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Cholesterol And Diabetes

Hdl Cholesterol And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Study

Hdl Cholesterol And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Study

Observationally, low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether levels of HDL cholesterol are causally associated with type 2 diabetes is unknown. In a prospective study of the general population (n = 47,627), we tested whether HDL cholesterol–related genetic variants were associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and, in turn, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol–decreasing gene scores and allele numbers associated with up to −13 and −20% reductions in HDL cholesterol levels. The corresponding theoretically predicted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.44 (95% CI 1.38–1.52) and 1.77 (1.61–1.95), whereas the genetic estimates were nonsignificant. Genetic risk ratios for type 2 diabetes for a 0.2 mmol/L reduction in HDL cholesterol were 0.91 (0.75–1.09) and 0.93 (0.78–1.11) for HDL cholesterol–decreasing gene scores and allele numbers, respectively, compared with the corresponding observational hazard ratio of 1.37 (1.32–1.42). In conclusion, genetically reduced HDL cholesterol does not associate with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that the corresponding observational association is due to confounding and/or reverse causation. Low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies (1,2). Therefore plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes (3–5). Low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides are part of the diabetic dyslipidemia (6–8), and high levels of trigl Continue reading >>

Cholesterol And Diabetes

Cholesterol And Diabetes

The ADA's revised treatment guidelines contain many updates, but one of the most significant is a push for statin therapy across-the-board. It's a serious effort to stop cardiovascular disease, one of the prime causes of death for people with diabetes. Diabetes greatly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since high cholesterol levels also increase CVD risk, it's important to keep cholesterol levels under control if you have diabetes. Cholesterol consists of three main components: high-density cholesterol (HDL, good cholesterol), low-density cholesterol (LDL, bad cholesterol), and triglycerides. According to the new American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines, high LDL cholesterol is a common problem for people with diabetes. Also referred to as dyslipidemia, this condition greatly increases the risk of developing CVD.1 Cholesterol Numbers for People with Diabetes It's important to know your cholesterol numbers. If you don't have prexisting CVD, your numbers should be: total cholesterol: < 200 mg/dL total triglycerides: < 200 mg/dL HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol): > 45 mg/dL LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol): <130 mg/dL If you have CVD already, your numbers should be: total cholesterol: < 200 mg/dL total triglycerides: < 200 mg/dL HDL cholesterol: > 35 mg/dL LDL cholesterol: < 100 mg/dL Current Guidelines: New Focus on Statins The ADA now recommends that all people with diabetes take the cholesterol lowering drugs—statins—in addition to lifestyle therapy (meal planning changes and exercise) to reduce the likelihood of developing heart disease (eg, heart attack and stroke).2 "Statins are the drugs of choice for LDL cholesterol lowering and cardioprotection," the ADA stated. Patients with diabetes should either be prescribed Continue reading >>

Diseases Linked To High Cholesterol

Diseases Linked To High Cholesterol

High cholesterol is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. That can include coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. High cholesterol has also been linked to diabetes and high blood pressure. To prevent or manage these conditions, work with your doctor to see what steps you need to take to lower your cholesterol. The main risk from high cholesterol is coronary heart disease. If the cholesterol level is too high, cholesterol can build up in the walls of your arteries. Over time, this build-up -- called plaque -- causes hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis. This causes arteries to become narrowed, which slows the blood flow to the heart muscle. Reduced blood flow can result in angina (chest pain) or in a heart attack if a blood vessel gets blocked completely. Atherosclerosis causes arteries that lead to the brain to become narrowed and even blocked. If a vessel carrying blood to the brain is blocked completely, you could have a stroke High cholesterol also has been linked to peripheral vascular disease. This refers to diseases of blood vessels outside the heart and brain. In this condition, fatty deposits build up along artery walls and affect blood circulation. This occurs mainly in arteries that lead to the legs and feet. Diabetes can upset the balance between HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. People with diabetes tend to have LDL particles that stick to arteries and damage blood vessel walls more easily. Glucose (a type of sugar) attaches to lipoproteins (a cholesterol-protein package that enables cholesterol to travel through blood). Sugarcoated LDL remains in the bloodstream longer and may lead to the formation of plaque. People with diabetes tend to have low HDL and high triglyceride (another kind of blood fat) leve Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Cholesterol: What Is The Relationship?

Diabetes And Cholesterol: What Is The Relationship?

