The Kid’s Doctor: Why Is Childhood Diabetes On The Rise?
Diabetes continues to be a growing problem among our nation’s children. Did you know that every year there are more than 25,000 children diagnosed with diabetes? To begin with there are two different types of childhood diabetes, type 1 and type 2; and while both cause an elevated blood sugar, they also differ in many ways. Type 1 diabetes was formerly called juvenile onset diabetes and is typically diagnosed in children and adolescents. Only 5 percent of those with diabetes have type 1. Many parents worry that their child may develop diabetes because they eat too much sugar. While eating sugar is not good for you, it does not directly cause type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells (insulin producing cells) of the pancreas. Scientists are not exactly sure why this occurs, but it seems to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and actually has nothing to do with diet. Type 1 diabetes comes on suddenly and causes dependence on insulin for the rest of the child’s life. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually include extreme thirst, frequent urination (day and night), increased appetite and sudden weight loss. Children who develop type 1 diabetes appear tired, thin and sick. To many parents who worry that their child is diabetic, I tell them that they really cannot miss the symptoms and that just drinking a lot of water will not be the only symptom. Fortunately, the ways in which insulin is given continues to improve and most children now use an insulin pump, which delivers insulin in a more consistent manner than in previous years. But, even with new insulin delivery systems and the hopes for pancreas transplants, type 1diabetes is challenging for a family to manage. Type 2 d Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms?
What Is Type 1 Diabetes (Juvenile)? Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that usually starts in childhood, but can occur in adults (30 to 40-year-olds). In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces very little insulin. Insulin helps cells in the body convert sugar into energy. When the pancreas cannot make enough insulin, sugar starts to build up in the blood, causing life-threatening complications. Individuals with type 1 diabetes must take some form of insulin for the rest of their lives. Unusual Thirst Symptoms Unusual thirst is a very common symptom of type 1 diabetes. This condition causes the kidneys to remove excess sugar in the blood by getting rid of more water. The water is removed through urinating, causing dehydration and dehydration causes you to drink more water. Weight Loss Symptoms Patient with type 1 diabetes develop unintentional weight loss and an increase in appetite because blood sugar levels remain high and the body metabolizes fat for energy. Disrupted glucose metabolism also causes patient to feel a lack of energy and drowsy for extended periods Excess urination also cause weight loss because many calories are leaving the body in urine. Skin Problems Symptoms The disruption in glucose metabolism in patient with type 1 diabetes causes skin changes. Type 1 diabetics are at a higher risk for bacterial infections and fungal infections. Poor blood circulation in the skin may also occur. Patient with type 1 diabetes are often infected with fungal infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans. Common fungal infections include athlete's foot, vaginal yeast infection in women, jock itch, ringworm, and diaper rashes in babies. Diaper rash caused by the yeast Candida albicans can spread to other areas of the body such as the stomach and legs. Other Dangero Continue reading >>
Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Practice Essentials Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Most pediatric patients with diabetes have type 1 and a lifetime dependence on exogenous insulin.  The image below depicts the effects of insulin deficiency. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Blood glucose Blood glucose tests using capillary blood samples, reagent sticks, and blood glucose meters are the usual methods for monitoring day-to-day diabetes control. Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following  : Glycated hemoglobin Measurement of HbA1c levels is the best method for medium-term to long-term diabetic control monitoring. An international expert committee composed of appointed representatives of the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and others recommended HbA1c assay for diagnosing diabetes mellitus.  See Workup for more detail. Management Glycemic control The ADA recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals, with different targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients aged 0-6, 6-12, and 13-19 years.  Benefits of tight glycemic control include not only continued reductions in the rates of microvascular complications but also significant differences in cardiovascular events and overall mortality. Insulin therapy All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of b Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes
Alicia Thomas Diaz, M.D. What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes and juvenile diabetes, can develop at any age but most often occurs in children, teens, and young adults. In type 1 diabetes, a person’s pancreas produces little or no insulin, so insulin treatment is needed for a lifetime. The causes of type 1 diabetes are not fully known. In most cases, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the part of the pancreas that produces insulin. This occurs over a period of time. so early on in type 1 diabetes, people may not have any symptoms. It is only when enough of the insulin producing cells are affected and insulin producing cells are affected and insulin levels are low that blood sugar rises and symptoms of diabetes start to occur. Because type 1 is an autoimmune disease, people with other autoimmune, conditions, such as Hashimoto disease or primary adrenal insufficiency (also known as Addison's Disease), are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Overall, cases of type 1 diabetes seem to be increasing. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can look like other conditions or medical problems. If you (or your child) have these symptoms, talk with your doctor as soon as possible. Increased thirst Increased urination Constant hunger Weight loss Blurred vision Constantly feeling tired How is type 1 diabetes diagnosed and treated? Your doctor will use blood tests to diagnose diabetes. A blood glucose level above 125 mg/dL after fasting overnight or above 200 mg/dL after eating may indicate diabetes. Your doctor may also take a medical history and order further blood tests to rule out type 2 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes must have daily injections of insulin to keep a normal l Continue reading >>
What Is Type 1 Diabetes?
