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Carbohydrates For Gestational Diabetes

Carbohydrate Content In The Gdm Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy In Gestational Diabetes: The Case For Complex Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate Content In The Gdm Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy In Gestational Diabetes: The Case For Complex Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes and College of Nursing, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO Colorado Pediatric Nurse Scientist Program, Childrens Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring. Nutrition therapy is the most formative approach to treating gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In pregnancy, a prevailing maternal metabolic adaptation is the shift in glucose metabolism from insulin sensitivity to insulin resistance, exemplified by higher circulating lipids, heightened postprandial glucose, and increased -cell demand/response ( 1 , 2 ). These intriguing exacerbations of human physiology are recognized to be additive to the prepregnancy phenotype ( 3 ), now largely characterized by overweight and obesity ( 4 ). When women cannot adapt to the glycemic demands of pregnancy, hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance manifest by the late second trimester, and thi Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diet - Gestational

Diabetes Diet - Gestational

For a balanced diet, you need to eat a variety of healthy foods. Reading food labels can help you make healthy choices when you shop. If you are a vegetarian or on a special diet, talk with your health care provider to make sure you're getting a balanced diet. In general, you should eat: Plenty of whole fruits and vegetables Moderate amounts of lean proteins and healthy fats Moderate amounts of whole grains, such as bread, cereal, pasta, and rice, plus starchy vegetables, such as corn and peas Fewer foods that have a lot of sugar, such as soft drinks, fruit juices, and pastries You should eat three small- to moderate-sized meals and one or more snacks each day. Do not skip meals and snacks. Keep the amount and types of food (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) the same from day to day. This can help you keep your blood sugar stable. CARBOHYDRATES Less than half the calories you eat should come from carbohydrates. Most carbohydrates are found in starchy or sugary foods. They include bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, peas, corn, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets. High-fiber, whole-grain carbohydrates are healthy choices. Vegetables are good for your health and your blood sugar. Enjoy lots of them. Carbohydrates in food are measured in grams. You can learn to count the amount of carbohydrates in the foods that you eat. GRAINS, BEANS, AND STARCHY VEGETABLES Eat 6 or more servings a day. One serving equals: 1 slice bread 1 ounce (28 grams) ready-to-eat cereal 1/2 cup (105 grams) cooked rice or pasta 1 English muffin Choose foods loaded with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and healthy carbohydrates. They include: Whole-grain breads and crackers Whole grain cereals Whole grains, such as barley or oats Beans Brown or wild rice Whole-wheat pa Continue reading >>

The Gestational Diabetes Diet: Taking Carbs From A Pregnant Lady

The Gestational Diabetes Diet: Taking Carbs From A Pregnant Lady

When I decided, at age 40, that I wanted to try to have a child, I knew I faced a few elevated risks over younger women: first and foremost, I might not be able to conceive at all. I mentally prepared myself—as much as I could, anyway—for that and other possibilities, including the higher risk of the baby having a genetic defect. So far I’ve been fortunate. The one risk I hadn’t given much thought to—the higher chance of developing gestational diabetes—is the only one that has been a factor in my pregnancy. I’m fairly healthy, I have no history of diabetes in my family, and I try to eat well—lots of fresh fruits and vegetables and few highly processed junk foods. But older pregnant women—and that means even women as young as in their late 20s, believe it or not—can have a harder time regulating insulin, leading to increased blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes, if not controlled through diet and exercise, can cause high-birth-weight babies and potentially lead to delivery complications, as well as increasing the risk that the child will develop obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. For the mother, there’s also the risk of high blood pressure and a higher likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. I haven’t been diagnosed with gestational diabetes so far. But because my blood sugar was a little high during my early glucose tolerance test (this is given to all pregnant women around 28 weeks, but women of my age are also sometimes tested earlier), I was advised to exercise more frequently and follow a low-carbohydrate diet, the same advice given to those with the diagnosis. The last thing a pasta-loving pregnant lady with a sweet tooth wants to hear is that she should cut out carbs. I have always been skeptical of the low-carb Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Diet

