diabetestalk.net

Cbg Diabetes

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in diabetes management, a blood glucose test is typically performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'. Different manufacturers use different technology, but most systems measure an electrical characteristic, and use this to determine the glucose level in the blood. The test is usually referred to as capillary blood glucose. Healthcare professionals advise patients with diabetes mellitus on the appropriate monitoring regimen for their condition. Most people with type 2 diabetes test at least once per day. The Mayo Clinic generally recommends that diabetics who use insulin (all type 1 diabetics and many type 2 diabetics) test their blood sugar more often (4-8 times per day for type 1 diabetics, 2 or more times per day for type 2 diabetics),[1] both to assess the effectiveness of their prior insulin dose and to help determine their next insulin dose. Purpose[edit] Blood glucose monitoring reveals individual patterns of blood glucose changes, and helps in the planning of meals, activities, and at what time of day to take medications.[2] Also, testing allows for quick response to high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). This might include diet adjustments, exercise, and insulin (as instructed by the health care provider).[2] Blood glucose meters[edit] Main article: Glucose meter Four generations of blood glucose meter, c. 1991–2005. Sample sizes vary from 30 to 0.3 μl. Test times vary from 5 seconds to 2 minutes (modern meters are typically below 15 seconds). A blood glucose meter is an electronic device for measuring the blood Continue reading >>

Lack Of Compliance With Home Blood Glucose Monitoring Predicts Hospitalization In Diabetes

Lack Of Compliance With Home Blood Glucose Monitoring Predicts Hospitalization In Diabetes

Home capillary blood glucose (CBG) monitoring is the standard of care for patients with diabetes (1,2). Patients with type 1 diabetes should monitor their CBG concentration at least three or four times daily, and patients with type 2 diabetes should probably monitor their CBG concentration at least twice a day (1). Nevertheless, up to 67% of patients with diabetes fail to routinely monitor their CBG levels (3). Although the relationship between rigorous home blood glucose monitoring and improved glycemic control is well-established, determinants of compliance with home blood glucose monitoring recommendations are not known. Reported here are the results of a marketing survey exploring attitudes and behaviors surrounding compliance with home CBG monitoring. My group has previously published a study examining the efficacy of a laser skin perforator for the attainment of capillary blood samples for home CBG monitoring (4). In response to the large number of telephone inquiries received, the manufacturer of this device (Lasette Laser Skin Perforator; Cell Robotics, Albuquerque, NM) mailed out a brief questionnaire examining current home blood glucose monitoring practices and attitudes about this activity during the years 1999 and 2000. Of 6,600 questionnaires mailed, 1,895 (29%) were returned, and the data were analyzed using SAS. Respondents were entered into a drawing for a free laser skin perforator. This study was exempted from informed consent requirements by the University of New Mexico Human Research Review Committee. Data collected from the questionnaires included the duration of diabetes, the number of times per day the patient had been instructed to monitor CBG by a healthcare provider, the number of times per day the patient actually monitored CBG, the reason the Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In Diabetes Mellitus (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In Diabetes Mellitus (beyond The Basics)

LOW BLOOD SUGAR OVERVIEW Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, occurs when levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood are too low. Hypoglycemia is common in people with diabetes who take insulin and some (but not all) oral diabetes medications. WHY DO I GET LOW BLOOD SUGAR? Low blood sugar happens when a person with diabetes does one or more of the following: Takes too much insulin (or an oral diabetes medication that causes your body to secrete insulin) Does not eat enough food Exercises vigorously without eating a snack or decreasing the dose of insulin beforehand Waits too long between meals Drinks excessive alcohol, although even moderate alcohol use can increase the risk of hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes LOW BLOOD SUGAR SYMPTOMS The symptoms of low blood sugar vary from person to person, and can change over time. During the early stages low blood sugar, you may: Sweat Tremble Feel hungry Feel anxious If untreated, your symptoms can become more severe, and can include: Difficulty walking Weakness Difficulty seeing clearly Bizarre behavior or personality changes Confusion Unconsciousness or seizure When possible, you should confirm that you have low blood sugar by measuring your blood sugar level (see "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)"). Low blood sugar is generally defined as a blood sugar of 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L) or less. Some people with diabetes develop symptoms of low blood sugar at slightly higher levels. If your blood sugar levels are high for long periods of time, you may have symptoms and feel poorly when your blood sugar is closer to 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). Getting your blood sugar under better control can help to lower the blood sugar level when you begin to feel symptoms. Hypoglyc Continue reading >>

