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Causes Of Fatty Pancreas

Possible Involvement Of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration In Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

Possible Involvement Of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration In Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis Mika Hori1, Michihiro Mutoh2,3, Toshio Imai4, Hitoshi Nakagama3 and Mami Takahashi4* 1Department of Molecular Innovation in Lipidology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565, Japan 2Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, Japan 3Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, Japan 4Central Animal Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan National Cancer Center Research Institute Received: November 20th, 2015 Accepted: December 30th, 2015 Visit for more related articles at JOP. Journal of the Pancreas Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, whether fatty infiltration is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer has not been established. Recent clinical studies show there is a positive correlation between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas. Animal experimental studies also show an association between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Syrian golden hamsters, which are sen Continue reading >>

Nonalcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease1

Nonalcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease1

Pancreatic tissue interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-). In this study 30 lean C57BL/6J and 30 leptin-deficient obese (Lepob) female mice were fed a low (15%) fat diet for 4 weeks. The pancreata of the obese mice were heavier than those of their lean counterparts. On histologic examination the intralobular and total pancreatic fat was significantly increased in the obese mice. Serum cholesterol, but not triglycerides, was elevated in the obese mice. Pancreatic lipid analysis revealed markedly increased total fat, triglycerides, and FFAs as well as significantly increased cholesterol in the obese mice. No strain differences were seen in levels of pancreatic phospholipids. The saturated fatty acid chains 14:00 and 16:00 were increased fivefold in the obese mice; 18:00 was increased 2.5-fold in the obese mice. The unsaturated fatty acids that were increased more than four times in the obese mice included 16:01, 18:01, 18:02, and 18:3w3. The cytokines IL-1 and TNF- also were significantly elevated in the pancreata of obese mice. Since Ogilvie 7 first postulated the entity of pancreatic fat infiltration, more sophisticated radiologic techniques have backed up this claim 10 , 11 , 12 . Interestingly, fat in the pancreas is not distributed homogeneously throughout the gland 10 . Matsumoto et al. proposed a classification of pancreatic fat infiltration based on the sparing of fat in the posterior aspect of the head of the pancreas, the uncinate, and the area around the common bile duct. Differences in the embryologic development of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds has been proposed as the cause 10 . Further refinements of the process of quantification of fat have come with MRI. Using the 3-point Dixon technique, Kovanlikaya et al. have reconfirmed the Continue reading >>

5 Warning Signs Your Pancreas Is In Trouble

5 Warning Signs Your Pancreas Is In Trouble

5 Warning Signs Your Pancreas Is In Trouble Quick, say the first thing that pops into your head when you read the word "pancreas." If you said "cancer," you're not alone. Most people only think about their pancreas when they hear about pancreatic cancerwhich is the deadliest form of cancer in terms of 5-year survival rates. "Part of the reason survival rates are so low is that identifying pancreatic cancer early is difficult," says Andrew Hendifar, MD, codirector of pancreas oncology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. Early detection is also tough when it comes to non-cancer pancreas problems, says Ted Epperly, MD , president of Family Medicine Residency of Idaho. Tucked deep in your abdomen, your pancreas is a long, flat organ that produces enzymes and hormones that aid in digestion. While symptoms of pancreas issues can be persnickety, both Epperly and Hendifar say there are a handful of warning signs that warrant a call to your doctor. Here are 5 of them. (Want to pick up some healthier habits? Sign up to get healthy living tips delivered straight to your inbox !) If you notice your stool is light colored and floating, that's a sign of poor nutrient absorption. (Here are 7 things your poop says about your health .) "The enzymes your pancreas produces help you digest fats in your diet," Hendifar explains. Along with breaking down fats, your pancreas helps your body absorb fat-soluble vitamins like A, E, and K, he says. When pancreatic disease messes with your organ's ability to properly manufacture those enzymes, the result is feces that looks paler and is less dense. You may also notice your poop is oily or greasy. "The toilet water will have a film that looks like oil," Hendifar says. That's the dietary fat your body failed to break down, he explains. I Continue reading >>

What's To Know About Chronic Pancreatitis?

What's To Know About Chronic Pancreatitis?

Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas that leads to permanent breakdown of the structure and function of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland organ that is located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the ribcage. It specializes in producing important enzymes and hormones that help break down and digest foods. It also makes insulin to moderate the levels of sugar in the blood. The most common cause is long-term alcohol abuse - it is thought to account for between 70 and 80 percent of all cases. Chronic pancreatitis results in over 122,000 visits to a doctor and 56,000 hospitalizations annually in the United States. Significantly more men than women are affected. Treatment The following treatments are commonly recommended for chronic pancreatitis. Lifestyle changes People with chronic pancreatitis will need to undergo some lifestyle changes. These will include: Stopping alcohol consumption: Giving up drinking will help prevent further damage to the pancreas. It will also contribute significantly towards relieving the pain. Some people may need professional help to quit alcohol. Stopping tobacco use: Smoking is not a cause of pancreatitis, but it can accelerate the progression of the disease. Pain management Treatment should not only focus on helping ease the pain symptoms, but also depression which is a common consequence of long-term pain. Doctors will usually use a step-by-step approach, in which mild painkillers are prescribed, gradually becoming stronger until pain becomes manageable. Insulin The pancreas may stop producing insulin if the damage is extensive. The individual is likely to have developed diabetes type 1. Regular insulin treatment will become part of the treatment for the rest of the person's life. Continue reading >>

Clinical Implications Of Fatty Pancreas: Correlations Between Fatty Pancreas And Metabolic Syndrome

Clinical Implications Of Fatty Pancreas: Correlations Between Fatty Pancreas And Metabolic Syndrome

Clinical implications of fatty pancreas: Correlations between fatty pancreas and metabolic syndrome Jun Seok Lee, Dae Won Jun, Ji Young Park, Byung Kwan Son, Seong Hwan Kim, Yoon Ju Jo, Young Sook Park, Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul 139-711, South Korea Sang Heum Kim, Department of Radiology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul 139-711, South Korea Jee Hye Han, Department of Family Medicine, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul 139-711, South Korea Eun Chul Jang, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Chunan 145-511, South Korea Yong Soo Kim, Department of Radiology, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Guri 231-574, South Korea Author contributions: Lee JS and Kim SH performed the majority of study and wrote the manuscript; Han JH and Jang EC performed the statistical analysis; Kim YS, Park YS, and Park JY reviewed the radiological data; Son BK, Kim SH, and Jo YJ made the data set and edited the manuscript; and Jun DW supervised the study and edited the manuscript. Correspondence to: Dr. Dae Won Jun, Department of Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University School of Medicine, 280-1 Hagye 1-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-711, South Korea. [email protected] Received 2009 Jan 16; Revised 2009 Mar 14; Accepted 2009 Mar 21. Copyright 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. AIM: To investigate the clinical implications of lipid deposition in the pancreas (fatty pancreas). METHODS: The subjects of this study were 293 patients who had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT) and sonography. Fatty pancreas was diagnosed by sonographic findings and subdivided into mild, modera Continue reading >>

Case Study: A Fatty Liver And A Fatty Pancreas

Case Study: A Fatty Liver And A Fatty Pancreas

I am seeing an increasing number of patients at my clinic with a fatty pancreas and would like to describe one case study to you. Shae was a 45 year old lady who came to see me for a number of reasons, but a desire to lose weight was at the top of her list. She was a type 2 diabetic, diagnosed only eight months ago. She brought along her most recent blood test results and also her sonogram (ultrasound) report of her liver and pancreas. Shae has a fatty liver, and this is almost expected in type 2 diabetics, so I was not surprised to see it. Interestingly Shae also has a fatty pancreas. This does occur in diabetics and people with syndrome X, but it is less common. Fatty pancreas is not something you hear about often but it is a warning sign of future health problems. Shae is at risk of developing a severe form of type 2 diabetes that requires the use of insulin injections. She is also at risk of developing pancreatic cancer at some stage in the future. Pancreatic cancer is becoming increasingly common, and it is a notoriously difficult cancer to treat. Diabetics are at higher risk of this cancer. Fatty liver disease is incredibly common; approximately one in five overweight individuals have one. What you may not realise is that people with a fatty liver are also likely to develop excess fatty deposits in their arteries, around their heart, within the kidneys, or inside the pancreas. Fatty accumulation inside any organ can cause oxidative damage and organ dysfunction. Shae is a police officer. Five years ago she suffered a back injury that left her with permanent damage, leaving her unable to exercise. Her injury meant that she was stuck at her desk doing paperwork all day; thus she engaged in very little movement. She was not very overweight; she only needed to lose ap Continue reading >>

What Causes A Fatty Pancreas?

What Causes A Fatty Pancreas?

