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Cardiovascular Diabetes Journal

Semaglutide And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Semaglutide And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

In Review In patients with type 2 DM at high CV risk, is semaglutide non-inferior to placebo in terms of CV safety? Bottom Line In patients with type 2 DM at high CV risk, semaglutide is non-inferior to placebo in terms of CV safety. In patients with T2DM with increased risk of CV events, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME and LEADER showed that empagliflozin and liraglutide was associated with improved CV outcomes, respectively. Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue in development with a half-life of approximately 7 days. The objective of the Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN-6) is to assess the CV safety of semaglutide as compared to placebo in patients with T2DM. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial randomized 3297 patients to receive semaglutide (once-weekly, 0.5 mg or 1.0 mg) or placebo for 104 weeks. The primary outcome was the composite of CV mortality, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke. The outcome was observed in 6.6% and 8.9% of the semaglutide and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio 0.74; 95%CI 0.58-0.95; P<0.001 for noninferiority). As compared to placebo, semaglutide was associated with more frequent gastrointestinal events. The trial also noted that the semaglutide group had a higher incidence of diabetic retinonpathy as compared to placebo (3 vs. 1.8%, hazard ratio 1.76; 95% CI 1.11-2.78; P=0.02). It was concluded that the noninferiority of semaglutide was confirmed. As of February 2017, no guidelines have been published that reflect the results of this trial. Multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial N=3,297 semaglutide 0.5 mg (n=826) semaglutide 1 mg (n=822) placebo 0.5 mg (n=824) placebo 1 mg (n=8 Continue reading >>

Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases

Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases

Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases Enter your login details below. If you do not already have an account you will need to register here . Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EES: Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. CiteScore: 3.35 CiteScore measures the average citations received per document published in this title. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year (e.g. 2015) to documents published in three previous calendar years (e.g. 2012 14), divided by the number of documents in these three previous years (e.g. 2012 14). The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years. 2017 Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2018) 5-Year Impact Factor: 3.402 Five-Year Impact Factor: To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are counted in 2016 to the previous five years and divided by the source items published in the previous five years. 2017 Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2018) Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 1.121 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): SNIP measures contextual citation impact by weighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 1.475 SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): SJR is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the journals impact. Continue reading >>

Cardiovascular Diabetology

Cardiovascular Diabetology

Cardiovascular Diabetology celebrates its 15th anniversary Fifteen years ago,professorsAlexander TenenbaumandEnrique Fismanconceivedthe idea of creatinga scientific journal specifically dedicated to exploring the intersection of diabetes and heart disease.Following their initiative, the journalCardiovascular Diabetologywas launched in April 2002. Since then,Cardiovascular Diabetologyhas been growing rapidly,and fortunately became a prestigious international journal that has published more than 1250 scientific articles - some of them representing a major breakthrough in their particular fields. The journal is privileged to havea high-statusEditorial Board, arigorous peer review policy, a multidisciplinary audience, high visibility, and ample global exposure. Authors: Xiao-min Chen, Wen-qiang Zhang, Yuan Tian, Li-fen Wang, Chan-chan Chen and Chuan-mei Qiu Authors: Kevin M. Pantalone, Anita D. Misra-Hebert, Todd M. Hobbs, Xinge Ji, Sheldon X. Kong, Alex Milinovich, Wayne Weng, Janine Bauman, Rahul Ganguly, Bartolome Burguera, Michael W. Kattan and Robert S. Zimmerman Authors: Tatsuya Fukuda, Ryotaro Bouchi, Takato Takeuchi, Kazutaka Tsujimoto, Isao Minami, Takanobu Yoshimoto and Yoshihiro Ogawa Authors: Concetta Irace, Francesco Casciaro, Faustina Barbara Scavelli, Rosa Oliverio, Antonio Cutruzzol, Claudio Cortese and Agostino Gnasso Authors: Tommy Jnsson, Yvonne Granfeldt, Bo Ahrn, Ulla-Carin Branell, Gunvor Plsson, Anita Hansson, Margareta Sderstrm and Staffan Lindeberg Authors: Almudena Gmez-Hernndez, Liliana Perdomo, Natalia de las Heras, Nuria Beneit, scar Escribano, Yolanda F Otero, Carlos Guilln, Sabela Daz-Castroverde, Beatriz Gozalbo-Lpez, Victoria Cachofeiro, Vicente Lahera and Manuel Benito Authors: Bernard Zinman, Silvio E Inzucchi, John M Lachin, Christoph Wa Continue reading >>

