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Children Can Have Type 1 Diabetes But Cannot Have Type 2 Diabetes. Quizlet

Masteringnutrition Chapter 4

Masteringnutrition Chapter 4

Sort fasting blood gluccose levels range from 70 to 99 mg/L, insulin produced by the pancreas efficiently stimulates glucose transporters with body cells, glucose transporters efficiently prompt the uptake of glucose into body cells normal function Continue reading >>

Chapter 17. Diabetes

Chapter 17. Diabetes

Diagnosis of diabetes: plasma glucose levels Diagnosis of diabetes: Oral glucose tolerance test Given a 75 g load of carbohydrates as a drink, blood glucose measured at several intervals, over 200 mg after 2 hours. Diagnosis of diabetes: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) The more glucose in the blood means more glucose sticks to this particular form of hemoglobin, Once glycated it stays that way, estimates blood glucose over the course of 4 weeks to 3 months, over 6.5%. Asymptomatic and about 30% of adults have. 5-10% cases, Immune-mediate, Idiopathic, Insulin must be supplied exogenously. Cannot prevent cannot prevent, ketones break down fat and lowers the pH of the blood 90-95% cases, Insulin resistance and/or reduced sensitivity. Unknown, risk increases with obesity, aging, and inactivity Weight management (decrease 5-10%), active lifestyle (150 mins/week), dietary modifications (increase whole grains and fiber), regular physical check ups. Pregnancy requires adequate fuel for growing a feats, Therefore, mom is in an insulin resistant state. 7% of women's bodies go to far. Symptoms are similar to type 2 More likely to get type 2 diabetes later, Macrosomic infant (10+ lbs), offspring more likely to be obese or develop type 2. severe ketosis, acidosis, and hyperglycemia. Developed quickly. Younger then 40 = 5% morality. Acetone breath, significant fluid loss die to hyperglycemia, diabetic coma. combination of fluid loss and hyperglycemia Most frequent complication, caused of mismanagement of insulin and food. Acute: Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (DM2) Severe hyperglycemia and dehydration, develops slowly (weeks) pin and needles all the type, cannot feel damage lifelong treatment, good glycemic control, maintain healthy blood lipids concentration (cholesterol), control Continue reading >>

Diabetes New

Diabetes New

Sort transports and metabolizes glucose for energy, stimulates the storage of glucose in the liver and muscles in the form of glucagon, signals the liver to stop release of glucose, enhances the storage of dietary fat in adipose tissue, accelerates transport of amino acids into cells, In the muscle, liver and fat cells insulin does four things 1) the placenta produces hormones that antagonize the insulin actions, 2) production of coritsol, a hormones that promotes hyperglycemia increases during pregnancy, 3) glucose can pass from the mom to the fetus circulation, hyperglycemia in mom will stimulate insulin secretion from fetus=adverse effects, three reasons why elevated BG in gestational diabetes Continue reading >>

Human Nutrition Exam 3-diabetes

Human Nutrition Exam 3-diabetes

How many people in the US have diabetes and pre-diabetes? Fasting blood glucose for diabetes and pre-diabetes? Trends in race regarding diabetes? Kids and adults?ASK American Indians/non-Hispanic blacks/Hispanics have a Type 2: kids/teens account for 8-45% of new cases -Diabetes has been rising in kids under 20: type 1 by 23% and type 2 by 21% between 2001-2009 -23% US adolecents 12-19 years old have diabetes or pre-diabetes because of lower activity, bad diet and treatments are not effective for them Is pre-diabetes serious? Likelihood of developing type 2? b. About 70% of pre diabetes develop type 2 c. Dangerous because it: increases risk for CVD/kidney disease/retinopathy (harms eyes) What may prevent a pre-diabetes patient from developing type 2? i. Weight loss is key (7% of body weight); exercise at least 150 min/week can reduce by 58% What causes high bloods sugars in type 1? The insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas have been destroyed and are unable to produce insulin. Without insulin, glucose transporters do not receive a signal to relocate to the cell membrane. As a result, glucose is unable to move from outside the cells to inside the cell. So, glucose remains in the blood causing high blood sugar What happens to type 1 patients if not treated? If you do not get insulin/have type 1 diabetes you will die; insulin affects many body systems (pg 7 flow chart) -Unlike type 2, type 1 patients are at risk during pregnancy: The risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and birth defects are increased when diabetes isn't well-controlled. For the mother, diabetes increases the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic eye problems (retinopathy), pregnancy-induced high blood pressure and preeclampsia. What happens if type 2 patients are not treated? -diabetes affects many m Continue reading >>

