diabetes have too much glucose in their blood, either because their body doesn’t produce enough insulin to process it, or because their body doesn’t use insulin properly (insulin resistant). In either case, exercise can reduce the glucose in your blood. Muscles can use glucose without insulin when you’re exercising. In other words, it doesn’t matter if you’re insulin resistant or if you don’t have enough insulin: when you exercise, your muscles get the glucose they need, and in turn, your blood glucose level goes down. If you’re insulin resistant, exercise actually makes your insulin more effective. That is—your insulin resistance goes down when you exercise, and your cells can use the glucose more effectively. Exercise can also help people with type 2 diabetes avoid long-term complications, especially heart problems. People with diabetes are susceptible to developing blocked arteries (arteriosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack. Exercise helps keep your heart healthy and strong. Plus, exercise helps you maintain good cholesterol—and that helps you avoid arteriosclerosis. Additionally, there ar Continue reading >>

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2

Tweet Whilst both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterised by having higher than normal blood sugar levels, the cause and development of the conditions are different. Confused over which type of diabetes you have? It's not always clear what type of diabetes someone has, despite what many people think. For instance, the typical assumption is that people with type 2 diabetes will be overweight and not inject insulin, while people with type 1 diabetes will be, if anything, underweight. But these perceptions just aren't always true. Around 20% of people with type 2 diabetes are of a healthy weight when diagnosed, and many of them are dependent on insulin. Similarly, people with type 1 diabetes will in some cases be overweight. Because both types of diabetes can be so varied and unpredictable, it's often difficult to know which type of diabetes someone has. It's not safe to assume that an overweight person with high blood glucose levels has type 2 diabetes, because the cause of their condition might in fact be attributable to type 1. In some cases, when the type of diabetes is in doubt, your health team may need to carry out specialised tests to work out which type of diabetes you have. This way, they can recommend the most appropriate treatment for your diabetes. Common differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Despite the uncertainty that often surrounds a diagnosis of diabetes, there are a few common characteristics of each diabetes type. Please note that these differences are based on generalisations - exceptions are common. For instance, the perception of type 1 diabetes isn't strictly true: many cases are diagnosed in adulthood. This table should be seen as a rough guide to the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, rather than hard and fast rules. Co Continue reading >>

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Despite sharing a name, type 1 and type 2 diabetes are quite different. Understanding the key differences in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes is critical for research into finding a way to cure, treat and prevent diabetes, but also for caring for someone with diabetes and managing your own diabetes. How these diseases begin, how they affect the body and how they are treated are all quite different. What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is the result of the human immune system mistaking the body’s beta cells, which produce insulin, for foreign cells and causing their destruction. Insulin is a protein that allows the transport of sugar into cells to provide energy. When sugar can’t get from the blood into the cells, the cells have no access to the glucose they need and cannot function correctly. The composition of our blood also gets off balance, with high blood sugar levels leading to detrimental effects on other organs of the body. Injecting synthetic insulin solves this problem because it keeps blood glucose levels in the right range and helps glucose reach our cells. What is Type 2 Diabetes? Although type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1, the causes for it aren’t fully understood. What doctors and scientists do know is that excess weight, inactivity, age and genetic makeup contribute to development of the disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but the cells in the body cannot respond to it adequately so they cannot take up glucose. Later on, especially when treatment fails, type 2 diabetes is aggravated by exhausted beta cells, decreasing their insulin production resulting in further increases in blood sugar levels. Since beta cells aren’t killed off in type 2 diabetes, at least initially, blood sugar levels often become elevated Continue reading >>

Incidence Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With Sglt2 Inhibitors And Other Antihyperglycemic Agents

Incidence Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With Sglt2 Inhibitors And Other Antihyperglycemic Agents

