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Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, And Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Vaccinations - Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

Vaccinations - Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

The rising incidence of type 1 diabetes in genetically stable populations strongly suggests that environmental factors are involved. Childhood vaccinations have been introduced around the world over a period corresponding to the rise of type 1 diabetes, an immune mediated condition. It has therefore been suggested that vaccinations might increase (or decrease) the risk of type 1 diabetes in selected groups, and attempts have been made to link the introduction of new vaccines with changes in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. Linking vaccinations to increased risk of chronic or other severe diseases involves a number of methodological challenges and most available studies suffer from important limitations. Although scattered observations have suggested a somewhat increased or reduced risk associated with certain vaccinations, available data indicate that there is no association between vaccines and either increased or reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. The second half of the twentieth century saw a Rising incidence of type 1 diabetes, and infectious agents have been plausible candidates in its aetiology ( see Viruses and type 1 diabetes ). Over the same period, a world-wide effort has been made to introduce vaccination programmes designed to eradicate a number of common childhood infections. In theory, vaccination might increase the risk of type 1 diabetes by (for example) triggering immune responses that cross-react with beta cell antigens. Alternatively, the associated boost to the immune system might even prove beneficial ( see the page on the Hygiene hypothesis ) , but the best example is the eradication of congenital rubella (see The congenital rubella syndrome and diabetes ) by immunization. The attempt to link vaccinations to increased risk of chronic or other sever Continue reading >>

Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, And Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, And Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Childhood vaccinations, vaccination timing, and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus. National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3724, USA. [email protected] To evaluate suggested associations between childhood vaccinations, particularly against hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b, and risk of developing type 1 diabetes; and to determine whether timing of vaccination influences risk. We conducted a case-control study within 4 health maintenance organizations (HMOs) that participate in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Study eligibility was restricted to children who met the following criteria: 1) born during 1988 through 1997; 2) HMO member since birth; 3) continuously enrolled for first 6 months of life; and 4) at least 12 months of HMO membership before diabetes incidence date (or index date for controls) unless incidence date was before 12 months of age. All 4 HMOs maintain registries of their members who have diabetes, and we used the registries to identify potential cases of diabetes. We conducted chart reviews to verify that potential cases met the World Health Organization epidemiologic case definition for type 1 diabetes mellitus (ie, a physician's diagnosis of diabetes plus treatment with daily insulin injections). We defined the incidence date of diabetes as the first date that the child received a diagnosis of diabetes. We attempted to match 3 controls to each case. Controls had the same eligibility criteria as cases and were matched to individual cases on HMO, sex, date of birth (within 7 days), and length of health plan enrollment (up to the incidence or index date). The index date for controls was defined as the incidence date of the case to Continue reading >>

Vaccine Safety Do Vaccines Cause Diabetes?

Vaccine Safety Do Vaccines Cause Diabetes?

The 2012 report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) [1], now called the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), described a number of studies with sufficient validity and precision that all reported a lack of an association between MMR, DTaP or Tdap vaccines and type 1 diabetes [2-7]. Studies published since this report also reported a null, or in some cases even protective, association between vaccination and type 1 diabetes [8-12]. Studies examining inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnancy reported either no association with, or even a possible protective effect against, gestational diabetes [13, 14]. Persons with chronic illnesses such as type 1 or type 2 diabetes have high morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases such as influenza, hepatitis b, and pneumococcal disease. Thus, routine vaccination per current ACIP recommendations is also strongly recommended for all persons with diabetes by the American Diabetes Association [15, 16]. In addition, the ACIP recommends the administration of hepatitis b vaccine to all unvaccinated adults with diabetes mellitus aged 19 through 59 [17]. Mechanisms that may induce type 1 diabetes include activation of the complement system, in which a cascade of proteolysis and successive release of cytokines functions to amplify the immune response but can damage host cells if not properly regulated, as well as molecular mimicry, which refers to the possibility that similar epitopes shared between self-peptides and foreign peptides (introduced via infection or immunization) inadvertently cause the activation of autoreactive T or B cells, leading to autoimmunity. However, the IOM concluded that there was no mechanistic evidence for an association between vaccination and type 1 diabetes, as the publication Continue reading >>