What is the relationship between cholesterol and diabetes? How does cholesterol affect my diabetes, and how do I manage it? Judy contacted TheDiabetesCouncil When Judy contacted TheDiabetesCouncil, she had questions about her cholesterol. Though her overall number was at 180 mg/dl, and in a normal range, her LDL-C was higher than normal, although mildly elevated, and her HDL-C was low. Her doctor had explained very little about this to Judy, and she was confused. How can her overall cholesterol number be acceptable, but her other cholesterol numbers were out of range. What did this mean for Judy’s health? Was she more prone to heart disease and stroke due to these cholesterol numbers? Her triglycerides were a little elevated, too. We decided to give Judy a guide that would help her to fully understand her cholesterol numbers, and how they affect her cardiovascular health. We also wanted to make sure that Judy and others like her understand how their cholesterol numbers relate to their diabetes. So let’s get started… What is cholesterol Cholesterol is mainly comprised of fat and lipoproteins. A lipoprotein is comprised of cholesterol, protein, and fat (triglycerides). Cholesterol comes from two sources. Our body manufactures some cholesterol on its own. In addition, cholesterol comes from animal products, such as milk, eggs, cheese, and meats. Cholesterol has the consistency similar to gum or wax. Small amounts of cholesterol are important for a healthy cell membrane (good cholesterol), and some cholesterol has been deemed, “the bad cholesterol,” due to these cholesterol particles tends to cause atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Some cholesterol is “good,” cholesterol, that tends to carry the bad cholesterol away and out the body. That is why y Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Having diabetes is now considered a risk factor for heart and circulatory disease. This is because people with diabetes are less efficient at processing blood fats like cholesterol and triglycerides. Many people with diabetes share a common pattern of raised blood fats. This includes: normal or slightly raised levels of cholesterol Small dense LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) It is this distinctive pattern of dyslipidaemia (altered blood fats) that increases the risk of heart and circulatory disease in people with diabetes. People with symptoms of pre-diabetes often have the same pattern. Recent guidelines recommend that all adults with diabetes should have their blood fats measured and cardiovascular risk assessed each year. Many people with diabetes are now routinely treated with a statin, especially if over the age of 40. Find out if you might be at risk of type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>

Cholesterol Abnormalities & Diabetes

Cholesterol Abnormalities & Diabetes

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is made by the body and found in some animal-based foods. Blood cholesterol levels describe a group of fats also known as lipoproteins which includes HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol and LDL-C or "bad" cholesterol. Cholesterol is important to overall health, but when levels are too high, cholesterol can be harmful by contributing to narrowed or blocked arteries. Unfortunately, people with diabetes are more prone to having unhealthy high cholesterol levels, which contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). By taking steps to manage cholesterol, individuals can reduce their chance of cardiovascular disease and premature death. Using a blood sample taken after a brief period of fasting by the patient, a lipoprotein profile reveals the following lipid measures: Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol = "bad" cholesterol A high LDL-C level is associated with a higher risk for CVD. However, your LDL number should no longer be the main factor in guiding treatment to prevent heart attack and stroke, according to the latest guidelines from the American Heart Association. For patients taking statins, it’s important to work with your doctor to manage your LDL appropriately. A diet high in saturated and trans fats can raise your LDL cholesterol. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol = "good" cholesterol With HDL-C, higher levels are associated with a lower risk for CVD. Low HDL cholesterol puts you at higher risk for heart disease. People with high blood triglycerides usually also have lower HDL cholesterol. Genetic factors, type 2 diabetes, and certain drugs, such as beta-blockers and anabolic steroids, also lower HDL cholesterol levels. Smoking, being overweight and being sedentary can all contribute to lower HDL cholesterol. Triglycerid Continue reading >>