Highlights • Overall, unadjusted DKA incidence were similar between SGLT2 and non-SGLT2 agents. • Overall, unadjusted DKA incidence dropped by ∼50% when excluding potential autoimmune diabetes. • Primary analysis found no statistically significant increased risk of DKA with SGLT2 inhibitors. • No increased risk of DKA with SGLT2 inhibitors when excluding potential autoimmune diabetes. • More than half of the DKA cases met the definition of potential autoimmune diabetes. Abstract To estimate and compare incidence of diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) among patients with type 2 diabetes who are newly treated with SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) versus non-SGLT2i antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs) in actual clinical practice. A new-user cohort study design using a large insurance claims database in the US. DKA incidence was compared between new users of SGLT2i and new users of non-SGLT2i AHAs pair-matched on exposure propensity scores (EPS) using Cox regression models. Overall, crude incidence rates (95% CI) per 1000 patient-years for DKA were 1.69 (1.22–2.30) and 1.83 (1.58–2.10) among new users of SGLT2i (n = 34,442) and non-SGLT2i AHAs (n = 126,703). These rates more than doubled among patients with prior insulin prescriptions but decreased by more than half in analyses that excluded potential autoimmune diabetes (PAD). The hazard ratio (95% CI) for DKA comparing new users of SGLT2i to new users of non-SGLT2i AHAs was 1.91 (0.94–4.11) (p = 0.09) among the 30,196 EPS-matched pairs overall, and 1.13 (0.43–3.00) (p = 0.81) among the 27,515 EPS-matched pairs that excluded PAD. This was the first observational study that compared DKA risk between new users of SGLT2i and non-SGLT2i AHAs among patients with type 2 diabetes, and overall no statistically significant differen Continue reading >>

Chart: The Basic Differences Between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

Chart: The Basic Differences Between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adolescents — in fact, more than 150,000 people below age 20 have diabetes. When diabetes strikes during childhood, it is routinely assumed to be type 1, or juvenile-onset diabetes. However, in the last 2 decades, type 2 diabetes (formerly known as adult-onset diabetes) has been reported among US children and adolescents with increasing frequency. Furthermore, studies conducted in Europe showed an increase in the frequency of type 1 diabetes, especially in young children — but it is unclear whether the frequency of type 1 diabetes is also increasing among US youth. Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Often diagnosed in childhood, but can occur at any age Usually diagnosed after age 30 About 5-10 percent of people with diabetes have type 1 About 90-95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 Not associated with excess body weight Often associated with excess body weight — about 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. No known prevention measures Studies have found that people can lower their risk by losing 5 to 7 percent of their body weight through diet and increased physical activity Often a sudden onset Symptoms develop gradually Occurs equally among males and females, but is more common in whites than in nonwhites More common in older people, especially in people who are overweight, and occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, some Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islander Americans, and Hispanics/Latinos Formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes Increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents, especially among African American, Mexican American, and Pacific Islander youth. May be Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Years of poorly controlled hyperglycemia lead to multiple, primarily vascular complications that affect small vessels (microvascular), large vessels (macrovascular), or both. (For additional detail, see Complications of Diabetes Mellitus.) Microvascular disease underlies 3 common and devastating manifestations of diabetes mellitus: Microvascular disease may also impair skin healing, so that even minor breaks in skin integrity can develop into deeper ulcers and easily become infected, particularly in the lower extremities. Intensive control of plasma glucose can prevent or delay many of these complications but may not reverse them once established. Macrovascular disease involves atherosclerosis of large vessels, which can lead to Immune dysfunction is another major complication and develops from the direct effects of hyperglycemia on cellular immunity. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. See the image below. See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM. Signs and symptoms Many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations include the following: See Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [1] : Whether a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5% or higher should be a primary diagnostic criterion or an optional criterion remains a point of controversy. Indications for diabetes screening in asymptomatic adults includes the following [2, 3] : Overweight and 1 or more other risk factors for diabetes (eg, first-degree relative with diabetes, BP >140/90 mm Hg, and HDL < 35 mg/dL and/or triglyceride level >250 mg/dL) See Workup for more detail. Management Goals of treatment are as follows: Microvascular (ie, eye and kidney disease) risk reduction through control of glycemia and blood pressure Macrovascular (ie, coronary, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular) risk reduction through control of lipids and hypertension, smoking cessation Recommendations for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus from the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) place the patient's condition, desires, abilities, and tolerances at the center of the decision-making process. [4, 5, 6] The EASD/ADA position statement contains 7 key points: Ind Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood. But type 2 diabetes in children is rising. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes-90 to 95 out of 100 people. In type 2 diabetes, the body isn't able to use insulin the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency. How are these diseases different? Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar. The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease. Episodes of low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) are common. There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines. It cannot be prevented. It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy wei Continue reading >>