Blood Pressure And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Patients With Diabetes And High Cardiovascular Risk

Blood Pressure And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Patients With Diabetes And High Cardiovascular Risk

Optimal blood pressure for prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains uncertain and there is concern for increased risk with low diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This study analysed the association between blood pressure and CV outcomes in high-risk patients with T2DM. Patients with T2DM and elevated CV risk were enrolled in the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in patients with diabetes mellitusThrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53 trial. Cardiovascular outcomes were compared in the biomarker subgroup (n = 12 175) after stratification by baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP. Adjusted risk was calculated by blood pressure stratum using clinical covariates plus N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin-T (hsTnT). Trends were tested using linear and quadratic models. Adjusted risk of the composite endpoint of CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischaemic stroke showed U-shaped relationships with baseline SBP and DBP (Pquadratic 0.01) with nadirs at SBP 130140 or DBP 8090 mmHg. Diastolic blood pressure <60 mmHg was associated with increased risk of MI (adjusted hazard ratio 2.30; 95% confidence interval 1.503.53) relative to DBP 8090 mmHg. Adjusted odds of hsTnT concentration 14 ng/L showed U-shaped relationships with SBP and DBP (Pquadratic 0.01). The relationships between low DBP, elevated hsTnT, and increased MI remained after exclusion of patients with prior heart failure or NT-proBNP >median, suggesting that the relationship was not due to confounding from diagnosed or undiagnosed heart failure. In patients with diabetes and elevated CV risk, even after extensive adjustment for underlying disease burden, there was a persistent associati Continue reading >>

Shared Genetic Regulatory Networks For Cardiovascular Disease And Type 2 Diabetes In Multiple Populations Of Diverse Ethnicities In The United States

Shared Genetic Regulatory Networks For Cardiovascular Disease And Type 2 Diabetes In Multiple Populations Of Diverse Ethnicities In The United States

Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are closely interrelated complex diseases likely sharing overlapping pathogenesis driven by aberrant activities in gene networks. However, the molecular circuitries underlying the pathogenic commonalities remain poorly understood. We sought to identify the shared gene networks and their key intervening drivers for both CVD and T2D by conducting a comprehensive integrative analysis driven by five multi-ethnic genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for CVD and T2D, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), ENCODE, and tissue-specific gene network models (both co-expression and graphical models) from CVD and T2D relevant tissues. We identified pathways regulating the metabolism of lipids, glucose, and branched-chain amino acids, along with those governing oxidation, extracellular matrix, immune response, and neuronal system as shared pathogenic processes for both diseases. Further, we uncovered 15 key drivers including HMGCR, CAV1, IGF1 and PCOLCE, whose network neighbors collectively account for approximately 35% of known GWAS hits for CVD and 22% for T2D. Finally, we cross-validated the regulatory role of the top key drivers using in vitro siRNA knockdown, in vivo gene knockout, and two Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panels each comprised of >100 strains. Findings from this in-depth assessment of genetic and functional data from multiple human cohorts provide strong support that common sets of tissue-specific molecular networks drive the pathogenesis of both CVD and T2D across ethnicities and help prioritize new therapeutic avenues for both CVD and T2D. Author summary Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two tightly interrelated diseases that are leading epidemics and causes of deaths around Continue reading >>