The most common type of diabetes in children is type 1 diabetes. In fact, according to the American Diabetes Association, type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in the U.S. Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Juvenile diabetes Brittle diabetes Sugar diabetes There are two forms of type 1 diabetes: Idiopathic type 1. This refers to rare forms of the disease with no known cause. Immune-mediated diabetes. An autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Immune-mediated diabetes is the most common form of type 1 diabetes and is generally referred to as type 1 diabetes. What causes type 1 diabetes? The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is believed that people inherit a tendency to develop diabetes, and that some outside trigger may be involved. Type 1 diabetes is the result of the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide fuel. This is the result of an autoimmune process in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood, depriving the cells of nutrition. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections and regularly monitor their blood sugar levels. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. In children, type 1 diabetes symptoms may resemble flu symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms for type 1 diabetes. However, each child may experience sympto Continue reading >>
Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences
Childhood obesity is a complex health issue. It occurs when a child is well above the normal or healthy weight for his or her age and height. The causes of excess weight gain in young people are similar to those in adults, including factors such as a person’s behavior and genetics. Our nation’s overall increase in obesity also is influenced by a person’s community. Where people live can affect their ability to make healthy choices. Behavior Behaviors that influence excess weight gain include eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages, not getting enough physical activity, sedentary activities such as watching television or other screen devices, medication use, and sleep routines. In contrast, consuming a healthy diet and being physically active can help children grow as well as maintain a healthy weight throughout childhood. Balancing energy or calories consumed from foods and beverages with the calories burned through activity plays a role in preventing excess weight gain. In addition, eating healthy and being physically active also has other health benefits and helps to prevent chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. Use these resources to eat well and be active! A healthy diet follows the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans that emphasizes eating a variety of vegetables and fruits, whole grains, a variety of lean protein foods, and low-fat and fat-free dairy products. It also limits eating foods and beverages with added sugars, solid fats, or sodium. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends children aged 6 years or older do at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Community Environment It can be difficult for children and parents to make healthy food choices and get enough physical activ Continue reading >>
Child's Plague: Inside The Boom In Childhood Diabetes
When 7-year-old Gus Ramsey of Weston, Massachusetts, was found to have type 1 (juvenile) diabetes in September 2007, it seemed mere coincidence that Grayson Welo, age 6 and living around the corner, had been diagnosed with the same disease a few months before. After all, type 1 was considered rare—only about 15,000 new cases were diagnosed annually in the United States at the beginning of the decade, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). At least Gus’s parents could be reassured that they lived in a healthy community: Weston, population 11,134, is the wealthiest town in the state, with three golf courses, 13 soccer fields, 19 baseball diamonds, and not a single fast-food restaurant. Yet two months after Gus’s diagnosis, another child, Natalia Gormley, was found to have the disease on her tenth birthday. She lived on the other side of town. In January 2008 12-year-old Sean Richard was diagnosed. He lived less than a mile away. Then 8-year-old Finn Sullivan became the fifth case of type 1 diabetes diagnosed in Weston in less than a year. He lived on Gus’s block, just six doors down. And the cases kept on coming. Six-year-old Mya Smith, from nearby Wellesley, received the diagnosis in April. On June 15 came the jaw-dropper, when Walker Allen was diagnosed. His father, basketball star Ray Allen, scored 26 points two nights later in game six of the NBA Finals to give the Celtics their first championship in 22 years. Far more notable was Walker’s age: just 17 months. Weston’s school nurses had never seen anything like it. There were now eight children attending Weston public schools who had type 1 diabetes, including those who had been diagnosed in previous years. That number did not even include the local kids who were too young for s Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Children