Gestational Diabetes Diet

Gestational diabetes, which causes higher-than-normal blood sugar levels to be present, occurs during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes testing usually occurs between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. If you have risk factors for diabetes, your doctor may recommend testing earlier in the pregnancy. If you receive a gestational diabetes diagnosis, you’ll need testing 6 to 12 weeks after giving birth to see whether the diabetes is still present. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after you deliver, although you’re at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, gestational diabetes affects 3 to 8 percent of pregnant women in the United States. Gestational diabetes increases the risk of having a large baby, which may cause problems with delivery. It also increases the risk of having a baby born with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Respiratory distress, jaundice, and low calcium and magnesium levels are also more common in babies whose mothers have gestational diabetes. There’s a higher risk of your baby developing diabetes later in life as well. Changing your diet is generally the first method of treatment for gestational diabetes. The amount of calories you should consume each day depends on a number of factors, such as your weight and activity level. Pregnant women should generally increase their calorie consumption by 300 calories per day from their prepregnancy diet. Doctors recommend three meals and two to three snacks per day. Eating smaller meals more frequently can help you keep your blood sugar levels stable. Your doctor will likely recommend that you monitor your blood sugar levels to help manage gestational diabetes. Testing your blood sugar after meals tells you how that meal affected your blood sugar. Your d Continue reading >>

Low-carbohydrate Diet For The Treatment Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Low-carbohydrate Diet For The Treatment Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

OBJECTIVE Medical nutrition therapy based on the control of the amount and distribution of carbohydrates (CHO) is the initial treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but there is a need for randomized controlled trials comparing different dietary strategies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a low-CHO diet for the treatment of GDM would lead to a lower rate of insulin treatment with similar pregnancy outcomes compared with a control diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 152 women with GDM were included in this open, randomized controlled trial and assigned to follow either a diet with low-CHO content (40% of the total diet energy content as CHO) or a control diet (55% of the total diet energy content as CHO). CHO intake was assessed by 3-day food records. The main pregnancy outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS The rate of women requiring insulin was not significantly different between the treatment groups (low CHO 54.7% vs. control 54.7%; P = 1). Daily food records confirmed a difference in the amount of CHO consumed between the groups (P = 0.0001). No differences were found in the obstetric and perinatal outcomes between the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of women with GDM using a low-CHO diet did not reduce the number of women needing insulin and produced similar pregnancy outcomes. In GDM, CHO amount (40 vs. 55% of calories) did not influence insulin need or pregnancy outcomes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with its onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM is ∼7% (from 1 to 14%), depending on the population and the diagnostic criteria used (1). In Spain, GDM has an estimated prevalence of 8.8% (2). GDM is associated with an increase in maternal and n Continue reading >>

How To Count Carbs

How To Count Carbs

Carbohydrates are a great source of energy for your body, but they affect your blood sugar too. If you have diabetes, keep track of how many you eat with a few simple tricks. Know your carbs. It's a lot more than just pasta and bread. All starchy foods, sugars, fruit, milk, and yogurt are rich in carbs, too. Make sure you count them all, not just the obvious ones. Put together a meal plan. Figure out the amount of carbs, protein, and fat you can eat at meals and snacks throughout the day to keep your blood sugar levels steady. Most adults with diabetes aim for 45-60 grams of carbs per meal and 15-20 grams per snack. That number may go up or down, depending on how active you are and the medicines you take, so check with your doctor or a registered dietitian. Look at labels. They make counting carbs easy. Find the "Total Carbohydrate" number listed on a package's "Nutrition Facts" panel. Then, check the serving size and confirm the amount you can eat. Repeat this step with other foods you plan to eat. When you add all the grams of carbs, the total should stay within your meal budget. Starch, fruit, or milk = 15. Fresh foods don't come with a label. You may have to guess the number of carbs they have. A good rule of thumb: Each serving of fruit, milk, or starch has about 15 grams. Vegetables don't have a lot, so you can eat more of them. Two or three servings of veggies usually equal 15 grams of carbs. Pay attention to portion sizes. The size of one serving depends on the type of food. For instance, one small (4-ounce) piece of fresh fruit, 1/3 cup of pasta or rice, and 1/2 cup of beans are each one serving. Buy a pocket guide that lists carb counts and portion sizes. Or download an app on your smartphone. Measuring cups and a food scale when you eat at home will help you Continue reading >>