Medications To Treat Diabetes

Medications To Treat Diabetes

It's very important to take diabetes medications as directed by your doctor. Left untreated, diabetes can lead to serious, even life-threatening complications—other diseases or conditions that are related to diabetes. Complications can lead to loss of vital functions (such as with your kidneys), blindness, amputation of lower limbs, and even death (especially from cardiovascular disease). By taking your medications as directed, you greatly reduce your risk of getting complications. Treatment depends on the type of diabetes you have. There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas stops making insulin. It is usually seen in children and teens, but may occur later in life. People with type 1 diabetes need insulin to survive. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. With type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin and it becomes resistant to insulin’s effects. It occurs in adults and elderly patients, many of whom are overweight. Younger people can also develop type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy. It usually goes away after the baby is born. Women who have had gestational diabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life, however. Treatment includes changes in lifestyle (diet and exercise), plus medicine (if needed): oral medicines (pills), insulin, and/or other injected medicines. People with type 1 diabetes always need insulin. People with type 2 diabetes usually need treatment with oral medicines for several or even many years but may eventually need insulin to maintain glucose control. Insulin helps you manage your blood glucose levels by "unlocking" cells so that they can access your blood glucose for the energy they need. Without su Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Through The Life Span: A Position Statement Of The American Diabetes Association

Type 1 Diabetes Through The Life Span: A Position Statement Of The American Diabetes Association

Incidence and Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes The exact number of individuals with type 1 diabetes around the world is not known, but in the U.S., there are estimated to be up to 3 million (1). Although it has long been called “juvenile diabetes” due to the more frequent and relatively straightforward diagnosis in children, the majority of individuals with type 1 diabetes are adults. Most children are referred and treated in tertiary centers, where clinical data are more readily captured. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study estimated that, in 2009, 18,436 U.S. youth were newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (12,945 non-Hispanic white, 3,098 Hispanic, 2,070 non-Hispanic black, 276 Asian-Pacific Islander, and 47 American Indian) (2). Worldwide, ∼78,000 youth are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes annually. Incidence varies tremendously among countries: East Asians and American Indians have the lowest incidence rates (0.1–8 per 100,000/year) as compared with the Finnish who have the highest rates (>64.2 per 100,000/year) (3). In the U.S., the number of youth with type 1 diabetes was estimated to be 166,984 (4). The precise incidence of new-onset type 1 diabetes in those over 20 years of age is unknown. This may be due to the prolonged phase of onset and the subtleties in distinguishing the different types of diabetes. In one European study of adults aged 30–70 years, ∼9% tested positive for GAD antibodies (GADA) within 5 years of a diabetes diagnosis, consistent with other studies (5). Adults with type 1 diabetes often receive care in primary care settings rather than with an endocrinologist. Unlike the consolidated care seen in pediatric diabetes management, the lack of consolidated care in adults makes incidence and prevalence rates difficult to characterize, an Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. We do not know what causes this auto-immune reaction. Type 1 diabetes is not linked to modifiable lifestyle factors. There is no cure and it cannot be prevented. Type 1 diabetes: Occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin Represents around 10% of all cases of diabetes and is one of the most common chronic childhood conditions Onset is usually abrupt and the symptoms obvious Symptoms can include excessive thirst and urination, unexplained weight loss, weakness and fatigue and blurred vision Is managed with insulin injections several times a day or the use of an insulin pump. What happens to the pancreas? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach, stops making insulin because the cells that make the insulin have been destroyed by the body’s immune system. Without insulin, the body’s cells cannot turn glucose (sugar), into energy. People with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin every day of their lives to replace the insulin the body cannot produce. They must test their blood glucose levels several times throughout the day. The onset of type 1 diabetes occurs most frequently in people under 30 years, however new research suggests almost half of all people who develop the condition are diagnosed over the age of 30. About 10-15% of all cases of diabetes are type 1. What happens if people with type 1 diabetes don’t receive insulin? Without insulin the body burns its own fats as a substitute which releases chemical substances in the blood. Without ongoing injections of insulin, the dangerous chemical substances will accumulate and can be life threatening if it is not treated. This is a condition call Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your body’s cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key. People with type 2 diabetes don’t respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. You can think of this as having a broken key. Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. That increases the risk of diabetes complications. Both types of diabetes, if not controlled, share many similar symptoms, including: frequent urination feeling very thirsty and drinking a lot feeling very hungry feeling very fatigued blurry vision cuts or sores that don’t heal properly People with type 1 diabetes may also experience irritability and mood changes, and unintentionally lose weight. People with type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways. Many people with type 2 diabetes won’t have symptoms for many years. Then often the symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and don’t discover their condition until complications develop. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop fast, typically over the course of several weeks. Type 1 diabetes, which was once known as juvenile diabetes, usually develops in childhood or adolescence. But it’s possible to get type 1 diabetes later in life. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have simi Continue reading >>