J. Bart Classen - Wikipedia

J. Bart Classen - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article is an orphan , as no other articles link to it . Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's notability guideline for academics . Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond its mere trivial mention. If notability cannot be established, the article is likely to be merged , redirected , or deleted . ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) John Barthelow Classen is an American immunologist and anti- vaccinationist . He received his M.D. from the University of Maryland, Baltimore in 1988, his M.B.A. from Columbia University in 1992 and obtained his medical license in October 1997. [1] [2] He is best known for publishing research concluding that vaccines, in particular the Hib vaccine , cause insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus , [3] a hypothesis he proposed based on experiments he conducted on mice in 1996. [4] His views are disputed and considered unverified. Classen proposes that vaccines cause diabetes by causing the release of interferons , causing an autoimmune state leading to immune-mediated type 1 diabetes, [5] and he is quoted on many anti-vaccine websites, such as that of the National Vaccine Information Center . His work has been criticized by some, such as Amy Wallace, who wrote that the vaccine-diabetes link "...relies on the flawed work of one doctor [Classen], who gathered data on a slew of vaccines and failed to follow standard study protocols. No other study including those using the same data could reproduce the resu Continue reading >>

Juvenile Diabetes And Vaccination: New Evidence For A Connection

Juvenile Diabetes And Vaccination: New Evidence For A Connection

In the fall of 1997, the Centers for Disease Control confirmed that the number of Americans living with diabetes has skyrocketed in the past 40 years with a record sixfold increase in this chronic disease since 1958. It is estimated that nearly 16 million Americans are suffering with diabetes and 5 million more may have it but not know it. Over the past four decades, intensive national mass vaccination campaigns have dramatically increased vaccination rates among American children who now are getting 34 doses of 10 different viral and bacterial vaccines before they enter kindergarten. Recent published data in the medical literature suggest increasing numbers of childhood vaccines may be playing a role in the big jump in the number of cases of juvenile diabetes. The most frequent kind of diabetes is diabetes mellitus, a chronic degenerative disease caused when the pancreas either fails to produce a protein hormone called insulin or the body's cells are resistant to the action of insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot process and use glucose, a blood sugar which is a chief source of energy for living organisms and is found in certain foods like fruit. If the body's cells have become resistant to insulin, glucose cannot be moved from the blood to cells in order to be transformed into energy. There are two types of diabetes mellitus: Type I, called insulin-dependent juvenile diabetes, and Type II, called adult-onset diabetes. Type I Diabetes - Type I diabetes, also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), occurs mostly in children and young adults. Five to 10 percent of those diagnosed with diabetes are Type I diabetics. In Type I diabetes, the body cannot produce insulin. This causes glucose to build up in the bloodstream and be secreted from the body in the Continue reading >>

Childhood Vaccinations And Type 1 Diabetes

Childhood Vaccinations And Type 1 Diabetes

Childhood Vaccinations and Type 1 Diabetes The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has been increasing worldwide, with evidence suggesting that the increase may have begun in the middle of the last century. Because thats about the time that mass childhood vaccinations began in developed countries, some have suggested that vaccinations may play a role. The hypothesis goes that limited exposure to infectious diseases early in life, combined with increased use of childhood vaccinations, could increase the risk of T1DM. In such a situation, developing T cells may acquire only a limited repertoire, and subsequently respond inappropriately to later infection. But a new systematic review and meta-analysis the first systematic review and meta-analysis to look at the link between routine childhood vaccinations and T1DM has refuted this idea. The study was published online in Diabetologia. This study found no evidence that any of the reported vaccinations were associated with the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes, wrote first author Eileen Morgan, MD, of Queens University Hospital Belfast (Ireland), and colleagues. These findings were little altered after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Results were also largely unchanged after two sensitivity analyses investigating the effect of study design and quality assessment score were conducted. The researchers used MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published in any language from 1947 to July 2013 that evaluated the role of vaccination rates in children and the development of type 1 diabetes. The analysis included 23 studies covering 13,323 cases of type 1 diabetes. Studies were mostly case-control in design, although the analysis included one randomized controlled trial. The majority were from Europe. Measles, mumps and rub Continue reading >>