Diabetes And High Cholesterol 101

Diabetes And High Cholesterol 101

Cholesterol is a type of fat found in the blood. Everyone has it, but people with diabetes are more likely to have unhealthy levels of LDL, which can cause narrowing or blocking of the blood vessels. This blockage, when severe, keeps blood from reaching some areas of the heart, increasing your risk for a heart attack or stroke. There are two types of cholesterol in the blood: HDL and LDL. LDL levels should be kept low to help protect your heart. By contrast, HDL is a healthy fat that helps clear fatty deposits from your blood vessels and protect your heart. Try thinking "L should be low, H is healthy" to help you remember the difference between the two types. Triglycerides are another type of fat in your blood that can add to your risk of a heart attack or stroke at high levels, similar to the effect of high cholesterol. Know the Numbers What are the low and high levels of cholesterol for those with diabetes? According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), most adults with diabetes should aim for an LDL level of less than 100 mg/dl. The ADA-recommended HDL levels are greater than 40 mg/dl for men with diabetes and greater than 50 mg/dl for women with diabetes. The ADA recommends that both men and women with diabetes aim for triglyceride levels less than 150 mg/dl. What's mg/dl? It stands for milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood -- the standard unit of measure for cholesterol and triglycerides. Everyone, including people with diabetes, needs some cholesterol in their blood to help build healthy cells. However, there are no symptoms to alert you if your LDL is too high or your HDL is too low. A blood test at your doctor's office is the only way to know. As a result, it is especially important to have your cholesterol checked regularly (at least yearly) i Continue reading >>

How Triglycerides Affect Your Risk Of Diabetes

How Triglycerides Affect Your Risk Of Diabetes

No one wants type 2 diabetes. It’s a condition that affects your whole body and gets progressively worse, possibly leading to loss of vision and feeling (especially in your feet and fingertips), as well as kidney disease and heart disease. Having high triglycerides makes it more likely that you will develop diabetes, though. Luckily, with some effort, you have a good chance of lowering your triglycerides -- which, at the same time, can help you lower your chance of getting diabetes. High triglycerides don't cause diabetes. Instead, their levels indicate that your system for turning food into energy isn't working properly. Normally, your body makes insulin, which “escorts” glucose -- the type of sugar in your blood --inside your cells. There, your body turns glucose into energy. Insulin also allows your body to use triglycerides for energy. A common cause of high triglycerides is excess carbohydrates in your diet. High TG’s signals insulin resistance; that’s when you have excess insulin and blood sugar isn’t responding in normal ways to insulin. This results in higher than normal blood sugar levels. If you have insulin resistance, you’re one step closer to type 2 diabetes. If you also are overweight, eat a lot of sugary and starchy foods, or don’t exercise, your insulin resistance can be worse. You can reverse your tracks by following the exercise and meal plan your doctor recommends to lower your triglycerides and by taking prescribed medicine. Your doctor can check your blood sugar (also called glucose) levels, by taking a sample of your blood after you’ve fasted, which means you haven’t eaten for at least 8 hours. The doctor may also test the level of glucose in your blood with a special blood test called A1c. The result shows the average level of Continue reading >>

Diabetes & Cholesterol | Joslin Diabetes Center

Diabetes & Cholesterol | Joslin Diabetes Center

Lipids are fat-like substances found in the blood. Cholesterol and triglycerides are two types of lipids. The body needs some lipids to stay healthy, but elevated lipid levels can damage artery walls, causing atherosclerosis, or hardening of artery walls, which can cause heart attacks. Below is a quick reference guide to the types of terms that you may have heard from your doctor when discussing cholesterol levels. According to Tracey Lucier, Nutrition Educator at the Joslin Diabetes Center, cholesterol is found only in animal foods, such as eggs, milk, cheese, liver, meat and chicken. "Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance made in your liver and found in foods. Your total blood cholesterol level should be 200 mg/dL or lower," Lucier states. The body needs cholesterol to perform several functions including cell maintenance, and also metabolizes fat soluble vitamins, among many other activities. Having elevated LDL cholesterol levels for a significant period of time can damage arteries. When LDL is high, it causes the formation of "plaque" in the blood, damaging and block arteries. --LDL readings should be less than 100; less than 70 if you have diabetes and heart disease This type of cholesterol works to clear LDL cholesterol from the blood, keeping the arteries open. When HDL cholesterol is too low,fewer amounts ofLDL cholesterol is removed from the blood, increasing the risk of damage to the arteries. --HDL should be greater than 40 for women; greater than 50 for men High triglycerides prevent HDL from removing LDL from the blood. They also produce LDL that blocks arteries. --Triglyceride levels should be less than 150 Continue reading >>

