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Canadian Diabetes Association. The Prevalence And Costs Of Diabetes. December 2009.

Economic Tsunami: The Cost Of Diabetes In Canada

Economic Tsunami: The Cost Of Diabetes In Canada

Diabetes Canada released its Economic Tsunami, the Cost of Diabetes in Canada report in December 2009. The report introduced the Canadian Diabetes Cost Model, a tool developed by the Centre for Spatial Economics to identify current prevalence rates and financial costs for diabetes in Canada, and projected rates for 2020. Since then, through the generous support of an unrestricted educational grant provided by Novo Nordisk Canada Inc., Diabetes Canada has adapted the cost model to provide similar reporting for each Canadian province. National cost model report Provincial reports Continue reading >>

General Diabetes Information

General Diabetes Information

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is the name given to disorders in which the body has trouble regulating its blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels. There are two major types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin, a hormone that enables people to get energy from food. T1D usually strikes in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood, and lasts a lifetime. Just to survive, people with T1D must take multiple injections of insulin daily or continually infuse insulin through a pump. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder in which a person’s body still produces insulin but is unable to use it effectively. T2D is usually diagnosed in adulthood and does not always require insulin injections. However, increased obesity has led to a recent rise in cases of T2D in children and young adults. Taking insulin does not cure any type of diabetes, nor does it prevent the possibility of the disease’s devastating effects, including: kidney failure, blindness, nerve damage, amputation, heart attack, stroke, and pregnancy complications. The Scope of Diabetes More than three million Canadians have diabetes: Diagnosed: Three million More than 300,000 Canadians are living with T1D.2 Diabetes currently affects 366 million people worldwide and is expected to affect 552 million by 2030.3 In Canada, more than 20 people are diagnosed with diabetes every hour of every day.4 The Cost of Diabetes Diabetes is consuming an ever-larger share of provincial and territorial health care budgets.1 With the aging of Canada's population, the total direct health care costs associated with diabetes is expected to increase to over $8 billion (CAD) annually by 2016.6 Canadians with diabetes incur medical expenses tha Continue reading >>

Reimbursement Programs And Health Technology Assessment For Diabetes Devices And Supplies

Reimbursement Programs And Health Technology Assessment For Diabetes Devices And Supplies

Pursuant to the Constitution Act,1 the roles and responsibilities for Canada’s publicly funded health care system are divided between the federal and provincial/territorial governments.2 The federal government sets and administers national principles for the health care system, provides financial support to the provinces and territories (known as “cash and tax transfers” and/or “equalization payments” to less prosperous provinces and territories), and funds and delivers services to certain groups of people (eg, First Nations people living on reserves, serving members of the Canadian Forces, eligible veterans, etc). Other important functions of the federal government in the health care system include, among others, the regulation of pharmaceuticals, foods and medical devices to ensure that these products are safe and effective for the intended purpose, as well as disease surveillance and prevention. The provincial/territorial governments administer and deliver most of Canada’s health care services through various health insurance plans (eg, Ontario’s Health Insurance Plan, more commonly known as OHIP, Alberta’s Health Care Insurance Plan, British Columbia’s Health Insurance BC plan, etc). Each provincial and territorial health insurance plan pays for, on a prepaid basis, the costs associated with medically necessary hospital and physicians’ services. Accordingly, patients are not charged a fee at the point of receiving medically necessary services, for example, at a hospital emergency room or in a doctor’s office. The provincial and territorial health insurance plans, in consultation with their respective physician colleges or groups, determine which services are medically necessary for health reimbursement purposes. Services that are not classified Continue reading >>