Med Surge 3 Ch 14 Part 8

Med Surge 3 Ch 14 Part 8

most common major disease of endocrine pancreas. affecting carbohydrate or sugar metabolism due to inadequate production of insulin by the pancreatic islets of langerhans. Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) signs and symptoms polyuria, polyphagia, glycosuria, hyperglycemia indicates that sugar is not being pulled into the tissues and cells are using fat for energy, resulting in the formation of keytones can be found in blood and urine and smelled on the breath. Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) complications of both forms include atherosclerosis leading to MI, PVD, etc. Diabetic gangrene in feet and legs leads to amputation and poor wound healing. Atherosclerosis also effects eyes and kidneys leads to diabetic retinopathy leads to blindness, damage to kidneys leading to failure (frequent cause of death) positive history of symptoms and glucose testing. cannot be cured, management depend on treatment, exercise, medication. ADA recognizes A1C as a standard in care. The higher the A1C the greater the risk of complications. Normal A1C is 5 or less, Above 7 is poorly controlled can be prevented or delayed by losing weight and exercise. insulin dependent or juvenile-onset. children and young adults by 25. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) most serious usually occurs suddenly, requires daily injection of insulin. digestive system would destroy oral forms Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) thought to be Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) with virus or other stressor body develops antibodies and begins wearing against the islets of langerhans there by destroying the insulin-secreting cells. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) generally Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) must follow strict diet Continue reading >>

Pediatric Diabetes Mellitus

Pediatric Diabetes Mellitus

The inability of the body to produce or respond properly to the hormone insulin Results in a malfunction of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism Diagnosis of DM with random plasma glucose Diagnosis of DM with Fasting Plasma Glucose Diagnosis of DM with 2 hour plasma glucose 90% of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas are progressively destroyed Absence of insulin available for metabolism of glucose causes fats and proteins to be burned Excess amount of unused glucose causes hyperglycemia Ketones are produced as a byproduct of fat metabolism Ketones cannot be used by the cells in the absence of insulin Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing metabolic acidosis and ketonuria Polyphagia, polydypsia, and polyuria ("3 P's") Illness Management about choosing medications wisely Many over-the-counter medications contain sugar and/or alcohol. Glucose in medications can rapidly add up; parents should look for a glucose-free version of the medication. If unavailable, carbohydrates must be accounted for in the meal plan. Medicines that contain alcohol can lower blood glucose levels. Ensure the child eats something to prevent hypoglycemia. Many decongestants can raise blood glucose levels. Illness management staying close to the meal plan If the child has an upset stomach and cannot eat, give clear liquids that contain carbohydrates (sports drinks, juices, gelatin, broth, frozen fruit bars). Illness management checking blood glucose and ketone levels Diabetic ketoacidosis is a danger when the child is sick. To prevent the condition or catch it early, check the child's blood glucose levels often (every few hours) while sick. Check the urine for ketones several times a day. If vomiting or diarrhea is present, check ketones more frequently. Family history of type 2 diabet Continue reading >>

Nursing Exam: Diabetes

Nursing Exam: Diabetes

1. The risk factors for type 1 diabetes include all of the following except: 1. A: Type 1 diabetes is a primary failure of pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin. It primarily affects children and young adults and is unrelated to diet. 2. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately what percentage of all cases of diabetes in adults? 2. C: Type 2 diabetes accounts for the overwhelming majority of cases diagnosed in adults. It develops gradually, beginning with insulin resistance and as the requirement for insulin increases, the pancreas becomes progressively less able to produce it. 3. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include all of the following except: 3. C: Additional risk factors for type 2 diabetes are a family history of diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, history of gestational diabetes, and race/ethnicity. African-Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are at greater risk of developing diabetes than whites. 4. What percentage of women with gestational diabetes is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes following pregnancy? 4. B: African-American, Hispanic/Latina and Native American women are at greater risk of developing gestational diabetes than are white women. Women who experience gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing diabetes during the decade following pregnancy. 5. Untreated diabetes may result in all of the following except: 5. D: Untreated diabetes also may result in loss of lower limbs to amputation and death. 6. Prediabetes is associated with all of the following except: a. Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes c. Increased risk of heart disease and stroke d. Increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes 6. D: Persons with elevated glucose levels that do not yet meet Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