Top 10 unbelievable historical concurrencies There are several causes of a fatty pancreas, including obesity, alcohol use, and disease. Eating foods high in fat can lead to fatty infiltration around the pancreas and other organs in the body. This can also be caused by substances like alcohol which cause the pancreas to metabolize fats less efficiently, resulting in buildup. Symptoms of a fatty pancreas may be vague at first, but can include nausea, vomiting , smelly stools, diarrhea, loss of appetite, back or abdominal pain, and spots on the pancreas during an ultrasound or another exam. These symptoms mimic those of other disorders. In most cases, this condition occurs as part of aging and does not cause serious problems. When it becomes severe, however, it may cause inflammation and cause the pancreas to work less efficiently. Eating a diet high in fats and processed foods is one risk factor for fatty pancreas. Studies have shown that those who are overweight or obese have a much higher likelihood of suffering from pancreas issues than those who are at a healthy weight. Many times, losing weight and cutting out unhealthy foods from the diet is all that is needed to remove fatty infiltration from the organ. People who drink excessive amounts of alcohol are also at an increased risk for fatty pancreas. Alcohol consumption changes the way the body metabolizes food and may cause inflammation of the pancreas over time. Sometimes abstaining from alcohol will take care of the problem, but this depends on the amount of damage already done. Irreversible damage may have already been inflicted. Certain diseases may also contribute to fat around the pancreas, including hepatitis C . Treatment may vary based on the condition, or medications may be used to supplement pancreas func Continue reading >>

Fatty Pancreas - T2d34 - Intensive Dietary Management (idm)

Fatty Pancreas - T2d34 - Intensive Dietary Management (idm)

The English friar and philosopher William of Ockham (1287-1347) is credited with developing the fundamental problem solving principle known as lex parsimoniae or Occams Razor. This principle holds that the hypothesis with the fewest assumptions is most often right. The simplest explanation is usually the most correct. Albert Einstein is quoted as saying, Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. With that in mind, lets remember that type 2 diabetes reflects two fundamental problems: Insulin resistance, an overflow phenomenon, is caused by fatty infiltration of the liver and muscle. Without dietary intervention, defect #2 virtually always follows #1, albeit by many years. Also, #2 is almost never found without #1. Yet somehow, we are asked to believe that the mechanism behind insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are completely and utterly unrelated? Occams razor suggests that both defects must be caused by the same underlying mechanism. Hyperinsulinemia stimulates de novo lipogenesis transforming excess dietary carbohydrates into new fat. The liver packages and exports this new fat as VLDL making it widely available for other organs. The new fat deposits in skeletal muscles takes up much of this fat, as do the fat cells in and around the abdominal organs leading to the central obesity that is an important component of metabolic syndrome. As fat begins to deposit within the organs, specifically the liver and muscles, insulin resistance develops, gradually leading to rising blood glucose. In response, the body secretes even more insulin to bring the renegade blood glucose back down. The extra insulin overcomes the rising insulin resistance, but sets up a vicious cycle. To relieve fatty congestion in the liver, it is exported out. Some ends Continue reading >>

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis

What is pancreatitis? Pancreatitis is pathologic inflammation of the pancreas. Your pancreas resides behind your stomach. It secretes enzymes that help you digest food and also regulates how your body manages glucose. Pancreatitis can come and go quickly, or it can be a chronic problem. Treatment will depend on whether your pancreatitis is acute or chronic. The onset of acute pancreatitis is often very sudden. The inflammation usually clears up within several days after treatment begins. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), around 210,000 American adults are admitted to the hospital for acute pancreatitis every year. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. Gallstones are small, solid masses that form from bile. A large enough gallstone can get stuck at the junction where the main pancreatic duct and the common bile duct come together to form another duct called the ampulla of Vater. These ducts empty into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. The pancreatic duct carries digestive enzymes from the pancreas. The common bile duct carries bile or other biliary substances from the liver and gallbladder. When a gallstone gets stuck here, it can cause a backup of these substances. This can lead to inflammation in both the common bile duct and pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that occurs constantly over the long haul. People with chronic pancreatitis can have permanent damage to their pancreas. Scar tissue develops from this long-term inflammation. Extensive scar tissue may cause your pancreas to stop making the normal amounts of digestive enzymes, or glucose-regulating hormones. As a result, you’re likely to have trouble digesting fats (which are needed t Continue reading >>