Jci -cardiovascular Outcome Trials Of Diabetes Drugs: Lessons Learned

Jci -cardiovascular Outcome Trials Of Diabetes Drugs: Lessons Learned

Cardiovascular outcome trials of diabetes drugs: lessons learned 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2Seventh Doctor Consulting, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Address correspondence to: Simeon I. Taylor, University of Maryland School of Medicine, MSTF 357-B, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. Phone: 301.980.5272; Email: [email protected] . Find articles by Taylor, S. in: JCI | PubMed | Google Scholar 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2Seventh Doctor Consulting, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Address correspondence to: Simeon I. Taylor, University of Maryland School of Medicine, MSTF 357-B, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. Phone: 301.980.5272; Email: [email protected] . Find articles by Leslie, B. in: JCI | PubMed | Google Scholar First published February 12, 2018- More info Published in Volume 128, Issue 3 (March 1, 2018) J Clin Invest.2018;128(3):893896. . Copyright 2018, American Society for Clinical Investigation Excerpt: Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial occlusion (macrovascular disease), as well as chronic kidney disease, neuropathy, and retinopathy (microvascular disease). Antihyperglycemic treatments reduce the risk of microvascular conditions, but their effect on macrovascular events is uncertain (1, 2). Years ago, the... A subscription is required for you to read this article in full. If you are a subscriber, you may sign in to continue reading. Please select one of the subscription options, which includes a low Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease

This statement examines the cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus and considers opportunities for their prevention. These complications include coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and possibly neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Because of the aging of the population and an increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary life habits in the United States, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Thus, diabetes must take its place alongside the other major risk factors as important causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In fact, from the point of view of cardiovascular medicine, it may be appropriate to say, “diabetes is a cardiovascular disease.” Clinical Presentations of Diabetes Mellitus The most prevalent form of diabetes mellitus is type 2 diabetes. This disorder typically makes its appearance later in life. The underlying metabolic causes of type 2 diabetes are the combination of impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal (insulin resistance) and defective secretion of insulin by pancreatic β-cells. Insulin resistance develops from obesity and physical inactivity, acting on a substrate of genetic susceptibility.1 2 Insulin secretion declines with advancing age,3 4 and this decline may be accelerated by genetic factors.5 6 Insulin resistance typically precedes the onset of type 2 diabetes and is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular risk factors: dyslipidemia, hypertension, and prothrombotic factors.7 8 The common clustering of these risk factors in a single individual has been called the metabolic syndrome. Many patients with the metabolic syndrome manifest impaired fasting glucose (IFG)9 even when they do not have overt diabetes mellitus.10 The metabolic syndrome commonly precedes the Continue reading >>