Re: Vaccine Safety Claims Do Not Stand Up To Scrutiny

Re: Vaccine Safety Claims Do Not Stand Up To Scrutiny

Re: Vaccine safety claims do not stand up to scrutiny MEPs devise strategy to tackle vaccine hesitancy among public BMJ 2018; 360 doi: (Published 23 March 2018) Cite this as: BMJ 2018;360:k1378 Re: Vaccine safety claims do not stand up to scrutiny Thanks to John Stone for raising the issue of long term MMR vaccine safety. Almost 50 years after the introduction of the MMR vaccine, I was the first to describe the role of GAD65 containing chick embryo cell culture contamination of the MMR vaccine in causing type 1 diabetes (T1D). [13] GAD65 is of course a major autoantigen in T1D. What does that tell us about current vaccine safety systems? As expected, the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine, another GAD65 containing chick embryo cell culture contaminated vaccine, was found to significantly increase risk of T1D. [4] This problem is identical to the Pandemrix induced narcolepsy [5] disaster a case of molecular mimicry between a non-target protein in the vaccine and a self antigen, resulting in an autoimmune disease. DeStefano et al. reported T1D odds ratio for MMR vaccine is 1.36, Hib is 1.14, Varicella is 1.16. Patterson et al. reported T1D odds ratio for tetanus vaccine is 1.57 and diphtheria is 1.27. [6] Assuming 90% vaccine uptake and calculating the number of cases for the US population of 320 million, we get ~1 million cases of T1D. Estimated total for T1D cases from American Diabetes Association is 1.25 million. So epidemiological studies show that the vast majority of T1D cases in the US were vaccine induced. Szumilas [7] points out that, In practice, the 95% CI is often used as a proxy for the presence of statistical significance if it does not overlap the null value (e.g. OR=1). Nevertheless, it would be inappropriate to interpret an OR with 95% CI that spans Continue reading >>

Antibody Responses To Immunizations In Children With Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-control Study

Antibody Responses To Immunizations In Children With Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-control Study

Antibody Responses to Immunizations in Children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus: a Case-Control Study Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with abnormalities of T cells. Our objective was to assess whether antibody responses to T-cell-dependent and -independent antigens in children with DM are lower than those of children without DM. We performed a case-control study matching children with DM to children without DM by age and by assessing antibody levels to pneumococcal serotypes, Haemophilus influenzae, and tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and reassessing antibody levels in patients with antibody levels below protective thresholds after booster immunization. We recruited 36 children with DM and 36 age-matched controls. The mean age was 10 years. There was no difference between groups in antibody levels against the antigens tested. Pneumococcal antibody levels below the protective threshold were found in 35.9% of DM patients after conjugate pneumococcal vaccination with no difference between groups. Booster immunization with unconjugated pneumococcal vaccine resulted in a median level against pneumococcal serotypes of 2.3 g/ml (range, 0.05 to 664.7 g/ml) in children with DM and 6.1 g/ml (0.12 to 203.36 g/ml) in children without DM (P = 0.013). Over 85% of children had levels above the protective threshold after booster immunization with no difference between groups. There was no evidence for a reduced antibody response to T-cell-dependent antigens given during childhood immunizations in children with DM. There was a reduced antibody response to antigens of pneumococcal strains in children with DM given unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine compared to that of children without DM without being associated with a difference in percentage of antibody le Continue reading >>

Vaccines Cause Diabetes Another Myth Refuted And Debunked

Vaccines Cause Diabetes Another Myth Refuted And Debunked

Vaccines cause diabetes another myth refuted and debunked If you cruise around the internet, engaging with the antivaccination cult (not recommended), you will pick up on their standard tropes, lies, and other anti-science commentaries. One that has always bothered me, not because that it was a lie, but because I had enough evidence floating in my brain that I was wondering if it were truethat vaccines cause diabetes, especially the Type 1 version. A lot of the vaccine deniers believe that vaccines cause a lot of everything and several claims that vaccines cause Type 1 diabetes (or here ), based on little evidence.As far as I can tell, this myth is based on the research fromJ. Barthelow Classen, M.D., who has pushed the idea that vaccines cause type 1 diabetes, through some magical process that has never been supported by other independent evidence . In another example of the antivaccination worlds cherry picking evidence to support their a priori conclusions, they ignore the utter lack of plausibility supporting any link between vaccines and Type 1 diabetes. At best, Classenhas cherry-picked statistics to support his predetermined conclusions, comparing apples to oranges with health data from different countries, and misrepresenting studies to back his claim . Moreover, Classen seems to come to his beliefs based on population-wide correlations that rely on post hoc fallacies , rather than actually showing causality between vaccines and diabetes. Its like finding that a 5% increase in consumption of Big Macs is correlated with Republican wins in elections. They may happen at the same time, but it would take a laughable series events to show any relationship. Its going to get a bit science-y in this section. Sorry about that, but diabetes is complicated, it never can be Continue reading >>

Can Vaccinations Increase Or Decrease Risk For Type 1 Diabetes?