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

When people hear that you have diabetes, they start to make assumptions that aren't always accurate. A lot of the confusion stems from the fact that there are two main types, yet many people don't understand how they're different. (Want to pick up some healthier habits? Sign up to get daily healthy living tips delivered straight to your inbox!) As someone with type 1 diabetes—I was diagnosed with it nearly 40 years ago—I'm all too familiar with the disease. I lived with it as a child, teen, and adult, and when I decided to have kids I had to figure out how to manage the condition while being pregnant. (I even wrote a book about it, Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby.) Having type 1 diabetes means I'm in the minority: Of the approximately 29 million Americans who have diabetes, only 1.25 million have type 1. Most have type 2, which is a totally different form. "Comparing type 1 to type 2 is like comparing apples to tractors," says Gary Scheiner, a Pennsylvania-based certified diabetes educator and author of Think Like a Pancreas. "The only thing they really have in common is that both involve an inability to control blood sugar levels." Here are 5 important distinctions. 1. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease; type 2 isn't. Diabetes happens when your body has trouble with insulin, a hormone that helps convert sugar from the food you eat into energy. When there isn’t enough insulin in your body, sugar builds up in the bloodstream and can make you sick. People with type 1 and type 2 both face this problem, but how they arrived there is quite different. If you have type 1, you don't make any insulin at all. That's because type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-making cells in your Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Overview (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Overview (beyond The Basics)

INTRODUCTION Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disorder that disrupts the way your body uses glucose (sugar). All the cells in your body need sugar to work normally. Sugar gets into the cells with the help of a hormone called insulin. If there is not enough insulin or if the body stops responding to insulin, sugar builds up in the blood. This is what happens to people with diabetes mellitus. There are two different types of diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the problem is that the pancreas (an organ in the abdomen) does not make enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas does not make enough insulin (figure 1), the body becomes resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin, or both. This causes high blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, which can cause problems if untreated. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, approximately 90 percent of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that requires regular monitoring and treatment throughout your life. Treatment includes lifestyle changes, self-care measures, and sometimes medications. Fortunately, these treatments can keep blood sugar levels close to normal and minimize the risk of developing complications. THE IMPACT OF DIABETES Being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes can be a frightening and overwhelming experience, and you likely have questions about why it developed, what it means for your long-term health, and how it will affect your everyday life. For most people, the first few months after being diagnosed are filled with emotional highs and lows. If you have just been diagnosed with diabetes, you and your family should use this time to learn as much as possible so that caring for your diabetes (including testing your blood sugar, going Continue reading >>

More in diabetes