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Childhood Type 2 Diabetes Statistics

Diabetes Rates Skyrocket In Kids And Teens

Diabetes Rates Skyrocket In Kids And Teens

The prevalence of diabetes in children shot up dramatically between 2000 and 2009, a new study shows. The amount of type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease, climbed 21% from 2000 to 2009, to 1.93 per 1,000 children. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes — which is associated with obesity — jumped more than 30% in the same period, to a rate of 0.46 per 1,000 kids, according to a study presented Saturday at the Pediatric Academic Societies' meeting in Vancouver, Canada. Nationwide, nearly 167,000 children and teens younger than 20 have type 1 diabetes, while more than 20,000 have type 2, says study author Dana Dabelea, of the Colorado School of Public Health in Aurora, Colo. "These increases are serious," Dabelea says. "Every new case means a lifetime burden of difficult and costly treatment and higher risk of early, serious complications." The new study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, is the most comprehensive available, said David Ludwig, director of the New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center at Boston Children's Hospital, who was not involved in the study. The research, called the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, included 3 million children and adolescents in different regions of the USA. Researchers acknowledge that the study doesn't include information from the last five years. "We don't know what happened in the last five years," Ludwig says. "Most likely, things have gotten worse." Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, occurs when the pancreas makes little or no insulin, a hormone that the body needs to let sugar to enter cells and produce energy. In type 2 diabetes, once known as "adult-onset" diabetes, the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn't make enough in Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Kids: The Growing Epidemic

Type 2 Diabetes And Kids: The Growing Epidemic

Before the obesity epidemic in the United States, type 2 diabetes was practically unheard of in people under 30. That explains the former name for the disease: adult-onset diabetes. Not long ago, almost all children with diabetes suffered from the type 1 form of the disease, which means their bodies couldn't produce enough insulin. And type 2 diabetes, in which the pancreas may produce normal insulin levels but cells become resistant to it, typically took decades to develop. But type 2 diabetes isn't just for adults anymore. The number of children and adolescents with the condition (most of whom are diagnosed in their early teens) has skyrocketed over the last 20 years and is still climbing, prompting experts to call it an epidemic. Because young children who are obese are more likely to become diabetic when they're older, experts are paying particular attention to how much -- or how little -- pre-adolescents eat and exercise. Disease researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) made the prediction that one in three children born in the United States in 2000 will likely develop type 2 diabetes sometime in their lifetime unless they get more exercise and improve their diets. The prediction was especially serious for Latino children. Without changes in diet and exercise, their odds of developing diabetes during their lifetime were about 50-50. Type 2 is not usually as life-threatening or dramatic as type 1 at the time of diagnosis, but it does increase the likelihood that children may develop serious long-term complications in later life such as blindness, kidney disease, and heart disease. With proper medical treatment and a self-care program that incorporates exercise, glucose monitoring, and nutrition, however, your child can likely keep his or h Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Youth: Epidemiology And Pathophysiology

Type 2 Diabetes In Youth: Epidemiology And Pathophysiology

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is significantly increased in the pediatric population, which is affected by obesity worldwide. The progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes involves intermediate stages of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), also known as prediabetes. The pathophysiology underlying the development of these glucose metabolic alterations is multifactorial; however an alteration in the balance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion represents the most important player in the development of type 2 diabetes. Obese children and adolescents affected by IGT and type 2 diabetes are characterized by severe insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased lipid accumulation in visceral compartments, liver and muscle tissues and by reduced sensitivity of β-cell of first and second-phase insulin secretion. The progression in obese children of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes has been shown to be faster than in adults; in addition, type 2 diabetes is already associated with several metabolic and cardiovascular complications in this age group. In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings concerning the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth and in particular we explore the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and the natural history of this pathology in obese children and adolescents. Concurrent with the worldwide epidemic increase of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes and the two prediabetic conditions, IFG and IGT, are becoming increasingly more common in obese children and adolescents (1,2). Until 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes accounted for less than 3% of all cases of new-onset diabetes in adolescents. At present 45% of cases are attributed to it (3,4). Type 2 diabe Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity: Twin Epidemics

Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity: Twin Epidemics

Overview Type 2 diabetes accounts for 95% of the 25.8 million diabetes cases in the U.S1 Obesity is a major independent risk factor for developing the disease, and more than 90% of type 2 diabetics are overweight or obese2 Modest weight loss, as little as 5% of total body weight, can help to improve type 2 diabetes in patients who are overweight or obese3 Metabolic and bariatric surgery may result in resolution or improvement of type 2 diabetes independent of weight loss4 Prevalence Diabetes affects 8.3% of the total U.S. population (25.8 million people)5 18.8 million people have been diagnosed 7 million people are unaware they suffer from the disease About 95% of the diabetes population has type 2 diabetes6 Increases in type 2 diabetes cases across the country associated with higher obesity rates and rising age of population7 More than one-third (35.7%) of adults are obese; rate nearly tripled between 1960-20109 While children and adolescents are increasingly being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the CDC notes is it difficult to estimate the disease’s prevalence in this population because it can go undiagnosed for long periods of time10, 11 The rise in diabetes diagnoses is attributed to increasing childhood obesity rates, which have tripled since the 1980s, with approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children aged 2-19 suffering from obesity12 African-Americans and the elderly are disproportionately affected by diabetes13 18.7% of all African-Americans over twenty years old have diabetes, compared to 10.2% of whites 26.9% of Americans age 65 and older have diabetes, compared to 11.3% of adults over 20 Pre-Diabetes About 79 million Americans, or 35% of people 20 or older have pre-diabetes,14 while half of adults over 65 are affected by the disease15 Up to 70% of pati Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes, Once Considered A Disease For Adults, Is Increasingly Common In Tweens And Teens

Type 2 Diabetes, Once Considered A Disease For Adults, Is Increasingly Common In Tweens And Teens

For years, health experts have bemoaned the rise of childhood obesity in the United States. About 17% of kids and teens in the U.S. are now considered obese, a figure that has more than tripled since the 1970s, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A report in this week’s edition of the New England Journal of Medicine lays out one of the consequences of all this excess weight: a corresponding increase in childhood cases of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when extra body fat makes it hard for cells to use insulin, a hormone that turns sugar into energy. Over time, blood sugar levels rise and cause blood vessels to become stiff, increasing the risk of life-threatening conditions like heart attacks, strokes and kidney failure, among others. More than 75,000 Americans die of diabetes each year, the CDC says. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes, because it would take years to develop. (That’s in contrast to type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, which occurs when the immune system destroys the cells that make insulin.) But these days, doctors are diagnosing type 2 in school-age kids, and occasionally even in toddlers. After reviewing data on 10- to 19-year-olds in primarily five states (California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina and Washington), researchers determined that 12.5 out of every 100,000 of them had a bona fide case of type 2 diabetes in 2011 and 2012. That compares with nine cases per 100,000 youth in 2002 and 2003. After accounting for age, gender, race and ethnicity, the study authors found that the incidence of type 2 diabetes in this age group rose by an average of 4.8% per year during the study period. The increase is detailed in this chart, which comes from the CDC. Here are five Continue reading >>

Global Childhood Obesity Rates Are 10 Times Higher Than 40 Years Ago

Global Childhood Obesity Rates Are 10 Times Higher Than 40 Years Ago

Childhood obesity rates are now 10 times higher than they were 40 years ago, research has shown. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has released the figures on World Obesity Day to raise awareness of the risks childhood obesity can cause in later life, which include chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. There are now 124 million young people around the world who are overweight, and the WHO estimates that if current trends continue then by 2022 numbers of obese children will have overtaken underweight young people worldwide. "Over the past four decades, obesity rates in children and adolescents have soared globally, and continue to do so in low-and middle-income countries. More recently, they have plateaued in higher income countries, although obesity levels there remain unacceptably high," said Professor Majid Ezzati, the study's lead author from Imperial College London's School of Public Health. "These worrying trends reflect the impact of food marketing and policies across the globe, with healthy nutritious foods too expensive for poor families and communities. The trend predicts a generation of children and adolescents growing up obese and also malnourished." Imperial College London researchers analysed trends recorded from more than 2,400 studies involving 130 million children aged between five and 19. They measured variations in height and weight between 1975 and 2016 and used this information to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). The findings, which appear in The Lancet, show that the number of obese children and adolescents worldwide increased from five million to 50 million among girls, and from six million to 74 million among boys. Experts have predicted if the obesity rates continue to soar, as a result of bad health, the Continue reading >>