Enlarged Pancreas: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Enlarged Pancreas: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Enlarged Pancreas: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments An enlarged pancreas can occur for many reasons. The pancreas is a gland that sits behind your stomach in the upper abdomen and helps with digestion. It produces enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine, digesting protein, fat, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also produces insulin to help regulate blood sugar (glucose), the body's main source of energy. An enlarged pancreas may mean nothing. You may simply have a pancreas that is larger than normal. Or, it can be because of an anatomic abnormality. But other causes of an enlarged pancreas may include the following: Pancreatitis occurs when digestive enzymes become active inside the pancreas, attacking and damaging its tissues. This can cause an enlarged pancreas. Acute pancreatitis is inflammation that occurs suddenly in the pancreas. It can be very serious, even life-threatening. But it usually goes away within a few days of treatment. Gallstones and alcohol are common causes of acute pancreatitis. Other causes include high levels of fats in the blood , certain drugs, certain medical procedures, and some infections. Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation that gets worse over time and leads to permanent damage in the pancreas. Heavy alcohol use is the most common cause. Other causes include heredity, cystic fibrosis , high levels of calcium or fats in the blood , certain medications , and some autoimmune conditions. Pancreatic pseudocyst is an accumulation of fluid and tissue debris in the pancreas, which can occur after a case of pancreatitis. Cystadenoma is a tumor that is usually benign. Abscess is a pus-filled cavity, usually caused by a bacterial infection . A pancreatic pseudocyst that becomes infected can become an abscess. Pancreatic cancer is an abnor Continue reading >>

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis facts About 210,000 cases of acute pancreatitis occur in the US every year. Pancreatitis causes abdominal pain. Pancreatitis can be an acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) condition. The hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis is abdominal pain. Other signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis are: tenderness of the abdomen to touch Diagnosis of pancreatitis is generally with blood and imaging tests. Most cases of acute pancreatitis require hospitalization; however, treatment of chronic pancreatitis may be managed in an outpatient setting. Complications of pancreatitis may include: malnutrition infection pseudocyst formation Pancreatitis can range from a mild, self-limited disease to a condition with life- threatening complications. What's Causing Your Abdominal Pain? Certain persistent changes in stool color are characteristic for specific conditions such as: Pale yellow, greasy, foul-smelling stool: malabsorption of fat due to pancreatic insufficiency, as seen with pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease Black, foul-smelling stool: intestinal bleeding due to ulcers, tumors; Ingestion of iron or bismuth maroon stool: intestinal bleeding due to ulcers, tumors, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis Clay-colored stool: lack of bile due to blockage of the main bile duct pale yellow, greasy, foul-smelling stool: Pancreatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is an abdominal gland situated behind the stomach in the upper abdomen. The main function of the pancreas is to secrete hormones and enzymes that help with digestion and regulate blood sugar (glucose) metabolism. The digestive enzymes are released via the pancreatic duct into the small intestine where they are activated to help break down fat Continue reading >>

5 Ways To Prevent Pancreatitis And Epi

5 Ways To Prevent Pancreatitis And Epi

There are many things in life you can live without, but your pancreas isn't one of them. This oddly-shaped organ has been described as looking like everything from a pear to a fish or tadpole. Buried deep inside the abdomen, located behind the stomach and nestled among the liver, spleen, and gallbladder, you may not even be entirely sure of what it does. The pancreas produces a number of enzymes, which are necessary to digest food. It also makes insulin, the hormone needed to keep blood sugar levels in check. It’s an important organ, and the health of your pancreas shouldn't be ignored. Every year in the United States, more than 200,000 people develop acute pancreatitis, a serious and painful inflammation of the pancreas. Left untreated, pancreatitis can worsen and become life threatening in extreme cases. Fortunately, there are preventive steps you can take to help reduce your risk for pancreatitis and other related health problems like exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). However, first it’s important to understand pancreatitis, what causes it, and how it’s linked to EPI. Understanding Pancreatitis Pancreatitis occurs when the pancreas becomes inflamed and the digestive enzymes that should only be active inside the intestines start "digesting" the pancreas itself. The condition can be painful and affect digestion, keeping food from being properly absorbed, leading to nausea, vomiting, bloating, fever, and diarrhea. As a result, you can develop serious nutritional deficiencies and lose weight. Pancreatitis can be acute, meaning it occurs suddenly. In most cases, acute pancreatitis goes away in a few days with specific dietary changes. Treatment may also include fluids, antibiotics, and pain medication. Inflammation of the pancreas that gets worse over time is Continue reading >>