What is diabetes? Diabetes is disease that causes the body to either not produce insulin or not react properly to the insulin. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is when the body simply does not produce insulin. This type develops in teens and is less common than Type 2. When you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system turns on the pancreas, causing it not to produce insulin. This causes blood sugar levels to get too high. People with Type 1 take insulin injections to help regulate their blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is when the cells in the body do not react properly with the insulin being produced. The signal to the GLUT4 is never sent from the receptors, so the cells don't allow glucose to enter. Insulin injections can sometimes help people with Type 2, however they usually can only watch what they eat and be careful to exercise a certain amount. How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes? The GTT is usually administered after an abnormal urine test. Doctors use glucose tolerance testing to monitor the amount of glucose in the patient's blood at a given moment in time and to see if their body reacts properly in response to the glucose. If the glucose levels rise drastically and don't fall back down this indicates that there is a high chance that the patient has diabetes. The insulin test can determine the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes; if the levels of insulin in the blood are high, the patient has Type 2 diabetes, and if there is no insulin in the blood the patient has Type 1. How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body produces and uses insulin? In type one diabetes the persons immune system attacks the pancreas causing it to shut down insulin production, leaving the person wit Continue reading >>

Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

The adolescent patient and parent have completed diabetic education. Which statements by the parent would indicate an understanding of the goals of insulin therapy for diabetic management? "Insulin replenishes the insulin-producing cells, the beta cells." "Insulin decreases insulin resistance and improves insulin sensitivity." "We will schedule the insulin to correspond to the child's usual meal times." "Insulin is used to balance blood glucose, independent of food intake and physical activity." "Insulin replaces the insulin the child is no longer able to make in an acceptable physiologic pattern." "We will schedule the insulin to correspond to the child's usual meal times." "Insulin replaces the insulin the child is no longer able to make in an acceptable physiologic pattern." A child is using regular insulin according to blood glucose monitoring results. At 2 pm, the child has a blood glucose of 185 mg/dl, for which the patient received 8 units of regular insulin. The nurse should expect the dose's onset and peak to be at which times? Onset 2:30-3:00 pm and peak 10:00-11:00 pm The diabetes educator is meeting with a group of parents to discuss diabetes mellitus management. Many parents have questions about the role of the child. Together the diabetes educator and parents discuss ways to improve adherence with medication administration. The diabetes educator evaluates that learning has occurred when one parent makes which statements? "I can have my toddler take part in insulin administration by having them push the plunger on the insulin syringe". "My seventeen-year-old is focused on sports. She understands the need to independently manage her blood sugars to be able to be with her team for every game". "My school-age child is reluctant to take part in after-school ac Continue reading >>

Endocrine Ch. 51 Flashcards | Quizlet

Endocrine Ch. 51 Flashcards | Quizlet

Transports and metabolizes glucose for energy, Stimulates storage of glucose in the liver and muscle as glycogen, Signals the liver to stop the release of glucose, Enhances storage of fat in adipose tissue, Accelerates transport of amino acids into cells, Inhibits the breakdown of stored glucose, protein, and fat Insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed by an autoimmune process Requires insulin because little or no insulin is produced Onset is acute and usually before 30 years of age Decreased sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance) and impaired beta cell function result in decreased insulin production, 90% to 95% of person with diabetes, onset over age 30 years, increasing in children, obesity, Treated initially with diet and exercise, Oral hypoglycemic agents initially may need to convert to insulin or use both Is the following statement true or false? Type 1 diabetes is treated initially with diet and exercise. early onset, familial, genetic predisposition, possible immunologic or environmental (viral or toxins) factors obesity, age, previous identified impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension 140/90 mm Hg, HDL 35 mg/dL or triglycerides 250 mg/dL, history of gestational diabetes or babies over 9 pounds Fatigue, weakness, vision changes, tingling or numbness in hands or feet, dry skin, skin lesions or wounds that are slow to heal, recurrent infections The renal threshold for glucose is 180 to 200 mg/dL. Is the following statement true or false? The renal threshold for glucose is 180 to 200 mg/dL. What are some treatment goals to maintain normal blood glucose levels? Intensive control, defined as three or four insulin injections per day or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, insulin pump therapy plus frequent blo Continue reading >>