Sabinet | South African Journal Of Diabetes And Vascular Disease

Sabinet | South African Journal Of Diabetes And Vascular Disease

South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease The South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is published four times a year for Clinics-Cardive Publishing Co. by Martingraphix and printed by Durbanville Commercial printers. Articles in this journal are sourced as per agreement with the British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease. Innovation needed to provide all citizens of South Africa with essential healthcare Prediabetes intervention cuts cardiovascular risk Rooibos could reduce risk of type 3 diabetes: a precursor to Alzheimers disease Placing diabetes management firmly on the table Background: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in Dakar and in Tessekere, a rural municipality in northern Senegal, and to compare ideal body size between these populations. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2015 on a representative sample of 1 000 adults, aged 20 years and older in Dakar, and 500 adults of the same age in Tessekere. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was higher in Dakar than in Tessekere. However, overweight and obesity rates of young women living in this rural area were close to those of young women in Dakar. At a body mass index of 27.5 kg/m, less than 40% of the men in Dakar and Tessekere found themselves too fat, compared to 50% of urban women and 30% of rural women. Conclusion: This study explains how and why obesity is becoming a rural health problem in Senegal. Aim: Melatonin supplementation reduces insulin resistance and protects the heart in obese rats. However, its role in myocardial glucose uptake remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of short-term melatonin treatment on glucose uptake by cardiomy Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising at an alarming rate. In the United States, 23.6 million people, or 7.8% of the population, have diabetes mellitus, with 1.6 million new cases diagnosed annually [ 1 ]. Over 200 million people are affected worldwide with diabetes mellitus [ 2 ]. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Despite a marked decline in cardiovascular disease related deaths over the past several decades, a smaller reduction has occurred in diabetics compared to non diabetics [ 3 ]. Diabetes mellitus remains a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is widely recognized as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent [ 4 ]. It is associated with a 2 to 4 times higher risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as an increased risk of mortality by up to 3 times [ 5 , 6 ]. Epidemiological studies of diabetes mellitus have shown that gender, age, and ethnic background are important factors when considering the development of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Given similar levels of fasting glucose and proteinuria, women with diabetes mellitus at diagnosis tend to be older and more likely hypertensive. Among those diagnosed at younger ages, women are more likely than men to be obese [ 7 ]. Compared to the non-diabetic population, the overall mortality from acute myocardial infarction in the diabetic population was 4 times higher among men and 7 times higher among women [ 8 ]. Despite a similar rate of myocardial infarction and chronic heart disease, the rate of transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary bypass grafting was doubled in diabetic male patients [ 9 ]. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC), af Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Hypertension, And Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes, Hypertension, And Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract Abstract—Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major causes of mortality in persons with diabetes, and many factors, including hypertension, contribute to this high prevalence of CVD. Hypertension is approximately twice as frequent in patients with diabetes compared with patients without the disease. Conversely, recent data suggest that hypertensive persons are more predisposed to the development of diabetes than are normotensive persons. Furthermore, up to 75% of CVD in diabetes may be attributable to hypertension, leading to recommendations for more aggressive treatment (ie, reducing blood pressure to <130/85 mm Hg) in persons with coexistent diabetes and hypertension. Other important risk factors for CVD in these patients include the following: obesity, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction, platelet hyperaggregability, coagulation abnormalities, and “diabetic cardiomyopathy.” The cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes is a unique myopathic state that appears to be independent of macrovascular/microvascular disease and contributes significantly to CVD morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, especially those with coexistent hypertension. This update reviews the current knowledge regarding these risk factors and their treatment, with special emphasis on the cardiometabolic syndrome, hypertension, microalbuminuria, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. This update also examines the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the increased risk for CVD in diabetic patients and the impact of interrupting this system on the development of clinical diabetes as well as CVD. Hypertension in the Diabetic Patient The subject of diabetes mellitus as a comorbid disease that frequently confounds hypertension, adding significantly to its Continue reading >>

Impact Of Diabetes On Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

Impact Of Diabetes On Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

Copyright © 2013 Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease. 1. Introduction Diabetes is an important chronic disease which incidence is globally increasing and though considered as an epidemic [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated there were 30 million people who had diabetes worldwide in 1985. This number increased to 135 Continue reading >>

Primary Care Cardiovascular Journal - Primary Care Cardiovascular Journal

Primary Care Cardiovascular Journal - Primary Care Cardiovascular Journal

Latest: Case study: Optimising detection and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation In 2015 West Hampshire CCG (WHCCG) recognised that there was a significant burden of undiagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), which was resulting in an excess of preventable strokes. This could be improved by the prescription of anticoagulation in those at increased risk. This case study describes the diagnosis and management of AF in a 70-year old obese male who was referred for cardiac assessment after developing shortness of breath, which had worsened progressively over three months.It highlights the role of thromboembolic risk reduction which is the cornerstone of AF management and which can only be achieved with proper anticoagulation. Sponsored Feature - Heart valve disease is a ticking time bomb: The time to listen to the heart is now Heart valve disease is an often neglected chronic condition that is found incidentally through investigation of other conditions, such as echocardiography of a patient with suspected heart failure. However, with the ageing population the prevalence of valve disease is likely to explode over the coming decades. Cardiovascular Programme at Primary Care and Public Health Conference Free of charge 2 day CPD approved GP programme chaired by Dr Matt Kearney. Includes preventing heart attacks and strokes at scale, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, heart failure and heart valve disease. Plus streams on diabetes, obesity, womens health, dermatology, older people, end of life, 180 exhibitors and hands-on workshops. Continue reading >>

Erectile Dysfunction, Diabetes And Cardiovascular Risk | Hackett | British Journal Of Diabetes

Erectile Dysfunction, Diabetes And Cardiovascular Risk | Hackett | British Journal Of Diabetes