Elevated Capillary Blood Glucose In The Emergency Department Suggests A Higher Probability Of Underlying Diabetes Or Prediabetes Sheikh Wr, Mukhopadhyay R, Choudhary S, Amin S - Int J Adv Med Health Res

Elevated Capillary Blood Glucose In The Emergency Department Suggests A Higher Probability Of Underlying Diabetes Or Prediabetes Sheikh Wr, Mukhopadhyay R, Choudhary S, Amin S - Int J Adv Med Health Res

Background: In the emergency department (ED), patients with no prior history of diabetes and with hyperglycemic capillary blood glucose (CBG) levels, an opportunity exists to detect undiagnosed diabetes. High glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels in these patients could indicate underlying diabetes or prediabetes. Aim: To determine whether hyperglycemia in patients coming to ED without a history of diabetes is associated with elevated HbA 1c levels. Methods: A prospective correlational study of adults aged 18 years and more, presenting to ED with random CBG more than 140 mg/dL were enrolled. The patients with a history of diabetes were excluded. HbA 1c levels were checked in these patients and correlation was analyzed. Results: A total of 107 patients were enrolled and CBG levels were correlated with HbA 1c levels (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001). The median glucose and median HbA 1c levels were 201 mg/dL and 6.3%, respectively. The median time elapsed since last meal was 5 h (25-75% interquartile range, 4-9 h). Overall, 42.1% of the cases had elevated HbA 1c levels 6.5% while as 40.2% showed HbA 1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4%, which means 82.2% were either diabetic or prediabetic by HbA 1c criteria. Conclusion: CBG has a good correlation with HbA 1c . Therefore, in ED, HbA 1c should be considered in patients with CBG more than 140 mg/dL with no prior history of diabetes in order to uncover hidden diabetes/prediabetes and to exclude stress hyperglycemia. Keywords:Capillary blood glucose, diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin, hyperglycemia, prediabetes Sheikh WR, Mukhopadhyay R, Choudhary S, Amin S. Elevated capillary blood glucose in the emergency department suggests a higher probability of underlying diabetes or prediabetes. Int J Adv Med Health Res 2015;2:87-90 Sheikh WR, Muk Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

DHS: Seniors and People with Disabilities State Operated Community Program SOCP Nurse Tools: Blood Glucose Monitoring Date:       Client name:       DOB:       House:       Rationale for listing Glucometer procedure as training versus delegation: A delegation ideally includes only a few chosen individuals of a larger group, performing a task frequently enough to maintain a level of competency, e.g. gastric tube feeding. Training such as CPR training, typically involves training everyone in the group, in preparation of an anticipated emergency situation. In our setting, the glucometer is to be used by unlicensed staff in situations where there is no licensed LPN’s or RN’s stationed, in low frequency occurrences and emergency situations. All individuals of the group will be trained yearly. Those who fail to demonstrate initial competency will be retrained. The step-by-step procedure will be posted and readily available for all staff trained to use the glucometer. This rationale provides higher quality of care and eliminates the excess blood collections needed for delegating the glucometer task from the individual client. In order to provide 24 hour quality care all staff need to be trained to perform the needed blood glucose monitoring of the client. Blood Glucose Monitoring: is essential in taking care of a client you know, who has diabetes. Checking a CBG (capillary blood glucose), will help you learn how food activity levels, stress, medicine and insulin change blood sugar levels. Knowing the blood sugar level promotes health and prevents or delays complications associated with diabetes such as blindness and kidney fa Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Tweet Understanding blood glucose level ranges can be a key part of diabetes self-management. This page states 'normal' blood sugar ranges and blood sugar ranges for adults and children with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and blood sugar ranges to determine people with diabetes. If a person with diabetes has a meter, test strips and is testing, it's important to know what the blood glucose level means. Recommended blood glucose levels have a degree of interpretation for every individual and you should discuss this with your healthcare team. In addition, women may be set target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The following ranges are guidelines provided by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) but each individual’s target range should be agreed by their doctor or diabetic consultant. Recommended target blood glucose level ranges The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes. In addition, the International Diabetes Federation's target ranges for people without diabetes is stated. [19] [89] [90] The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for. NICE recommended target blood glucose level ranges Target Levels by Type Upon waking Before meals (pre prandial) At least 90 minutes after meals (post prandial) Non-diabetic* 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L Type 1 diabetes 5 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L *The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines. Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges For the majority of healthy ind Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When And How

Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When And How

Blood sugar testing is an important part of diabetes care. Find out when to test your blood sugar level, how to use a testing meter, and more. If you have diabetes, self-testing your blood sugar (blood glucose) can be an important tool in managing your treatment plan and preventing long-term complications of diabetes. You can test your blood sugar at home with a portable electronic device (glucose meter) that measures sugar level in a small drop of your blood. Why test your blood sugar Blood sugar testing — or self-monitoring blood glucose — provides useful information for diabetes management. It can help you: Judge how well you're reaching overall treatment goals Understand how diet and exercise affect blood sugar levels Understand how other factors, such as illness or stress, affect blood sugar levels Monitor the effect of diabetes medications on blood sugar levels Identify blood sugar levels that are high or low When to test your blood sugar Your doctor will advise you on how often you should check your blood sugar level. In general, the frequency of testing depends on the type of diabetes you have and your treatment plan. Type 1 diabetes. Your doctor may recommend blood sugar testing four to eight times a day if you have type 1 diabetes. You may need to test before meals and snacks, before and after exercise, before bed, and occasionally during the night. You may also need to check your blood sugar level more often if you are ill, change your daily routine or begin a new medication. Type 2 diabetes. If you take insulin to manage type 2 diabetes, your doctor may recommend blood sugar testing two or more times a day, depending on the type and amount of insulin you need. Testing is usually recommended before meals, and sometimes before bedtime. If you manage type 2 Continue reading >>

Checking Blood Glucose Levels

Checking Blood Glucose Levels

When a person's body is operating normally, it automatically checks the level of glucose in blood. If the level is too high or too low, the body will adjust the sugar level to return it to normal. This system operates in much the same way that cruise control adjusts the speed of a car. With diabetes, the body doesn't do the job of controlling blood glucose automatically. To make up for this, someone with diabetes has to check blood sugar regularly and adjust treatment accordingly. A doctor can measure blood glucose during an office visit. However, levels change from hour to hour and someone who visits the doctor only every few weeks won't know what his or her blood glucose is daily. Do-it-yourself tests enable people with diabetes to check their blood sugar daily. The easiest test someone can do at home is a urine test. When the level of glucose in blood rises above normal, the kidneys eliminate the excess glucose in urine. Glucose in urine, therefore, reflects an excess of glucose in blood. Urine testing is easy. Tablets or paper strips are dipped in urine. The color change that occurs indicates whether blood glucose is too high. However, urine testing is not completely accurate because the reading reflects the level of blood glucose a few hours earlier. In addition, not everyone's kidneys are the same. Even when the amount of glucose in two people's urine is the same, their sugar levels may be different. Certain drugs and vitamin C also can affect the accuracy of urine tests. It's more accurate to measure blood glucose directly. Kits are available that allow people with diabetes to test their blood glucose at home. The test involves pricking a finger to draw a drop of blood. A spring-operated "lancet" does this automatically. The drop of blood is placed on a strip of Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of Capillary Blood Glucose Versus A High-risk Questionnaire For Screening For Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus In Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Evaluation Of Capillary Blood Glucose Versus A High-risk Questionnaire For Screening For Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus In Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Evaluation of capillary blood glucose versus a high-risk questionnaire for screening for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia This study compared 2 screening tests for detecting undiagnosed diabetes mellitus when applied in a mass-screening campaign in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 2004-05. Of 15 082 individuals screened, 65.8% were positive by the American Diabetes Association risk-score questionnaire and 71.3% by determination of capillary blood glucose [CBG] using a portable glucometer. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was confirmed in 20.3% of participants and pre-diabetes in 33.9% using fasting venous blood testing. The risk-score questionnaire did not perform well versus fasting and random CBG. Optimal cut-offs for fasting and random CBG were 120 mg/dL and 160 mg/dL respectively. Fasting CBG had higher sensitivity, specificity and discriminating ability than random CBG for detection of diabetes and pre-diabetes in this population Al Baghli, N.A., Al Turki, K.A., Al Ghamdi, A.J., Prasad, K., Taha, A.Z. et al. (2010). Evaluation of capillary blood glucose versus a high-risk questionnaire for screening for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Continue reading >>

Evaluate The Effect Of Bethanechol On Blood Glucose Levels In Euglycemic Wistar Albino Rats Through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Suresha R N, Amoghimath S, Jayanthi M K, Shruthi S L - Muller J Med Sci Res

Evaluate The Effect Of Bethanechol On Blood Glucose Levels In Euglycemic Wistar Albino Rats Through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Suresha R N, Amoghimath S, Jayanthi M K, Shruthi S L - Muller J Med Sci Res