Can Vaccinations Increase Or Decrease Risk For Type 1 Diabetes?

Home / Specialties / Pediatrics / Can Vaccinations Increase Or Decrease Risk for Type 1 Diabetes? Can Vaccinations Increase Or Decrease Risk for Type 1 Diabetes? Flu shot, Pandemrix, might reduce diabetes risk in children, study found. Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet -cells. Although the cause is unknown, genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved. Polymorphisms of class II HLA genes encoding DQ and DR, by far, is the strongest predictor of type 1 diabetes risk. Vaccinations are among the environmental factors that have been studied. It has been suspected that childhood vaccinations may alter the immune system, thereby increasing the risk of autoimmune reactions. However, previous studies have not found any evidence to support the association between vaccination and an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. During the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009, mass vaccination with Pandemrix, a vaccine containing the squalene-based adjuvant ASO3, was done for children and adults in Sweden and Finland. A few months after the vaccination, the incidence of new narcolepsy diagnoses increased in both countries, especially in children and young adults. The mechanism of this effects is not fully understood, but it seems that Pandemrix could contribute to the induction of orexin-specific autoimmunity. As such, researchers hypothesized that this vaccine may not only induce autoimmunity to orexin-producing cells but also to islet autoantigens. A recent observational study, the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY), was done to investigate whether the risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes is increased in children who have been vaccinated with Pandemrix. A population of 8,676 children was recruited for t Continue reading >>

Current Research Into Cures For Type-1 Diabetes

Current Research Into Cures For Type-1 Diabetes

Current Research into Cures for Type-1 Diabetes News and updates on potential cures for type-1 diabetes, that are in human (or clinical) trials. Results from the Studies and References (continued) [r6] The Swedish childhood diabetes study (1991) When vaccinations were considered as possible risk factors for diabetes, a significant decrease in relative risk estimated as odds ratio (OR) was noted for measles vaccination (OR=0.69; 95% confidence limits 0.480.98). For vaccination against tuberculosis, smallpox, tetanus, whooping cough, rubella and mumps no significant effect on OR for diabetes was found. ... In conclusion, a protective effect of measles vaccination for Type 1 diabetes in childhood is indicated [r7] No major association of breast-feeding, vaccinations, and childhood viral diseases with early islet autoimmunity in the German BABYDIAB Study.(2000) RESULTS: In offspring from mothers with type 1 diabetes, duration of exclusive and total breast-feeding did not differ between islet antibody-positive and -negative children, regardless of HLA genotype, and breast-feeding of 3 months or longer was not associated with protection from antibody development or diabetes onset. In offspring from diabetic fathers, non-statistically significant reductions in exclusive and total breast-feeding times were observed in the antibody-positive cohort. Neither type nor quantity of vaccinations (including Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine; haemophilus influenzae vaccine; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine; tick-born encephalitis vaccine; or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine) were associated with the development of islet antibodies and diabetes. Measles, mumps, and rubella were not reported in children with islet antibodies or diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed no evide Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Type 1 diabetes belongs to a group of conditions known as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are when the body incorrectly identifies its own useful cells as an attacking organism. In type 1 diabetes, it is the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin that are wrongfully targeted and killed off by specific antibodies created by the body’s immune system. Researchers have been investigating what may cause the immune system to act in this way but to date researchers have theories but no concrete proof. Genetic predisposition Researchers have uncovered a number of genetic regions that are linked closely with type 1 diabetes. Each of these is denoted with a name such as IDDM1. At least 18 different regions have been discovered and some of the genetic areas include an increased susceptibility for other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease. Whilst genetics offers clues as to why some people are more susceptible to type 1 diabetes, it doesn’t explain why some people with these genes develop type 1 diabetes and why others with these genes don’t. For example, having an identical twin with type 1 diabetes gives you a statistically higher risk but it doesn’t necessarily mean you will develop the condition. Genetics does not explain either why people will develop type 1 diabetes at different ages. Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in 10 to 14 year olds but can be diagnosed at any age. Read more on diabetes and genetics Type 1 diabetes triggers Researchers have hypothesised that whilst some people are have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, there is likely to be an environmental factor that triggers the initial development of type 1 diabetes. Some of the possible triggers that have been suggested include: Continue reading >>

Review Of Vaccine Induced Immune Overload And The Resulting Epidemics Oftype 1 Diabetes And Metabolic Syndrome, Emphasis On Explaining The Recentaccelerations In The Risk Of Prediabetes And Other Immune Mediated Diseases

