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Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

What is type 1 diabetes? Diabetes occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps the glucose in your blood get into your cells to be used for energy. Another hormone, glucagon, works with insulin to control blood glucose levels. In most people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system, which normally fights infection, attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. As a result, your pancreas stops making insulin. Without insulin, glucose can’t get into your cells and your blood glucose rises above normal. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Who is more likely to develop type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. Having a parent or sibling with the disease may increase your chance of developing type 1 diabetes. In the United States, about 5 percent of people with diabetes have type 1.1 What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are serious and usually happen quickly, over a few days to weeks. Symptoms can include increased thirst and urination increased hunger blurred vision fatigue unexplained weight loss Sometimes the first symptoms of type 1 diabetes are signs of a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) . Some symptoms of DKA include DKA is serious and dangerous. If you or your child have symptoms of DKA, contact your health care professional right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room. What causes type 1 diabetes? Experts think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and factors in the environment, such as viruses, that migh Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin. Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells. They’re wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Cells use it as fuel. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it. Instead it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to: Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out. Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as "ketoacidosis" and can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strok Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

We do not yet know the cause of type 1 diabetes. Scientists suspect a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. The ultimate mechanism involved in the cause of type 1 diabetes is the body’s immune system which for some unknown reason attacks the body’s insulin producing beta cells. The body continues to attack these cells as most or all beta cell production eventually ceases. See Diagram below: The Mayo Clinic notes several known risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes: Family History- Having a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes slightly increases the risk. Genetics- Certain genes predispose a person to developing type 1. Location- The incidence of type 1 diabetes increases the farther away one is from the equator. Age- Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age any age but scientists have observed noticeable peaks between the ages of 4-7 and 10-14. The Fifth Edition of the ADA’s The Complete Guide to Diabetes notes that regarding race and ethnicity, white people are much more likely to develop type 1 diabetes when compared to other other racial groups. The authors write, “Most likely, certain racial groups pass down genes that either trigger or protect against type 1 diabetes.” The Complete Guide to Diabetes also mentions the possibility of certain chemicals and drugs that can trigger type 1 diabetes: “Pryiminil, a poison used to kill rats, can trigger type 1 diabetes. Two prescription drugs, pentamidine (used to treat pneumonia) and L-asparaginase (an anticancer drug) can also cause type 1 diabetes.” Other potential risk factors which have been suspected and studied but not proven include: Exposure to certain viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus, Coxsackie virus, mumps virus and cytomegalovirus Being born with jaundice Photo Credit: Ado Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Type 1 diabetes belongs to a group of conditions known as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are when the body incorrectly identifies its own useful cells as an attacking organism. In type 1 diabetes, it is the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin that are wrongfully targeted and killed off by specific antibodies created by the body’s immune system. Researchers have been investigating what may cause the immune system to act in this way but to date researchers have theories but no concrete proof. Genetic predisposition Researchers have uncovered a number of genetic regions that are linked closely with type 1 diabetes. Each of these is denoted with a name such as IDDM1. At least 18 different regions have been discovered and some of the genetic areas include an increased susceptibility for other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease. Whilst genetics offers clues as to why some people are more susceptible to type 1 diabetes, it doesn’t explain why some people with these genes develop type 1 diabetes and why others with these genes don’t. For example, having an identical twin with type 1 diabetes gives you a statistically higher risk but it doesn’t necessarily mean you will develop the condition. Genetics does not explain either why people will develop type 1 diabetes at different ages. Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in 10 to 14 year olds but can be diagnosed at any age. Read more on diabetes and genetics Type 1 diabetes triggers Researchers have hypothesised that whilst some people are have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, there is likely to be an environmental factor that triggers the initial development of type 1 diabetes. Some of the possible triggers that have been suggested include: Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