Objective: To evaluate the effect of bethanechol on blood glucose levels in euglycemic Wistar albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Materials and Methods: Twelve Wistar albino rats weighing around 150-200 g of either sex were randomly selected from the central animal facility, and were divided into two groups. The control group received distilled water (25 mL/kg body wt.) per orally, test groups received bethanechol (3.6 mg/kg/day) per orally for 5 days. On the fifth day, following overnight fasting, 1 h after drug administration in all the groups of rats OGTT was performed, by administering oral glucose in dose of 0.6 gm/kg body weight. The capillary blood glucose (CBG) levels were measured at 0 min, 60 min, and 150 min, by rat tail snipping method using glucometer (ACCUCHEK). Results: The CBG levels of the bethanechol group was less when compared to the control group at all time intervals and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Bethanechol showed the hypoglycemic activity when given for 5 days orally to euglycemic albino rats through OGTT. Keywords:Bethanechol, capillary blood glucose (CBG), diabetes, euglycemic, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) Suresha R N, Amoghimath S, Jayanthi M K, Shruthi S L. Evaluate the effect of bethanechol on blood glucose levels in euglycemic Wistar albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test. Muller J Med Sci Res 2016;7:115-20 Suresha R N, Amoghimath S, Jayanthi M K, Shruthi S L. Evaluate the effect of bethanechol on blood glucose levels in euglycemic Wistar albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2016 [cited2018 Jun 20];7:115-20. Available from: Diabetes mellitus (DM) consists of a group of syndromes characterized by hyperglycemia, altered metabol Continue reading >>

Capillary Blood Glucose Monitoring, Inpatient Hypoglycaemia And Quality Of Care | Jones | British Journal Of Diabetes

Capillary Blood Glucose Monitoring, Inpatient Hypoglycaemia And Quality Of Care | Jones | British Journal Of Diabetes

Capillary blood glucose monitoring, inpatient hypoglycaemia and quality of care Gregory C Jones,1 Colin G Perry,2 Andrew Monaghan,3 Brian Kennon,4 Christopher AR Sainsbury1 1 Department of Diabetes, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, G11 0YN, UK. 2 NHS Scotland Quality Improvement Hub, Gyle Square, 1 South Gyle Crescent, Edinburgh, EH12 9EB, UK. 3 Vascular Surgical Unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, G11 6NT, UK. 4 Department of Diabetes, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, G51 4TF, UK. Address for correspondence: Dr Gregory C Jones Aims: Hypoglycaemia confers excess morbidity and mortality. UK guidelines recommend capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement is repeated 15 minutes following identification and treatment of CBG <4 mmol/L. We assessed adherence to this guidance, influence of initial CBG on time to repeat (TTR), and the impact of a quality improvement intervention on TTR. Methods: We identified CBG readings (Abbott-PrecisionWeb) of 18,118 inpatients with recorded hypoglycaemic CBG between January 2009 and September 2013. TTR and associations with initial CBG were investigated. A single ward was targeted with an intervention (National Health Service Scotland Quality Improvement Hub ThinkGlucose pilot) during 2012. TTR was identified and compared before, during and after intervention. Results: Of 90,935 CBGs <4 mmol/L, 4.4% had no recorded repeat CBG. Of the 83,484 repeated CBGs, median TTR was 80 minutes, with 8.9% repeated within 15 minutes and only 42.2% within 60 minutes. TTR was proportional to initial CBG with median 22 minutes (IQR 1047) for initial CBG 11.9 mmol/L, median 48 minutes (IQR 24104) for 22.9 mmol/L, median 112 minutes (IQR 52309) for 33.9 mmol/L (p=0.05). On the vascular unit, TTR improved post intervention from a median 77 minutes (IQR 372 Continue reading >>

9.3 Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

9.3 Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

The overlapping symptoms of hypo- and hyperglycemia (e.g., hunger, sweating, trembling, confusion, irritability, dizziness, blurred vision) make the two conditions difficult to distinguish from one another (Paradalis, 2005). Since the treatment is different for each condition, it is critical to test the patient’s blood glucose when symptoms occur. The risk factors that may have led to the condition, and the recent medical history of the patient also help to determine the cause of symptoms. Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is a condition occurring in diabetic patients with a blood glucose of less than 4 mmol/L. If glucose continues to remain low and is not rectified through treatment, a change in the patient’s mental status will result. Patients with hypoglycemia become confused and experience headache. Left untreated, they will progress into semi-consciousness and unconsciousness, leading rapidly to brain damage. Seizures may also occur. Common initial symptoms of hypoglycemia include: Cold, clammy skin Weakness, faintness, tremors Headache, irritability, dullness Hunger, nausea Tachycardia, palpitations These symptoms will progress to mood or behaviour changes, vision changes, slurred speech, and unsteady gait if the hypoglycemia is not properly managed. The hospitalized patient with type 1 or type 2 diabetes is at an increased risk for developing hypoglycemia. Potential causes of hypoglycemia in a hospitalized diabetic patient include: Receiving insulin and some oral antidiabetic medications (e.g., glyburide) Fasting for tests and surgery Not following prescribed diabetic diet New medications or dose adjustments Missed snacks Hypoglycemia is a medical emergency that must be treated immediately. An initial blood glucose reading may confirm suspicion of hypoglycemia. If yo Continue reading >>