Spp Case 2 Diabetes

Spp Case 2 Diabetes

Prevalence and Risk -1 in 11 people in the United States have diabetes, and 1 in 4 of them do not know it. -Many more people have prediabetes, and the vast majority of them do not know it. -Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, is responsible for only ~5% of all diabetes cases in the -U.S. Type 2 diabetes is much more common, accounting for the other 95%. The risk of diabetes increases with age, and has been increasing over time, most likely due to the increase in obesity. Two in three adults are overweight or obese, and 1 in 3 children are overweight or obese. From 1980 through 2009, the number of Americans with diabetes has more than tripled, from 5.6 million to 19.7 million Cost -is responsible for an incredible financial cost, in direct medical costs and lost work and wages. affects 25.8 million people of all ages, or 8.3% of the population -A patient with diabetes costs on average twice what a patientwithout diabetes costs. -Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and new cases of blindness. It is a major cause of heart disease and stroke. - People with diabetes have about twice the mortality rate as people without diabetes. In addition, the psychological and emotional toll of dealing with diabetes can be great. Insulin action upregulate 1) glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue 2) glycolysis 3) glycogen synthesis 4) protein synthesis 5) uptake of ions downregulate 1) gluconeogenesis 2) glycogenolysis 3) lipolysis 4) ketogenesis 5) proteolysis Insulin is the key - deficiency and/or resistance Without the hormone insulin, sugar cannot enter the body's cells - particularly the fat, the muscle, the liver type 1 disease -is caused by immune cell destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This leads to an Continue reading >>

Bio 196 Exam 3 Diabetes

Bio 196 Exam 3 Diabetes

how many people in the U.S. have diabetes mellitus? - 26 million people have diabetes mellitus (11% of adults.. 25% of those are > 65) how many people in the U.S. have pre-diabetes? - 79 million have pre-diabetes (35% of adults) what are the fasting blood glucose cutoffs for diagnosis of each? (pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus) -diabetes mellitus: fasting glucose of 126mg/dl or > diabetes diagnosis -pre-diabetes: fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dl -up to 70% of pre-diabetes patients develop diabetes -Increases risk for CVD and kidney disease, and retinopathy -Wt loss the key...exercise can help but not as much -Increases risk for CVD and kidney disease, and retinopathy Both types of diabetes- 1 and 2- result in... -type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin. Without insulin, most cells cannot take up glucose, causing blood glucose levels to become dangerously high. -An autoimmune disease that destroys the beta cells of the pancreas Why did the pancreas in type 1 stop producing insulin? Be specific in the details of how this came about. -panreatic beta cells in type 1 no longer produce insulin because the beta cells are destroyed by the body's immune system -the antibodies attack and destroy the insulin-producing cells (B-cells) of the pancreas therefore, they are unable to produce insulin -Viruses (coxsackie, mumps, measles, enterovirus); cow's milk exposure in infancy; statin drug use -unlike type 1 diabetes, most people with type 2 diabetes have normal or even elevated levels of insulin in their blood List and discuss in detail the causes of high blood sugar in type 2 caused by insulin resistance- insulin receptors have difficulty recognizing or binding insulin -fewer glucose transporters relocate to the cell membrane, making it dif Continue reading >>