Chapter 5: Diabetes In Canada: Facts And Figures From A Public Health Perspective – Youth And Children

Chapter 5: Diabetes In Canada: Facts And Figures From A Public Health Perspective – Youth And Children

Chapter 5 – Diabetes in children and youth Introduction Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases among children and youth. In 2008/09, the CCDSS reported 3,287 new cases of diagnosed diabetes (including both type 1 and type 2) among Canadians aged one to 19 years, bringing the total number of cases in children and youth to 25,693 (representing a prevalence rate of 0.3%) (Chapter 1, Table 1-1). Historically, all cases of diabetes in young individuals were believed to be type 1 diabetes. However, for the last two decades, type 2 diabetes has been on the rise globally in this population. Currently, no population-based surveillance study has confirmed the ratio between the two types of the disease in children and youth in Canada. However, one study from British Columbia developed an algorithm to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 cases in administrative data, and estimated that approximately 90% of the cases among children and youth aged one to 19 years were of type 1 diabetes and 10% were of type 2 diabetes in 2006/07.1 As the rates of obesity increase among children and youth, the rates of type 2 diabetes also increase. Therefore, the ratio of type 1 to type 2 in this population is likely to be impacted.2 Research suggests that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing worldwide in youth.3 As both forms of diabetes are lifelong diseases, the early onset of either type increases the risk of related complications later in life, with lifelong implications for those with the disease and their families, as well as for the health care system and the Canadian economy. Although it is currently only possible to prevent type 2 diabetes, optimal management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is of primary importance to prevent negative consequences of either dise Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Read on to learn some of the key facts and statistics about the people who have it and how to manage it. Risk factors Many risk factors for type 2 diabetes include lifestyle decisions that can be reduced or even cut out entirely with time and effort. Men are also at slightly higher risk of developing diabetes than women. This may be more associated with lifestyle factors, body weight, and where the weight is located (abdominally versus in the hip area) than with innate gender differences. Significant risk factors include: older age excess weight, particularly around the waist family history certain ethnicities physical inactivity poor diet Prevalence Type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent but also largely preventable. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults. The CDC also gives us the following information: In general Research suggests that 1 out of 3 adults has prediabetes. Of this group, 9 out of 10 don't know they have it. 29.1 million people in the United States have diabetes, but 8.1 million may be undiagnosed and unaware of their condition. About 1.4 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in United States every year. More than one in every 10 adults who are 20 years or older has diabetes. For seniors (65 years and older), that figure rises to more than one in four. Cases of diagnosed diabetes cost the United States an estimated $245 billion in 2012. This cost is expected to rise with the increasing diagnoses. In pregnancy and parentingAccording to the CDC, 4.6 to 9.2 percent of pregnancies may be affected by gestational diabetes. In up to 10 percent of them, the mother is diagnosed w Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Childhood: Obesity And Insulin Resistance

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Childhood: Obesity And Insulin Resistance

As rates of childhood obesity climb, type 2 diabetes mellitus has increasingly been diagnosed in children and adolescents, with the highest incidence occurring among youth from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. The serious complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus make it essential for physicians to be aware of risk factors and screening guidelines, allowing for earlier patient diagnosis and treatment. It is also important for physicians to be aware of the treatment options available, including weight control through diet and exercise as well as common pharmacotherapeutic options. According to the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group,8 incidence rates among American Indians aged 15 to 19 years is 49.4%, compared to 5.6% in non-Hispanic whites of the same age group. Among youth in the United States, Pima Indian adolescents have the highest reported prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For Pima Indian children aged 5 to 9 years, the incidence rate is less than 0.5%; for children and adolescents aged 10 to 14 years, 1.5% to 3%; and for adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 19 years, 4% to 5%.7 Neel9 postulated that, when humans were hunter-gatherers and did not know when the next meal was expected, some individuals developed “thrifty genes.” These genes caused the body to become insulin resistant by interfering with mechanisms that allowed blood glucose to be transported into cells where it would be phosphorylated and used for energy. Consequently, the pancreas had to make more insulin. The excess insulin allowed cells to store fat for use during times of relative famine, leading to a much higher survival rate.9-11 These genes may include uncoupling proteins, PPAR-γ and PPAR-α, CALPAIN 10, and adrenergic receptor polymorphisms.12-14 Athero Continue reading >>