Erectile dysfunction, diabetes and cardiovascular risk Erectile dysfunction (ED) occurs in up to 75% of men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and has a complex pathogenesis owing to a combination of microvascular, macrovascular, endocrine and neuropathic disease. ED is established as an independent marker for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) occurring on average 3-5 years before the onset of CAD. Thus, timely detection of ED offers an opportunity for early intervention, thereby reducing morbidity associated with CAD. The average UK male, however, suffers for 3 years before discussing symptoms of ED with a healthcare professional. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends an annual review of ED symptoms in susceptible patients with T2DM with an appropriate discussion of management options. Screening questions regarding ED were introduced in the 2013 Quality Outcome Framework but were removed by NHS England in 2014 on grounds of simplification. Response to treatment strategies for ED is poor in diabetes, and poor glycaemic control, long duration of disease and severity of complications is predictive of a poor treatment response. The concomitant presence of hypogonadism in over 40% of men with T2DM also makes ED difficult to treat in this group. Further, ED and severe hypogonadism have been shown to independently predict mortality in T2DM. Treatment for ED is more likely to be effective if given early, although complex regimens may be required. erectile dysfunction, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes NIH Consensus Conference. Impotence. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Impotence. JAMA 1993;270(1):83-90. Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, et al. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Mas Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Pre-diabetes And Cardiovascular Diseases Developed With The Easd

Diabetes, Pre-diabetes And Cardiovascular Diseases Developed With The Easd

Preamble Introduction Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and CVD Definition, classification and diagnosis, Epidemiology,screening for disorders of glucose metabolism, disorders of glucose mtabolism and CVD, delaying conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus, recommendations for diagnosis of disorders of glucose metabolism Molecular basis of cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus The CV continuum in DM, pathophysiology of insulin resistance in T2DM, endothelial dysfunction - oxidative stress and vascular inflammation, macrophage dysfunction, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, coagulation and platelet function, diabetic cardiomyopathy, the metabolic syndrome, endothelial progenitor cells & vascular repair, conclusions Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with dysglycaemia risk scores developed for people with DM, evaluation of CV risk in people with pre-diabetes, risk engines developed for people in diabetes, risk assessment based on biomakers and imaging, gaps in knowledge, recommendations for CV risk assessement in diabetes Prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes Lifetsyle, glucose control, blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, platelet function, multifactorials approaches Management of stable & unstable coroary artery disease in patients with diabetes Optimal medical treatment for patients with chronic coronary artery disease and diabetes, revascularization Heart failure and diabetes Prevalence and incidence of HF in T2DM and T2DM in HF, DM and HF morbidity and mortality, pharmacologycal management of HF in T2DM, non-pharmacoloical therapies for HF in DM, glucose lowering treatment in patients with HF, gaps in knowledge, recommendations for management of HF in diabetes Arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death Diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, su Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease: Epidemiology, Biological Mechanisms, Treatment Recommendations And Future Research

Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease: Epidemiology, Biological Mechanisms, Treatment Recommendations And Future Research

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology, biological mechanisms, treatment recommendations and future research Benjamin M Leon, Department of Education, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, United States Thomas M Maddox, Cardiology 111b, VA Eastern Colorado HCS, Denver, CO 80220, United States Author contributions: Leon BM and Maddox TM organized, wrote and edited the review article. Correspondence to: Thomas M Maddox, MD, MSc, Cardiology 111b, VA Eastern Colorado HCS, 1055 Clermont St, Denver, CO 80220, United States. [email protected] Telephone: +1-303-3932826 Fax: +1-303-3935054 Received 2014 Oct 26; Revised 2015 Aug 2; Accepted 2015 Sep 16. Copyright The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to rise and has quickly become one of the most prevalent and costly chronic diseases worldwide. A close link exists between DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia are common in patients with DM, placing them at increased risk for cardiac events. In addition, many studies have found biological mechanisms associated with DM that independently increase the risk of CVD in diabetic patients. Therefore, targeting CV risk factors in patients with DM is critical to minimize the long-term CV complications of the disease. This paper summarizes the relationship between diabetes and CVD, examines possible mechanisms of disease progression, discusses current treatment recommendations, and outlines future research directions. Keywords: Diabetes mellitu Continue reading >>

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