4 Tips For Eating Well With High Cholesterol

4 Tips For Eating Well With High Cholesterol

Here’s some good news: it doesn’t take a huge effort to start making heart-healthy food decisions. Especially when you have diabetes and high cholesterol, watching your diet is critical. There are changes you can make to what you eat every day. We recommend that you talk to a certified diabetes educator or registered dietitian about changing how you eat. They can work with you to create a meal plan that is delicious, flexible (you won’t always be eating the same thing), and healthy—for both your heart and your diabetes. In the meantime, here are 4 tips to help you eat well when you have high cholesterol. Eat More Whole Grains Conveniently enough, many pastas and breads have whole grain versions. The next time you’re shopping, reach for the whole grain pasta instead of the regular pasta. Also, try replacing white rice with brown rice. You could also have whole grain couscous. Eat More Fruits and Veggies We know you’ve heard it before, but it’s true: you should eat your fruits and veggies. All the fiber in fruits and vegetables can help lower your cholesterol, so try to work more of them into your day. For example, you could mix fruit into your yogurt for breakfast. You can snack on raw vegetables throughout the day. You can make it a point to shop your local farmers’ market (if you have one) to get seasonal produce. Cook with Olive Oil Instead of cooking with vegetable oil, cook with olive oil, which is a “healthy” fat. Olive oil has monounsaturated fats in it, which are healthier than saturated fat or trans fat. Limit High Cholesterol Foods The next time you’re at the store, make it a point to read the food label of everything before you put it in the cart. Choose foods that are low cholesterol—or even no cholesterol! The Nutrition Facts label wi Continue reading >>

A Guide To Living With Diabetes And High Cholesterol

A Guide To Living With Diabetes And High Cholesterol

If you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, you know that controlling your blood sugar levels is important. The more you can keep these levels down, the lower your risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other health problems. Having diabetes puts you at a higher risk for developing high cholesterol. As you watch your blood sugar numbers, watch your cholesterol numbers too. Here, we explain why these two conditions often show up together, and how you can manage both with practical lifestyle approaches. Diabetes and high cholesterol often occur together If you have both diabetes and high cholesterol, you’re not alone. The American Heart Association (AHA) states that diabetes often lowers HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels and raises triglycerides and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels. Both of these increase the risk for heart disease and stroke. The National Diabetes Statistics Report of 2014 shared similar findings. Between 2009 and 2012, about 65 percent of adults with diabetes had LDL cholesterol levels higher than ideal, or used cholesterol-lowering medications. As a reminder: An LDL cholesterol level under 100 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL) is considered ideal. 100–129 mg/dL is close to ideal. 130–159 mg/dL is borderline elevated. High cholesterol levels can be dangerous. Cholesterol is a type of fat that can build up inside the arteries. Over time, it can harden to form a stiff plaque. That damages arteries, making them stiff and narrow and inhibiting blood flow. The heart has to work harder to pump blood, and risk for heart attack and stroke go up. Why diabetes increases risk of high cholesterol Scientists aren’t sure yet exactly how diabetes affects cholesterol, but they’re working on it. Some research has pointed to a connection between insulin and Continue reading >>

How To Eat If You Have High Cholesterol And Diabetes

How To Eat If You Have High Cholesterol And Diabetes

If you have been diagnosed with both high cholesterol and type 2 diabetes , you may be feeling overwhelmed at the prospect of changing your diet. You should know that there is considerable overlap for how to eat with the two conditionsand that it is not as difficult as you may think. Here are three first steps for managing high cholesterol and diabetes through your diet. Start by eating more vegetables. There's a reason the diabetic plate method recommends filling half of your plate with non-starchy vegetablesthey're loaded with fiber. They're also high in good-for-you phytonutrients, but fiber is the biggest benefit for both cholesterol and diabetes. Fiber is the indigestible part of plants. You eat it, it fills you up, but it doesn't add any calories. That's helpful for diabetessince many people with type 2 diabetes are also watching their weight. Soluble fiber (the kind found in beans, apples, oatmeal) aids in lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol and also helps to keep blood glucose levels steady. Fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are the best sources of fiber. Aim to increase the amount of fiber you eat every day gradually, to at least 25 grams per day if you're a woman; 38 grams per day if you're a man. Another healthy change for both diabetes and high cholesterol is to swap the fats and oils you use. As a general rule, you want to eat more monounsaturated fats (found in foods such as walnuts, avocado, and olive oil) and decrease saturated fats (found in marbled meats and full-fatdairy products) and trans fats (found in fried foods and baked goods). This one might be harder, but getting to a healthy weight can improve both your diabetes and your high cholesterol. Losing weight can help you lower your average blood glucose levels, as well as lower your total cho Continue reading >>