Dietary Recommendations For Gestational Diabetes

Dietary Recommendations For Gestational Diabetes

Diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in about 7 percent of all pregnancies. It usually arises in the second half of pregnancy and goes away as soon as the baby is born. However, if gestational diabetes is not treated, you may experience complications. The first step in treating gestational diabetes is to modify your diet to help keep your blood sugar level in the normal range, while still eating a healthy diet. Most women with well-controlled blood sugar deliver healthy babies without any complications. One way of keeping your blood sugar levels in normal range is by monitoring the amount of carbohydrates in your diet. Carbohydrate foods digest and turn into blood glucose (a type of sugar). Glucose in the blood is necessary because it is the fuel for your body and nourishment your baby receives from you. However, it's important that glucose levels stay within target. Carbohydrates in Food Carbohydrates are found in the following foods: Milk and yogurt Fruits and juices Rice, grains, cereals and pasta Breads, tortillas, crackers, bagels and rolls Dried beans, split peas and lentils Potatoes, corn, yams, peas and winter squash Sweets and desserts, such as sugar, honey, syrups, pastries, cookies, soda and candy also typically have large amounts of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates in foods are measured in units called grams. You can count how many carbohydrates are in foods by reading food labels and learning the exchange lists. The two most important pieces of information on food labels for a carbohydrate-controlled diet is the serving size and grams of total carbohydrate in each serving. Dietary Recommendations It is important to be meet with a registered dietitian to have your diet assessed. The dietitian will calcula Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Counting & Diabetes

Carbohydrate Counting & Diabetes

What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting, also called carb counting, is a meal planning tool for people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrate counting involves keeping track of the amount of carbohydrate in the foods you eat each day. Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients found in food and drinks. Protein and fat are the other main nutrients. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. Carbohydrate counting can help you control your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, levels because carbohydrates affect your blood glucose more than other nutrients. Healthy carbohydrates, such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, are an important part of a healthy eating plan because they can provide both energy and nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, and fiber. Fiber can help you prevent constipation, lower your cholesterol levels, and control your weight. Unhealthy carbohydrates are often food and drinks with added sugars. Although unhealthy carbohydrates can also provide energy, they have little to no nutrients. More information about which carbohydrates provide nutrients for good health and which carbohydrates do not is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Diabetes Diet and Eating. The amount of carbohydrate in foods is measured in grams. To count grams of carbohydrate in foods you eat, you’ll need to know which foods contain carbohydrates learn to estimate the number of grams of carbohydrate in the foods you eat add up the number of grams of carbohydrate from each food you eat to get your total for the day Your doctor can refer you to a dietitian or diabetes educator who can help you develop a healthy eating plan based on carbohydrate counting. Which foods contain carbohydrates? Foods that contain carbohydrates include grains, such as b Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Counting For Pregnant Women

Carbohydrate Counting For Pregnant Women

Diabetes Spectrum Volume 13 Number 3, 2000, Page 149 From Research to Practice/ Medical Nutrition Therapy Carbohydrate Counting: A Return to Basics Carbohydrate Counting for Pregnant Women Diane Reader, RD, LD, CDE At no other time is blood glucose control so crucial as when a woman with diabetes is pregnant or planning to get pregnant. It is an exciting time but also a challenging one. Counting food, testing blood glucose levels, and adjusting insulin doses becomes a way of life. Carbohydrate counting can be a useful way to intensify control for women with type 1 diabetes, and it can be an easy way to learn food management for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Case #1: Gestational Diabetes Kim is a 32-year-old woman, pregnant with her third child. She works part-time and spends the rest of her time caring for her two other children, ages 6 and 7. Her previous pregnancies were problem free. But at the 28th week of this pregnancy, she was diagnosed with GDM. Her pre-pregnant weight was 155 lb, which was too heavy for her 5'3" frame. She had not lost the weight gained from her previous pregnancies. At the start of the third trimester, she weighs 165 lbs. With two children, a husband, a job, and a home to maintain, there seems to be no time for walks, biking, and swimming. She misses the relaxation of regular exercise. Kim is like many other women who are diagnosed with GDM and referred to our adult endocrinology clinic, which is part of a large multi-specialty practice. With six endocrinologists, two diabetes nurse educators, and two diabetes nutrition specialists, we manage at any given time 30–50 pregnant women with either GDM or pre-existing diabetes. After we receive a telephone referral, our protocol is to see these women within 48 hours. These are hi Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes And Nutrition