What is it? Diabetes (di-ah-BE-tez) is also called diabetes mellitus (MEL-i-tus). There are three main types of diabetes. Your child has type 1 diabetes. It may also be called insulin dependent, early onset, or juvenile onset diabetes. Type 1 diabetes happens when your child's pancreas (an organ that lies behind the stomach) does not make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is more common in children or young adults but anyone can have it. It usually starts in late childhood but can happen in early infancy through late adulthood. There is no cure for diabetes but your child can have a long and active life if his diabetes is controlled. How did my child get type 1 Diabetes? Insulin is a hormone (a special body chemical) made by the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ that lies behind the stomach. Much of the food we eat is turned into sugar in the stomach. This sugar goes into the blood and travels to the cells of your child's body to be used for energy. Insulin acts as a "key" to help sugar enter the cells. With type 1 diabetes, your child's body does not make insulin. This causes sugar to build up in his blood so your child must have insulin shots every day. At a time during the first year after the diagnosis is made, your child may need less insulin. This is called the "honeymoon period." You will give your child his insulin injections until he is old enough to do it himself. Some children can learn to give themselves their own insulin shots around ten years old, with an adult present. Signs and Symptoms: The symptoms of hyperglycemia (hi-per-gli-SE-me-ah) or high blood sugar usually come on suddenly. If your child has one or more of the following signs and symptoms, you should take your child to see his caregiver: Blurry vision. Fatigue (feeling very tired). Hungry all of the ti Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes In Children
What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes an unhealthy amount of a simple sugar (glucose) to build up in a person's blood. Someone with type 1 diabetes can't produce enough insulin, a hormone that moves glucose from the bloodstream into cells throughout the body, where it supplies energy and fuels growth. Normally, a child's immune system protects her body from diseases by destroying unhealthy cells and germs. But when a child has type 1 diabetes, her body also mistakenly attacks the healthy insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). Without these cells, her pancreas produces very little or no insulin, which leads to an abnormally high amount of sugar in her blood. Without proper care, type 1 diabetes can cause serious, wide-ranging health problems that can damage organs throughout the body over the long-term. If your child has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it's understandable that you might worry. But diabetes can be kept under control by carefully monitoring your child's blood sugar and following her treatment plan. A team of doctors, nurses, and nutritionists can help your child be as healthy as possible and teach her to manage the condition so she stays that way. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children? Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: Extreme thirst Peeing more than usual (You might notice more wet diapers if your child is very young, or "accidents" if your child is potty trained.) Extreme hunger Weight loss Unusual tiredness Crankiness Yeast infection or diaper rash If your child has one or more of these symptoms, call his doctor right away. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can start quickly and become very serious without treatment. Get medical care immediately if your child has any of Continue reading >>
Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?
If your child or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering how the disease differs from type 2 diabetes — the form people tend to know more about. What causes type 1 versus type 2 diabetes? Are the symptoms the same? And how is each treated? Here to clear up the confusion with an overview of key differences — and similarities — between these two types of diabetes are experts Julie Settles, M.S.N., A.C.N.P.-B.C., C.E.N., a clinical research scientist at Lilly Diabetes, and Rosemary Briars, N.D., P.N.P.-B.C., C.D.E., C.C.D.C., clinical director and program co-director of the Chicago Children’s Diabetes Center at La Rabida Children’s Hospital. Causes Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, as it’s formally known in medical terms, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person develops high blood glucose (blood sugar). The underlying health factors causing the high blood sugar will determine whether someone is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which “the body’s immune system starts to make antibodies that are targeted directly at the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islet cells),” explains Briars. Over time, the immune system “gradually destroys the islet cells, so insulin is no longer made and the person has to take insulin every day, from then on,” she says. As for why this happens, Settles notes, “The immune system normally fights off viruses and bacteria that we do not want in our body, but when it causes diabetes, it is because something has gone wrong and now the body attacks its own cells.” Triggering this autoimmune response is a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that researchers are still trying to fully understand. O Continue reading >>
Could Your Child Have Diabetes?