Rise In Type 2 Diabetes In Children 'deeply Worrying'

Rise In Type 2 Diabetes In Children 'deeply Worrying'

The UK is seeing a small but "extremely worrying" rise in the number of children developing a type of diabetes that is normally seen only in adults and is linked to obesity, say experts. Figures for England and Wales show 533 children and young people are now diagnosed with type 2 diabetes - up from about 500 the year before. This is still only 2% of all child diabetes - most have type 1 instead. The Local Government Association says it is still too much. Diabetes Diabetes is a condition that causes a person's blood sugar to become too high. There are two main types: Type 1 can develop at any age, but often begins in childhood. It is not related to diet or lifestyle, and experts are still trying to figure out why certain people are susceptible. Genetics probably play some role Type 2 is far more common than type 1, but is still rare in childhood. It is usually seen in adults and is often associated with obesity The body, which represents hundreds of individual councils with responsibility for public health, believes cases will continue to rise unless bold action is taken in the English government's awaited childhood obesity strategy. Whatever happened to the obesity strategy? How can I reduce my risk of diabetes? The LGA is calling for teaspoon sugar labelling and a reduction of sugar content in fizzy drinks, greater provision of tap water in schools and restaurants, and for councils to be given powers to ban junk food advertising near schools, to be included in the childhood obesity strategy. Cllr Izzi Seccombe, from the LGA, said: "This is a wake-up call for the nation as the government faces a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to take radical game-changing action in its forthcoming childhood obesity strategy. "We cannot afford to delay any longer." The government has re Continue reading >>

More Evidence Ties Childhood Obesity To Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

More Evidence Ties Childhood Obesity To Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

(Reuters Health) - Rates of type 2 diabetes among children in the UK have been rising, and tracking along with increased obesity and severe obesity, researchers say. Based on data for hundreds of thousands of UK children and teens, the study found that obese kids were four times as likely as normal weight children to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, which has already been linked to obesity in adults. “Obesity is a major global health issue. More than half of adults and one out of three children leaving primary school are now overweight or obese,” said lead study author Ali Abbasi of King’s College London. More than 12 million children and teens in the United States are considered obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About 3,600 cases of type 2 diabetes are diagnosed in children and teens each year in the U.S. “The rapidity of the increase in type 2 diabetes is a real concern, which may have an important impact on the health of future generations,” Abbasi told Reuters Health by email. Abbasi and colleagues looked at records from 375 doctors’ offices across the UK for the years 1994 through 2013. They analyzed data from 369,362 patients between ages 2 and 15, tracking new cases of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and comparing them to children’s body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight relative to height, over time. There were 654 type 2 diabetes cases and 1,318 type 1 diabetes cases diagnosed during the study period. The incidence of type 2 diabetes among the children rose from 6.4 cases per 100,000 people per year in 1994 - 1998 to 33.2 cases per 100,000 per year in 2009 - 2013, the study team reports in Journal of the Endocrine Society. The increase took place primarily among overweight and obese children, and the greates Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Type 2 Diabetes And Kids