Gestational Diabetes And Nutrition

What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a kind of diabetes some women get during pregnancy. (Say: jess-tay-shun-al die-ah-bee-tees) If you have gestational diabetes, your body cannot use glucose (blood sugar) the way it should. Too much sugar stays in your blood. If you have gestational diabetes, you might be able to control your blood sugar levels with exercise and a healthy diet. Or, you might need insulin shots to keep your blood sugar at the right level. How does gestational diabetes affect my baby and me? Most women with gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies. Problems may develop if you have gestational diabetes that is not treated. Gestational diabetes can cause you to have a large baby. Giving birth to a large baby may hurt you or the baby. You may need a cesarean section (a surgical delivery) if your baby is too large to be born naturally. Gestational diabetes also can affect babies after they are born. Some of these babies have low blood sugar levels or jaundice (yellow-colored skin). These problems are treated in the hospital. A baby with a low blood sugar level is given sugar water. A baby with jaundice spends time under a special light. After delivery, you probably will not remain diabetic. However, you will be at higher risk for getting diabetes later in life. Why is it important to follow a special diet during pregnancy? A healthy diet can help protect you and your baby from gestational diabetes. For a pregnant woman, a normal diet consists of 2,200 to 2,500 calories per day. If you are overweight before you get pregnant, you will need fewer calories than other women. It is important to pay attention to what you eat and when you eat. What foods should I eat? Read package labels. Packaged foods are labeled to describe how much of certain Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Treatment Plan

Gestational Diabetes Treatment Plan

Home > Gestational Diabetes Treatment Plan Many women with gestational diabetes have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies because they follow the treatment plan that their health care providers set up for them. One of the most important things you can do to help ensure a healthy pregnancy is to make regular health care appointments and keep them. A general treatment plan to control gestational diabetes may include these items: Knowing your blood sugar (also called glucose) level and keeping it under control Getting regular, moderate physical activity Keeping daily records of your diet, physical activity, and glucose levels Taking medications as prescribed, you may need a medication if: Your blood sugar level is high too many times. Your blood sugar level remains high, but you are not gaining much weight or are not eating poorly. You cannot safely add physical activity to your treatment plan. Know Your Blood Sugar Level and Keep it Under Control The first step in this general treatment plan has two parts: 1)Knowing your blood sugar levelmeans you test to see how much glucose is in your blood; and 2)Keeping your blood sugar level under controlmeans you keep the amount of glucose within a healthy range at all times, by eating a healthy diet as outlined by your health care provider, getting regular physical activity, and taking medication, if needed. Your blood sugar level changes during the day based on what foods you eat, when you eat, and how much you eat. Your level of physical activity and when you do physical activities also affect your blood sugar levels. By getting to know your body and how it uses glucose during the day, you can help your health care provider to adjust your treatment program. Measuring your glucose level every day, and often during the day helps Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: Counting Carbs

Gestational Diabetes: Counting Carbs

Introduction Carbohydrate counting helps you to control your blood sugar when you have gestational diabetes. Carbohydrate counting helps you determine the amount of sugar and starch (carbohydrate) in the foods you eat. This is important, because carbohydrate affects your blood sugar more than fats or proteins do. Carbohydrate counting involves learning how to spread out the amount of carbohydrate you eat throughout the day to help prevent high blood sugar after eating. You should test your blood sugar after meals to see what effect different carbohydrate foods have on your blood sugar level. How to count carbohydrate Here are some ways to help you count carbohydrate and spread carbohydrate throughout the day. Eat regularly Eat at least three meals a day to spread your intake of food, especially carbohydrate, throughout the day. It is a great idea to get out your cookbooks and plan several main meals (What is a PDF document?) at the same time. You can double some recipes and freeze the leftovers to use for other meals. Count carbohydrate The following suggestions can help you count carbohydrate and balance your meals and snacks: Talk with a registered dietitian to help plan the amount of carbohydrate to include in each meal and snack. Get a book that lists the carbohydrate content in different foods. Count either grams or servings of carbohydrate. If you are having high blood sugar levels after eating-for example, after breakfast-you may want to decrease the amount of carbohydrate you eat at that time. Eat standard portions of carbohydrate foods. Each serving size or standard portion contains about 15 grams of carbohydrate. It might be helpful to measure your food portions when you are first learning what makes up a standard portion. Talk with a registered dietitian abou Continue reading >>

What Is The Best Diet For Gestational Diabetes?