The Importance Of Monitoring Blood-glucose Levels

The Importance Of Monitoring Blood-glucose Levels

Since your doctor told you that you have diabetes, you’ve had to make a few changes to your habits. Among other things, you probably now have to use a small device called blood glucose meter. Are you aware of the importance of monitoring your blood-glucose levels regularly? Essential facts about diabetes Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the way the body treats glucose (sugar) in the blood. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin, a hormone that allows the body’s cells to use glucose and produce energy. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is a two-part affliction: first, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, and second, insulin can no longer play its role properly because the body’s cells are unaffected by it (insulin resistance). People suffering from diabetes, no matter what type, have to be followed by a doctor for life. Type 2 diabetes can, in some cases, initially be controlled by healthy eating habits, weight loss and increased physical activity. Many people with type 2 diabetes, however, will eventually have to take medication; it is most often taken orally, but sometimes it is administered by injection, such as insulin. For its part, treating type 1 diabetes is essentially based on daily insulin injections. Oral medication is not effective for this type of diabetes. Why is it important to control blood-glucose levels? Many people who live with diabetes don’t feel any particular symptoms, unless they are experiencing hyperglycemia (glucose level is too high) or hypoglycemia (glucose level is too low). Hyperglycemia can cause significant damage to some organs, which then leads to complications of diabetes. These include: cardiac or vascular event, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or stroke; kidney pr Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Glucose Management Goals

Type 2 Diabetes Glucose Management Goals

Optimal management of type 2 diabetes requires treatment of the “ABCs” of diabetes: A1C, blood pressure, and cholesterol (ie, dyslipidemia). This web page provides the rationale and targets for glucose management; AACE guidelines for blood pressure and lipid control are summarized in Management of Common Comorbidities of Diabetes. Glucose Targets Glucose goals should be established on an individual basis for each patient, based on consideration of both clinical characteristics and the patient's psycho-socioeconomic circumstances.1-3 Accordingly, AACE recommends individualized glucose targets (Table 1) that take into account the following factors1,2: Life expectancy Duration of diabetes Presence or absence of microvascular and macrovascular complications Comorbid conditions including CVD risk factors Risk for development of or consequences from severe hypoglycemia Patient's social, psychological, and economic status Table 1. AACE-Recommended Glycemic Targets for Nonpregnant Adults1,2 Parameter Treatment Goal Hemoglobin A1C Individualize on the basis of age, comorbidities, and duration of disease ≤6.5 for most Closer to normal for healthy Less stringent for “less healthy” Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <110 mg/dL 2-hour postprandial glucose (PPG) <140 mg/dL The American Diabetes Association (ADA) also recommends individualizing glycemic targets (Table 2) based on patient-specific characteristics3: Patient attitude and expected treatment efforts Risks potentially associated with hypoglycemia as well as other adverse events Disease duration Life expectancy Important comorbidities Established vascular complications Resources and support system Table 2. ADA-Recommended Glycemic Targets for Nonpregnant Adults3 Parameter Treatment Goal Hemoglobin A1C <6.5% for patients Continue reading >>

Capillary Blood Glucose

Capillary Blood Glucose

There exists no universal, interdisciplinary standard for the teaching and practice of capillary blood glucose reagent strip testing, specifically with reference to the two aspects of the technique specified above. Grazaitis and Sexson (1980:221-223) report a case involving a neonate in whom a heel stick capillary blood glucose concentration measured with a reagent strip and reflectance photometer was 1. 1987:408-409) attempted to isolate the exact biochemical mechanism of the previously reported erroneous effect of isopropyl alcohol on reagent test strips used for capillary blood glucose analysis. The objectives of this study were to identify if any statistically significant difference existed between the capillary blood glucose concentrations of healthy volunteers tested using a commercially available capillary blood glucose reagent test strip and a reflectance photometer, comparing the results obtained (i) with and without the use of a 70% isopropyl alcohol solution to prepare the site of skin puncture and results obtained (ii) with and without alcohol using the first and second drops of blood. It was also hypothesised that significant differences in capillary blood glucose reagent test strip results between samples collected using the first and second drops of blood would be found, independent of the effect of 70% isopropyl alcohol. Continue reading >>

More in diabetes