What You Should Know About Type 2 Diabetes And Kids

The prevalence of diabetes, especially that of type 2 in children, is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Although no data currently exists to determine the extent to which type 2 diabetes has emerged among U.S. children and adolescents, researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that among new cases of childhood diabetes, the proportion of those with type 2 diabetes ranges between 8 percent and 43 percent.1 Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased sharply. Prior to the 1990s, documented rates of type 2 diabetes ranged between 1 and 4 percent for adolescents. However, many centers have reported increases in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children each year of the past decade. In some pediatric populations, the rates of type 2 diabetes now exceed those of type 1.2 Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed in patients over the age of 40 while type 1 diabetes typically affects juveniles. However, this distinction has started to blur as more and more adolescents have been diagnosed with type 2. Type 2 diabetes begins when the body develops a resistance to insulin and no longer uses the insulin properly. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin to regulate blood sugar. Children who develop type 2 diabetes are typically overweight or obese and have a family history of the disease. In addition to obesity, type 2 diabetes is often characterized by the metabolic syndrome of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. This syndrome is similar in both adults and children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. For such children, the problems go beyond diabetes itself and include its complications.3 The rate of complications, such as heart disease Continue reading >>

Epidemiology, Presentation, And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Children And Adolescents

Epidemiology, Presentation, And Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Children And Adolescents

INTRODUCTION Since the early 1990s, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased in children and adolescents and is linked to the rise in childhood obesity. T2DM and its comorbidities are risk factors for vascular disease later in life. As a result, it is imperative for health care providers to identify and treat children and adolescents with this disorder. (See "Definition; epidemiology; and etiology of obesity in children and adolescents".) The epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of T2DM in children and adolescents are presented here. Other aspects of T2DM in youth are discussed in separate topic reviews: Continue reading >>

The State Of Childhood Obesity

The State Of Childhood Obesity

Overview The latest data show that the national childhood obesity rate among 2- to 19-year-olds is 18.5 percent. The rate varies among different age groups, with rates rising along with age. While overall obesity rates remain higher than they were a generation ago, the rise in rates has slowed in recent years, following decades of sharp increases starting in the early 1970s.1 There are even signs that childhood obesity rates are starting to decline, particularly among young children from low-income families and in communities that have taken comprehensive obesity-prevention approaches. Between 2010 and 2014, 31 states and three territories reported declines in obesity rates among toddlers (ages 2 to 4) whose families participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program (SNAP) for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition program for low-income families. The national obesity rate among children in the WIC program has also declined from a high of 15.9 percent in 2010 to 14.5 percent in 2014, the most recent year for which data are available.2 There are increasing examples of signs of progress — where areas have implemented a wide range of strategies to make healthy foods and beverages available in schools and communities, and have integrated physical activity into daily life — ranging from a 24.1 percent decline in obesity for children under 6 in Eastern Massachusetts to a 13.4 percent decline among kindergarten to fifthgraders in Kearney, Nebraska.3 Despite these positive trends, childhood obesity remains an American epidemic. More than 12 million U.S. children are obese — one out of every six children.4 Obese children have an increased risk of developing a range of health problems, including high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which are both risk fac Continue reading >>

Types 1 And 2 Diabetes Increase Dramatically In U.s. Youth

Types 1 And 2 Diabetes Increase Dramatically In U.s. Youth

Ron Levine via Getty Images From 2001 to 2009, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increased significantly among American youth, according to new research. The study, published in the May 7 child health issue of JAMA, analyzed data from more than three million children and teens up to age 19 from California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina, Washington state and selected American Indian reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. After adjusting for confounding variables, the researchers found that type 2 diabetes increased by nearly a third, while type 1 diabetes increased by more than 20 percent over the eight year period of the study. “The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications, and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation,” wrote the authors. In 2001, 1.48 per 1,000 American children from infancy through age 19 were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, according to the research, while by 2009 that rose 21.1 percent to a rate of 1.93 per 1,000. White children were most likely to have type 1 diabetes at a rate of 2.55 per 1,000 children diagnosed, but researchers found that rates also increased among minority groups. “Historically, type 1 diabetes has been considered a disease that affects primarily white youth; however, our findings highlight the increasing burden of type 1 diabetes experienced by youth of minority racial/ethnic groups as well,” the authors wrote. Type 2 diabetes rates grew even more. In 2001, there were 0.34 diagnoses per 1,000 U.S. kids ages 10 through 19, but by 2009 diagnoses rose 30.5 percent to a rate of Continue reading >>

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