What Is The Best Diet For Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational diabetes can cause a range of complications during pregnancy. Fortunately, a woman can help reduce complications by following a healthful diet. What foods should women eat and what foods should they avoid if they have gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes occurs if a woman's body cannot produce enough insulin, during her pregnancy. This deficiency leads to high blood sugar. High blood sugar levels may cause problems for the woman and her baby if not managed properly. This article explains what type of diet a woman should follow during pregnancy if she has gestational diabetes. It also considers other treatment options for gestational diabetes and what complications may occur if the condition is not properly managed. Contents of this article: Understanding gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that can develop during pregnancy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 2 and 10 percent of pregnancies are affected by gestational diabetes each year in the United States. This type of diabetes occurs when a woman's body cannot make enough of the hormone insulin. Insulin is made by the pancreas and helps the body's cells to use sugar from the blood as energy. When a woman is pregnant, her body will produce more hormones, and she may put on weight. Both of these changes may mean that her body's cells may not use insulin as well as they used to. This is called insulin resistance. Becoming resistant to insulin means that the body needs more of it in order to use up the sugar in the blood. Sometimes a woman's body cannot produce enough insulin to keep up. This leads to a sugar buildup in the blood, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of gestational diabetes may include: being unusually thirsty Continue reading >>

Are You Confused About Carbs?

Are You Confused About Carbs?

Carbs can confuse many people. To be able to follow a good diet for gestational diabetes you need to understand a bit about carbohydrates and where you'll find them. Not knowing which foods and drinks are high in carbs can be detrimental to trying to control your blood sugar levels and whilst most know that sugar should be cut out of the diet with gestational diabetes, many do not realise that carbohydrates are a problem too. Carbohydrates turn into glucose in the bloodstream (therefore carbs are pretty much sugar as far as we're concerned) and eating anything high in carbs will raise blood sugar levels. The other problem is that certain carbs can turn into glucose in the bloodstream very quickly. This can be seen as the red line in the diagram below... If carbs raise blood sugar levels why can't we just cut them out? Cutting carbohydrates out of the diet, or restricting them very low will lower blood sugar levels, but the problem with doing this is that it causes the body to go into a ketosis state, burning fat for energy instead of glucose. It can also make you feel lethargic too. The problem with burning fat instead of glucose is that when you are pregnant, the acid that is produced as a result of the body doing this, called ketones, can be harmful to the growing baby if ketones are produced in high amounts. Therefore it is important to continue to eat small amounts of carbohydrates at each meal where possible and to stay well hydrated. You can read more about ketosis on our ketones page. Different types of carbs Carbohydrates can be found in most foods and drinks. Carbs are made up of three different things: sugar, starch and fibre. There are different types of carbs and this is where it can get very confusing as many may just think of carbs as bread, pasta and rice Continue reading >>

Can Low Carb Help With Gestational Diabetes In Pregnancy?

Can Low Carb Help With Gestational Diabetes In Pregnancy?

When Natalie Thompson Cooper was diagnosed with gestational diabetes in her first pregnancy, at age 28, she was very concerned. The condition, which affects at least one in seven pregnancies to as many as one in five, causes blood sugars to rise abnormally high, called hyperglycemia. 1 Natalie knew hyperglycemia bathed her unborn daughter in glucose, putting the fetus at risk for a wide range of potential complications, including miscarriage, birth defects, macrosomia (very large size), high blood pressure, birth trauma, and higher rates of C-section and even stillbirth. 2 Moreover, gestational diabetes (GD) — also called ‘carbohydrate intolerance of pregnancy’ — greatly increases the risk that the mother and her offspring will both face future health problems, such as much higher rates of eventual type 2 diabetes, metabolic conditions, and cardiovascular disease. 3 GD is one of the most common and significant complications of pregnancy. Prenatal guidelines the world over recommend the routine screening of all pregnant women and then, if positive, strict management, starting with dietary therapy, then if that does not work, insulin injections. 4 However, to this day, what constitutes the best “dietary therapy” is hotly debated, with some researchers proposing a diet high in complex carbohydrates (60% carbs) and others lower carbohydrates (40% carbs). 5 However, the recommended “lower carb” GD diet is still far higher than the under 20 g per day of the strict low-carb high-fat or ketogenic diet. In fact, many guidelines for GD recommend women, on an ostensibly “lower-carb” diet, eat a minimum 175 g of carbohydrate daily, a level at which many women see their blood sugar rise out of control. “Honestly, 175 g of carbohydrate is stupid! Women should be Continue reading >>

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