The Dangers Of High Cholesterol And Diabetes

The Dangers Of High Cholesterol And Diabetes

The Dangers of High Cholesterol and Diabetes The Dangers of High Cholesterol and Diabetes Scientists are finding evidence that diabetes itself wreaks havoc with cholesterol , significantly increasing the likelihood of a heart attack or stroke even higher. The close ties between these two risk factors mean that if you are diabetic, you have to be extremely vigilant about controlling your cholesterol. Researchers are still figuring out exactly how diabetes changes cholesterol levels at the microscopic cellular level. They do know that high levels of insulin in the blood tend to adversely affect the number of cholesterol particles in the blood. High insulin levels act to raise the amount of LDL-cholesterol (the "bad cholesterol") that tends to form plaques in arteries and lower the number of HDL cholesterol particles ("good cholesterol") that help to clear out dangerous plaques before they break off to cause a heart attack or stroke. Diabetes also tends to cause higher levels of triglycerides, another type of fat circulating in the blood. Similarly, high cholesterol can also be a predictor of diabetes; elevated cholesterol levels are often seen in people with insulin resistance, even before they have developed full-blown diabetes. When LDL levels start to climb, experts recommend paying close attention to blood sugar control and starting a diet and exercise regimen to help stave off diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This is especially important if you have a family history of heart disease. For people with Type 1 diabetes , controlling blood sugar can make a big difference. Good blood sugar control is related to near-normal cholesterol levels, similar to those seen in people without diabetes. But people with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes have increased triglyceride Continue reading >>

Natural Ways To Lower Your Cholesterol

Natural Ways To Lower Your Cholesterol

High cholesterol has long been known to raise the risk of heart and blood vessel disease in people with diabetes and without. Unfortunately, it’s very common among Americans generally, including those with diabetes. The good news is that there’s a lot you can do to lower your cholesterol and, consequently, lower your risk of heart disease. Making the effort to lower blood cholesterol is especially important for people with diabetes — Type 1 or Type 2 — who have a higher risk of heart disease than the general public. The bad guy: LDL Your LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol is the culprit when it comes to raising the risk of heart disease. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, and if you have too much of it in your blood, it can build up along the insides of your artery walls, leading to the formation of fatty deposits called plaque. Plaque makes it harder for blood to flow through your arteries, which means that less blood can get to vital organs, such as your heart and brain. Sometimes this can lead to a heart attack or a stroke. Plaque can also rupture, triggering the formation of blood clots, which can also block the arteries, leading to a heart attack or stroke. So it makes sense to keep your LDL level low. The American Diabetes Association recommends that most adults with diabetes who are not taking cholesterol-lowering statins have a fasting lipid profile done at diagnosis, first medical evaluation, and thenevery five years after, while those taking statins should have the test done when they start the medication and periodically thereafter. This test measures HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, as well as the level of triglycerides (a type of blood fat) in the blood. HDL cholesterol above 50 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol below 100 mg/dl, and triglycerides below 150 mg Continue reading >>

Here's Exactly What I Ate To Cure My Type 2 Diabetes & High Cholesterol

Here's Exactly What I Ate To Cure My Type 2 Diabetes & High Cholesterol

Here's Exactly What I Ate To Cure My Type 2 Diabetes & High Cholesterol Mary Jenkins is 51 and lives in Kanab, Utah. Last December, before starting her new diet, she weighed 225 pounds. She has since lost 50 poundsand the weight is still coming off. This is her story. I was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, so I lived off a Southern-fried diet for most of my life. As a result, I had extremely high blood pressure for over 30 years. I tried every eating plan out there to get it under control: low-carb diets, high-protein dietsall that stuff. None of it worked for me. I was still obese, and my cholesterol levels didnt improve. (Discover the ONE simple, natural solution that can help you reverse chronic inflammation and heal more than 45 diseases. Try The Whole Body Cure today !) Then two years ago, my doctor ordered an A1C test. He had a hunch I may have type 2 diabetes as a result of my weight. My score was a seven, which meant his suspicions were correct. (A normal A1C level is below 5.7. ) It got worse: Because Ive had high blood pressure for so long, he said I could have long-term organ damage now that I also had diabetes. Youd think at that point, he would have sat me down and talked to me about how I could improve my diet, but he didnt. He just said something like, Watch your carbs and exercise. That was it. So I basically kept living as I had before. MORE: 15 Common Risk Factors Of Type 2 Diabetes Then my doctor moved away, and I found another doctor in a larger town nearby. My new physician told me that I needed to go on metformin (the generic name for a drug used to treat high blood sugar levels) immediately. He also told me that I should ramp up my exercise routine. So last year, I started hiking and rock climbing with my neighbor, who happens to be a yoga inst Continue reading >>

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