Nclex : Diabetes Questions

Nclex : Diabetes Questions

Rationale: The patient's impaired fasting glucose indicates prediabetes and the patient should be counseled about lifestyle changes to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. The patient with prediabetes does not require insulin or the oral hypoglycemics for glucose control and does not need to self-monitor blood glucose. Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1255 Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 3. During a diabetes screening program, a patient tells the nurse, "My mother died of complications of type 2 diabetes. Can I inherit diabetes?" The nurse explains that a. as long as the patient maintains normal weight and exercises, type 2 diabetes can be prevented. b. the patient is at a higher than normal risk for type 2 diabetes and should have periodic blood glucose level testing. c. there is a greater risk for children developing type 2 diabetes when the father has type 2 diabetes. d. although there is a tendency for children of people with type 2 diabetes to develop diabetes, the risk is higher for those with type 1 diabetes. Rationale: Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The risk can be decreased, but not prevented, by maintenance of normal weight and exercising. The risk for children of a person with type 1 diabetes to develop diabetes is higher when it is the father who has the disease. Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop diabetes than offspring of those with type 1 diabetes. Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1256 Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 4. A program of weight loss and exercise is recommended for a patient with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). When teaching the patient about the reason for th Continue reading >>

Diabetes (hyperglycemia) & Hypoglycemia

Diabetes (hyperglycemia) & Hypoglycemia

Sort Role of Insulin and Plasma/Blood Glucose Produced by beta cells of pancreas Glucose is important fuel for cell - enters bloodstream first before being delivered to the tissues and cells of the body Ingestion increases plasma and blood sugar levels. Brain can ONLY use glucose Glucose cannot enter tissues and cells without insulin Body's need for insulin will fluctuate with body's need Normal Process 1. Eat 2. Glucose in plasma/blood 3. Insulin released 4. Glucose enters cells/tissue 5. Maintain glucose balance Diabetes 1. Eat 2. Glucose in plasma/blood 3. No insulin release 4. Glucose stays in bloodstream 5. Hyperglycemia Diabete Mellitus Higher risk: American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Americans, Hispanic/Latino American 2x risk of periodontal disease 6th leading cause of death Chronic Complications Damage to larger vessels DM causes thickening and hardening - leads to arteriosclerosis Damage to smaller blood vessels causes blindness, kidney disease, amputations Amputations- damage to the nervous system. Person cannot feel peripheral tissues. Normal sweat recreation and oil production that lubricates the skin of the is impaired. These factors together can lead to abnormal pressure on the skin, bones, and joints of the foot during the walking and can lead to breakdown of the skin of the foot. Sore may develop. Blood supply damage = tissue damage, immunity compromised Type 1 Diabetes Risk factors - autoimmune response, genetic, environmental factors i.e. virus Immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells - the only cells in the body that make insulin and lead to insulin deficiency children and young adults most affected, though it can occur at any age 10% of all diabetes More severe form of diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Previously call non-insulin dependent DM or adult Continue reading >>

Cna: Chapter 4.8 Flashcards | Quizlet

Cna: Chapter 4.8 Flashcards | Quizlet

What are the glands' job in the endocrine system? Chemical substances created by the body that regulates body processing but carrying bloody to organs -regulate sugar in bloody, calcium in bones and reproduce -determine how fast cells burn food and energy What are the normal changes of aging when it comes to the endocrine system? -levels of hormones (ex. estrogen, progesterone) decrease What should a CNA observe and report when it comes to the endocrine system? Hormone that converts glucose into energy What if the body doesn't have enough insulin to produce? The glucose go into the blood which causes circulation problems and can damage vital organs Usually in family history of illness, elderly and people who are obese Diagnosed in children and young adults. The body cannot produce enough insulin and the condition will continue for the rest of the person's life. It can only be treated with insulin and a special diet. It's more common in adults. The body cannot produce enough insulin and the body fails to properly use it. It develops slowly and the risk increases by age. It often occurs in obese people or those with a family history of diabetes. Medication and controlled diets can be used to treat it. When the body fails to properly use insulin When a person's blood glucose levels are above normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There is some damage to the body especially with the heart and circulatory system. Pregnant women who have never had diabetes before but who have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes? -changes in circulatory system can cause heart attack, stroke, reduced circulation, wound healing decrease, kidney and nerve damage -poor circulation wound heals can cause ulcers, infected wou Continue reading >>

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