What Is Fatty Infiltration Of The Pancreas? | Zocdoc Answers

What Is Fatty Infiltration Of The Pancreas? | Zocdoc Answers

Medical questions & health advice by board certified doctors "What is fatty infiltration of the pancreas?" Zocdoc Answers What is fatty infiltration of the pancreas? I recently had an ultrasound of my pancrease to try to determine the cause of some mystery symptoms I've been having. The doctor found a 'fatty infiltration of the pancreas'. Can you describe to be what kind of problem this is and what it will do to me? Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is a rare condition that can be found on ultrasound or with other imaging techniques. In and off it self, fatty infiltration of the pancreas is a benign condition; it simply means that fat tissue has been laid down inside the pancreas. This fat tissue does not inhibit the other pancreatic tissue, and it does not in and of itself predispose to cancer or other serious complications. Although most cases of fatty infiltration of the pancreas are probably just normal variants, they may be more prevalent in obesity, where fat gets laid down in all of the internal organs. Again, in this setting it is the obesity that is the overall health risk and not the fat in the pancreas per se. Sometimes, fatty pancreas is associated with chronic conditions that damage the pancreas. This is because, as the normal pancreas tissue dies off, it is replaced by fat. Chronic pancreatitis, which is usually related to alcoholism, is a common cause of this; certain medications and gall stones can also cause chronic pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis is another condition which damages the pancreas, leading to fat accumulation. The best first step is to identify with your primary care doctor if there is an underlying condition that has damaged the pancreas. If not, then the fat in the pancreas is of no concern. Continue reading >>

Pancreatitis Symptoms, Causes, Diet, And Treatment

Pancreatitis Symptoms, Causes, Diet, And Treatment

Facts about and Definition of Pancreatitis Pancreatitis simply means inflammation of the pancreas. There are two types of pancreatitis, acute and chronic. Causes of acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis are similar; about 80%-90% are caused by alcohol abuse and gallstones (about 35%-45% for each); while the remaining 10%-20% are caused by medications, chemical exposures, trauma, hereditary diseases, infections, surgical procedures, and high fat levels in the blood and genetic abnormalities with pancreas or intestine Symptoms of acute pancreatitis most commonly begins with abdominal pain in the middle or upper left part of the abdomen and abdominal pain may increase after eating or lying flat the back. Other symptoms may include Severe acute pancreatitis symptoms and signs may show skin discoloration around the belly button or the side of the body between the ribs and hip (flank), or small erythematous skin nodules. Necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe form of acute pancreatitis characterized by necrosis in and around the pancreas. Diagnosis of pancreatitis (both acute and chronic) is done similarly. Patient history will be taken, physical exam will be performed, and various tests may be ordered. Although acute pancreatitis should not be treated at home initially, there are steps that can help prevent or reduce symptoms. The major risk factors for pancreatitis are heavy alcohol consumption and a history of gallstones; they cause about 80%-90% of pancreatitis; other factors such as genetics and medications may increase an individual's risk. Treatment of acute pancreatitis is done according to the underlying cause. Most acute cases of pancreatitis are treated in the hospital or the goal is to relieve symptoms in support body functions so that the pancreas can recover Continue reading >>

Fatty Liver And The Pancreas

Fatty Liver And The Pancreas

Fatty liver can lead to liver failure in extreme cases. If you receive a diagnosis of a fatty liver, it does not necessarily mean you eat a lot of fatty food, though a poor diet can be a contributor to the condition. Generally, if the liver allows fat to build up, it indicates that somewhere in the delicate dance of chemical reactions that is your healthy digestive system, something is awry, and physicians are noticing more and more frequently that fatty liver is connected to pancreatic function. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, is a diagnosis applied to early-stage liver disease that does not involve excessive use of alcohol. Alcohol abuse on its own can lead to fatty liver disease, and in both alcohol-related and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the condition is reversible. There are usually no symptoms. Untreated NAFLD can lead to further deterioration and eventually liver failure. Treatment protocols vary based on the underlying cause. Diagnosis generally occurs incidentally when blood work reveals elevated liver enzymes. Fatty liver diagnoses began to rise in the late 20th and early 21st centuries as obesity reached epidemic proportions. Diets rich in easily metabolized carbohydrates might play a role in developing the condition, according to a 2007 Obesity study by David Ludwig, M.D., Ph.D., et al. The simple sugars in some carbohydrates drive a spike in insulin production. The pancreas releases this insulin directly to the liver. This response initiates the chemical processes required to store the extra energy as fat, and the liver is most susceptible to the fat buildup because of the high concentrations of insulin it receives from the pancreas. Your pancreas releases just enough insulin at any given time to metabolize the macronutrients that are pre Continue reading >>

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