It isn’t entirely clear what triggers the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers do know that genes play a role; there is an inherited susceptibility. However, something must set off the immune system, causing it to turn against itself and leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Genes Play a Role in Type 1 Diabetes Some people cannot develop type 1 diabetes; that’s because they don’t have the genetic coding that researchers have linked to type 1 diabetes. Scientists have figured out that type 1 diabetes can develop in people who have a particular HLA complex. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen, and antigens function is to trigger an immune response in the body. There are several HLA complexes that are associated with type 1 diabetes, and all of them are on chromosome 6. Different HLA complexes can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Like those conditions, type 1 diabetes has to be triggered by something—usually a viral infection. What Can Trigger Type 1 Diabetes Here’s the whole process of what happens with a viral infection: When a virus invades the body, the immune system starts to produce antibodies that fight the infection. T cells are in charge of making the antibodies, and then they also help in fighting the virus. However, if the virus has some of the same antigens as the beta cells—the cells that make insulin in the pancreas—then the T cells can actually turn against the beta cells. The T cell products (antibodies) can destroy the beta cells, and once all the beta cells in your body have been destroyed, you can’t produce enough insulin. It takes a long time (usually several years) for the T cells to destroy the majority of th Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?

T1D has genetic, environmental and immune components Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin, a hormone that controls blood-sugar levels. T1D develops when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, called beta cells. Research is underway to find out what causes T1D—and how to stop it—but we already know that there are multiple components in play. Genes and family history Certain genes increase a person’s risk of developing T1D, as does family history. If you have a relative with T1D, your risk of developing it is 1 in 20, which is 15 times greater than the general population. The genetic coding that puts you at higher risk for T1D is in a large part related to your body’s immune response. Environmental triggers Although genes are important in determining risk, they aren’t the whole story. Environmental factors, such as viruses, may trigger T1D in people who are genetically at risk. Scientists believe that certain viruses may target beta cells, and as the immune response ramps up to fight those viruses, it goes awry and attacks uninfected beta cells by mistake. Immune response Once T1D is triggered, biochemical signs of the immune attack on beta cells can be detected. These signs, called autoantibodies, appear well before T1D symptoms do. As the immune attack continues and more beta cells are destroyed, insulin production decreases and blood-sugar levels become abnormal. Eventually, so many beta cells are destroyed, and insulin production drops so low, that symptoms of T1D appear. What doesn’t cause T1D? Onset of T1D has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle. Today, there is nothing you can do to prevent it or get rid of it. But JDRF is working to Continue reading >>

New Theory About The Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes

New Theory About The Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes

The immune system mistakenly identifying insulin-secreting beta cells as a potential danger and, in turn, destroying them has long been considered the root cause of type 1 diabetes. Now, an international team of researchers led by City of Hope’s Bart Roep, Ph.D., the Chan Soon-Shiong Shapiro Distinguished Chair in Diabetes and professor/founding chair of the Department of Diabetes Immunology, has been able to justify a new theory about the cause of type 1 diabetes through experimental work. The study results were published online yesterday in the journal Nature Medicine. Type 1 diabetes affects an estimated 1.5 million Americans and is the result of the loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Now Roep, along with researchers from the Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands, have found a mechanism in which stressed beta cells are actually causing the immune response that leads to type 1 diabetes. “Our findings show that type 1 diabetes results from a mistake of the beta cell, not a mistake of the immune system,” said Roep, who is director of The Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes, which was recently created with gifts from the Wanek family and anonymous donors to support the institution’s goal of curing type 1 diabetes in six years. “The immune system does what it is supposed to do, which is respond to distressed or ‘unhappy’ tissue, as it would in infection or cancer.” In order to gain a better understanding of why the immune system attacks the body’s own source of insulin — the pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans — the team took some clues from cancer molecules that are targeted by the immune system after successful treatment of the cancer with immunotherapy. One of these cancer targets is a so-called Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes And Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes And Symptoms

While type 2 diabetes is often preventable, type 1 diabetes mellitus is not.1 Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys cells in the pancreas. Typically, the disease first appears in childhood or early adulthood. Type 1 diabetes used to be known as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but the disease can have an onset at any age.2 Type 1 diabetes makes up around 5% of all cases of diabetes.3,4 What is type 1 diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce any insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels.2,3 Insulin production becomes inadequate for the control of blood glucose levels due to the gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. This destruction progresses without notice over time until the mass of these cells decreases to the extent that the amount of insulin produced is insufficient.2 Type 1 diabetes typically appears in childhood or adolescence, but its onset is also possible in adulthood.2 When it develops later in life, type 1 diabetes can be mistaken initially for type 2 diabetes. Correctly diagnosed, it is known as latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood.2 Causes of type 1 diabetes The gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas that eventually results in the onset of type 1 diabetes is the result of autoimmune destruction. The immune system turning against the body's own cells is possibly triggered by an environmental factor exposed to people who have a genetic susceptibility.2 Although the mechanisms of type 1 diabetes etiology are unclear, they are thought to involve the interaction of multiple factors:2 Susceptibility genes - some of which are carried by over 90% of patients with type 1 diabetes. Some populations - Scandinavians and Sardinians, Continue reading >>

Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic/hereditary? | Causes & Treatment - Dlife

Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic/hereditary? | Causes & Treatment - Dlife

When left uncontrolled, high blood sugar can also cause other complications, affecting the eyes, nerves, kidneys, and cardiovascular system.[1], [4] The difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that in type 1, the body does not produce insulin at all; this is why it is called insulin dependent diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body produces insulin but the cells are not able to utilize the insulin produced; this is why it is commonly referred to as insulin resistant diabetes. Over time, the bodys cells can develop insulin resistance in type 1 diabetes, too.[1],[5] Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of blood sugar or A1C (glycated hemoglobin). An A1C reading measures the three-month average plasma glucose concentration in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies (a type of protein produced by an individuals immune system directed against one or more of the individuals own proteins).[6],[7] When specific autoantibodies are found, a doctor can make the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a rarer form of diabetes than type 2. Type 1 diabetes accounts for only five to 10 percent of all diabetes cases. Although it can occur at any age, it is more common in children and adolescents less than 15 years of age. This is why the condition was previously coined juvenile diabetes.[8],[9] The occurrence is similar in men and women, although in children it is more common in girls. Type 1 diabetes most commonly occurs during puberty. Because girls typically enter puberty earlier than boys, the condition is often diagnosed earlier in girls. After puberty, the incidence rate drops in women but continues to occur in men between the ages of 29 and 35. More than 500,000 children are currently livin Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Alicia Thomas Diaz, M.D. What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes and juvenile diabetes, can develop at any age but most often occurs in children, teens, and young adults. In type 1 diabetes, a person’s pancreas produces little or no insulin, so insulin treatment is needed for a lifetime. The causes of type 1 diabetes are not fully known. In most cases, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the part of the pancreas that produces insulin. This occurs over a period of time. so early on in type 1 diabetes, people may not have any symptoms. It is only when enough of the insulin producing cells are affected and insulin producing cells are affected and insulin levels are low that blood sugar rises and symptoms of diabetes start to occur. Because type 1 is an autoimmune disease, people with other autoimmune, conditions, such as Hashimoto disease or primary adrenal insufficiency (also known as Addison's Disease), are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Overall, cases of type 1 diabetes seem to be increasing. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can look like other conditions or medical problems. If you (or your child) have these symptoms, talk with your doctor as soon as possible. Increased thirst Increased urination Constant hunger Weight loss Blurred vision Constantly feeling tired How is type 1 diabetes diagnosed and treated? Your doctor will use blood tests to diagnose diabetes. A blood glucose level above 125 mg/dL after fasting overnight or above 200 mg/dL after eating may indicate diabetes. Your doctor may also take a medical history and order further blood tests to rule out type 2 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes must have daily injections of insulin to keep a normal l Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. In type 1 diabetes cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and the body is unable to make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body’s cells use a natural sugar called glucose for energy. Your body obtains glucose from the food you eat. Insulin allows the glucose to pass from your blood into your body’s cells. Your liver and muscle tissues store extra glucose, also called blood sugar. It’s released when you need extra energy, such as between meals, when you exercise, or when you sleep. In diabetes mellitus type 1 the body is unable to process glucose due to a lack of insulin. This causes elevated blood sugar levels and can cause both short-term and long-term problems. Learn more: Defining 3 early stages of type 1 diabetes » The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. It’s also unknown why the immune system attacks beta cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. However, some factors have been tentatively identified. Family history Family history may be important in some cases of type 1 diabetes. If you have a family member with type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing increases. Several genes have been tentatively linked to this condition. However, not everyone who is at risk for type 1 diabetes develops the condition. Many believe there must be some type of trigger that causes type 1 diabetes to develop. These could include: Race Race may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. It is more common in white individuals than in people of other races. The following are symptoms of type 1 diabetes: excessive hunger excessiv Continue reading >>

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