Review Of Vaccine Induced Immune Overload And The Resulting Epidemics Oftype 1 Diabetes And Metabolic Syndrome, Emphasis On Explaining The Recentaccelerations In The Risk Of Prediabetes And Other Immune Mediated Diseases

Received date: December 17, 2013; Accepted date: February 17, 2014; Published date: February 19, 2014 Citation: Classen JB (2014) Review of Vaccine Induced Immune Overload and the Resulting Epidemics of Type 1 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome, Emphasis on Explaining the Recent Accelerations in the Risk of Prediabetes and other Immune Mediated Diseases. J Mol Genet Med S1:025. doi: 10.4172/1747-0862.S1-025 Copyright: 2014 Classen JB. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. There has been an epidemic of inflammatory diseases that has paralleled the epidemic on iatrogenic immune stimulation with vaccines. Extensive evidence links vaccine induced immune over load with the epidemic of type 1 diabetes. More recent data indicates that obesity, type 2 diabetes and other components of metabolic syndrome are highly associated with immunization and may be manifestations of the negative feedback loop of the immune system reacting to the immune overload. The epidemic of diabetes/prediabetes appears to be accelerating at a time when the prevalence of obesity has stabilized, indicating that the negative feedback system of the immune system has been over whelmed. The theory of vaccine induced immune overload can explain the key observations that have confounded many competing hypothesis. The current paper reviews the evidence that vaccine induced immune overload explains the disconnect between the increase in prediabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver at a time when the obesity epidemic is waning in children. Twenty years ago it was predicted that a massive increase in immunization would result Continue reading >>

Vaccines And Diabetes

Vaccines And Diabetes

The relationship between vaccines and diabetes has been the subject of several excellent studies. The hypothesis that the timing of vaccines either causes or prevents diabetes was tested in 21,421 children who received the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine between 1988 and 1990 in the United States. These children were followed for 10 years after receiving the Hib vaccine. The risk of diabetes was indistinguishable from a group of 22,557 children who did not receive the Hib vaccine. Another excellent study evaluating the relationship between vaccines and diabetes was performed using data from the Vaccine Safety DataLink. Four large health management organizations (HMOs) were used to identify children with diabetes born between 1988 and 1997. All four HMOs maintained registries of children with diabetes and cases were confirmed by means of medical records. Investigators compared 252 cases of diabetes with 768 matched controls. Children who received whole-cell pertussis , MMR , Hib , hepatitis B or varicella vaccines were not at greater risk for diabetes than children who did not receive those vaccines. In accord with the Vaccine Safety DataLink study, several other well-controlled retrospective studies found that immunizations were not associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. In 2011 the Institute of Medicine reviewed studies of adverse events related to vaccines. One of the associations studied was whether the tetanus component of the DTaP vaccine caused type 1 diabetes. The committee concluded that development of type 1 diabetes was not caused by receipt of this vaccine. In another study, investigators followed individuals born in 1974 for 20 years who had or had not received the BCG vaccine and found that receipt of vaccine did no Continue reading >>

Immunisation And Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Immunisation And Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

, Volume 20, Issue3 , pp 207212 | Cite as Immunisation and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Recent evidence from animal studies has raised the possibility that immunisation by vaccines can influence the pathogenesis of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. In non-obese diabetic mice and biobreeding rats, complete Freunds adjuvant and bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) vaccine have successfully been used to interrupt the development of diabetes mellitus. This effect is probably mediated by nonspecific suppression of the autoimmune process. A number of attempts have also been made to assess the impact of parenteral immunisation on type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans. Epidemiological evidence has not indicated any clear link between BCG vaccination and the development of diabetes mellitus in humans. Some reports have suggested that natural mumps or mumps vaccinations can induce islet cell auto-immunity, but there is no evidence that mumps-measles-rubella mass vaccination programmes have changed the incidence of diabetes mellitus in any population. An independent protective role of measles virus has been suggested in one study. Recent studies have indicated that enterovirus infections may induce cell auto-immunity and clinical diabetes. The only currently available enterovirus vaccine is the poliovirus vaccine which, in theory, could modulate the protection against other enteroviruses by inducing cross-reactive T cell immune responses; however, this hypothesis has not been tested so far. In conclusion, there is no clear evidence that any currently used vaccine can prevent or induce diabetes in humans. However, only a few studies are available on the subject and therefore the possibility of a link between vaccination and diabetes mellitus cannot be excluded. Adis International Li Continue reading >>

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