More than 15,000 children are diagnosed with type 1 every year. Make sure you know the telltale signs -- they're all too easy to dismiss. When Chloe Powell started begging for one more drink of water every night, her father, Charles, thought his then 7-year-old was using a common bedtime stall tactic. "I was irritated that she wouldn't go to sleep," admits Dr. Powell, who's a family physician in Dallas. With all she was drinking, he wasn't surprised when she began wetting the bed. But when Chloe couldn't make it through a conversation without having to use the bathroom, he became concerned. "I figured she had a urinary-tract infection, and she'd take some antibiotics and feel better," says Dr. Powell. He wasn't at all prepared for what his daughter's urine test showed: a dangerously high level of sugar that was a clear indicator of type 1 diabetes. In an instant, Chloe, now 10, went from being a kid who never thought twice about the foods she ate or the energy she burned to one who'd face a lifetime of carbohydrate counting, finger pricks, and insulin injections. A Disease on the Rise Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body's immune system to mistakenly destroy healthy cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin. (Type 2, on the other hand, occurs when the body doesn't respond to the insulin that's being made.) Insulin ensures that sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream gets into the body's cells where it's needed for energy; without insulin, sugar builds up in the blood, which can be deadly. It's important to begin insulin therapy as soon as possible because high blood-sugar levels can cause permanent vision and nerve problems as well as damage to blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Since the 198 Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes In Children
For decades, type 2 diabetes was considered an adults-only condition. In fact, type 2 diabetes was once called adult-onset diabetes. But what was once a disease mainly faced by adults is becoming more common in children. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes sugar (glucose). Over 5,000 people under the age of 20 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2008 and 2009. Until 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes accounted for less than 3% of all newly diagnosed diabetes cases in adolescents; it now comprises 45% of all such cases. It’s more common in those aged 10-19 and in non-Caucasian populations, including African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Being overweight is closely tied to the development of type 2 diabetes. Overweight children have an increased likelihood of insulin resistance. As the body struggles to regulate insulin, high blood sugar leads to a number of potentially serious health problems. In the past 30 years, obesity in children has doubled and obesity in adolescents has quadrupled, according to the CDC. Genetics may also play a role. For instance, the risk of type 2 diabetes increases if one parent or both parents has the condition. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always easy to spot. In most cases, the disease develops gradually, making the symptoms hard to detect. Many people do not feel any symptoms. In other cases, children may not show any obvious signs. If you believe your child has diabetes, keep an eye out for these signs: Excessive fatigue: If your child seems extraordinarily tired or sleepy, their body may not have enough sugar to properly fuel their normal body functions. Excessive thirst: Children who have excessive thirst may have high blood sugar levels. Frequent Continue reading >>
Signs Of Diabetes In Children
What to look for: Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children One of the early signs of diabetes in children is increased urination and thirst. When blood-sugar is high it triggers a reaction in the body that pulls fluid from tissues. This will leave your son or daughter constantly thirsty, resulting in a need for more bathroom breaks throughout the day. Below are some other warning signs that you should be aware of. Fatigue: If your child is constantly tired it may be a sign that his or her body is having trouble turning sugar in the bloodstream into energy. Changes in vision: High blood sugar levels can lead to blurred vision or other eyesight problems. Fruity smelling breath: If your kid’s breath smells fruity, it could be a result of excess sugar in the blood. Extreme hunger and unexplained weight loss: When your son or daughter’s muscles and organs aren’t receiving enough energy, it can trigger extreme hunger. And sudden weight loss—especially if he or she is eating more—should not be ignored. Unusual behavior: If your child seems more moody or restless than normal—and it’s in conjunction with the symptoms above—it could be cause for concern. Other symptoms of diabetes in children Be on the lookout if your child is lethargic, shows heavy breathing, or experiences nausea and vomiting. When it goes untreated, type 1 diabetes can be life-threatening. If you’re concerned that your son or daughter is showing signs of childhood diabetes it’s important that you schedule a doctor’s appointment as soon as possible. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… Polyuria occurs when your body urinates more frequently—and often in larger amounts—than normal… The reality is that signs o Continue reading >>
The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection
A young child becomes very thirsty very often and seems tired all the time. A visit to the pediatrician determines she has type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes may seem sudden, and it can be, but the disease may actually have been triggered by common childhood viruses years earlier. Type 1 diabetes—also called diabetes mellitus—was previously called juvenile-onset diabetes because most people affected with this disease are diagnosed as children and young adults. It isn't the most common form of diabetes and only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. That doesn't make it any less serious—in fact, it can be a life-threatening disease. When we eat something, our body converts carbohydrates and starches in the food into sugar (glucose), which is then processed by our bodies to either be used or stored for later. People with type 1 diabetes have trouble keeping their blood sugar level even: It spikes when they eat something and goes very low if they don't. That's because their pancreas doesn't make insulin, the hormone that in a healthy human moves glucose from the blood into cells where it can be used for energy, keeping it from spiking after eating. Type 1 diabetics must constantly monitor their blood sugar and take insulin to keep their levels within a normal range to keep this process running. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease where the body forms antibodies to itself and attacks parts of its own body. In this case, antibodies are formed to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Experts believe type 1 diabetes may be caused by a genetic risk factors and environmental factors, including viruses. A viral link to type 1 diabetes is one of the findings in a new study led by Hanna Honkanen and Heikki Hyöty in th Continue reading >>
"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise. Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>