New Brunswick Diabetes Cost Model Provides A Wake-up Call

New Brunswick Diabetes Cost Model Provides A Wake-up Call

Canadian Diabetes Association urges governments to take immediate action to introduce comprehensive diabetes strategies FREDERICTON, May 31 /CNW/ - In a speech given today in Fredericton, the Canadian Diabetes Association released preliminary data from a diabetes cost model developed for the province of New Brunswick. The New Brunswick Diabetes Cost Model found that both the cost and prevalence of diabetes in the province are at dramatically high levels and it is expected that this burden will continue to elevate over the next decade. "To understand the true impact diabetes has on our province, it is important that New Brunswickers know the actual costs of diabetes," said Peter McDougall, Chair of the Canadian Diabetes Association's National Advocacy Council. "We estimate that the current economic cost of diabetes in New Brunswick to be $347 million annually. If left unchecked, it will rise to $427 million by 2020." "While the economic burden alone is staggering, the human cost of the disease in the province is even more troubling," said McDougall. It is estimated that in New Brunswick, there are currently 65,000 people that have been diagnosed with diabetes (8.6% of the population), and this will rise to 88,000 (10.9% of the population) by 2020. This challenge becomes magnified when we consider that the rate of those with undiagnosed diabetes in New Brunswick has been estimated to be as high as 30%. The prevalence rate in New Brunswick clearly exceeds the current national average (7.3%) and the national average forecasted for 2020 (9.9%). "These results should serve as a wake-up call to all in the province that a focused and comprehensive action plan is required to address this burden," added McDougall. "If action is not taken soon, this growing burden will not only co Continue reading >>

New Canadian Diabetes Cost Model Paints A Sobering View Of Diabetes In Canada

New Canadian Diabetes Cost Model Paints A Sobering View Of Diabetes In Canada

OTTAWA (December 7, 2009) – In a report released today, Economic Tsunami: The Cost of Diabetes in Canada, the Canadian Diabetes Association has introduced an important new tool in the fight against diabetes in Canada: the Canadian Diabetes Cost Model. The Model details the dramatic increase in the prevalence and cost of diabetes in Canada, both of which have escalated sharply over the last decade and are expected to continue their rapid ascent for the foreseeable future. “For the first time, Canada has a Diabetes Cost Model specifically based on Canadian data to estimate both the current and future costs of diabetes,” said Ellen Malcolmson, President and CEO of the Canadian Diabetes Association. “If left unchecked, the economic burden of diabetes in Canada could escalate to nearly $17 billion by 2020, an increase of more than $10 billion from 2000, and the number of Canadians diagnosed with diabetes will have nearly tripled. The results are a sobering reminder of the action required to reduce the burden of diabetes in Canada while improving the individual health for people living with the disease.” The Canadian Diabetes Cost Model The Model, designed for the Canadian Diabetes Association, is the first such model using Canadian data that can be utilized to determine the economic impact of diabetes on Canadian society, both now and in the future. The Model can: Project the costs, incidence and prevalence of the disease, as well as co-morbidities common among people with diabetes; Determine, where efficacy data exists, the financial cost benefit of initiatives designed to delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes and to reduce the occurrence and severity of complications arising from the disease for people living with diabetes; and Be further developed to pro Continue reading >>

Exploration Of The Relationship Between Household Food Insecurity And Diabetes In Canada

Exploration Of The Relationship Between Household Food Insecurity And Diabetes In Canada

OBJECTIVE To determine the household food insecurity (HFI) prevalence in Canadians with diabetes and its relationship with diabetes management, self-care practices, and health status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from Canadians with diabetes aged ≥12 years (n = 6,237) from cycle 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005. The HFI prevalence in Canadians with diabetes was compared with that in those without diabetes. The relationships between HFI and management services, self-care practices, and health status were examined for Ontarians with diabetes (n = 2,523). RESULTS HFI was more prevalent among individuals with diabetes (9.3% [8.2–10.4]) than among those without diabetes (6.8% [6.5–7.0]) and was not associated with diabetes management services but was associated with physical inactivity (odds ratio 1.54 [95% CI 1.10–2.17]), lower fruit and vegetable consumption (0.52 [0.33–0.81]), current smoking (1.71 [1.09–2.69]), unmet health care needs (2.71 [1.74–4.23]), having been an overnight patient (2.08 [1.43–3.04]), having a mood disorder (2.18 [1.54–3.08]), having effects from a stroke (2.39 [1.32–4.32]), lower satisfaction with life (0.28 [0.18–0.43]), self-rated general (0.37 [0.21–0.66]) and mental (0.17 [0.10–0.29]) health, and higher self-perceived stress (2.04 [1.30–3.20]). The odds of HFI were higher for an individual in whom diabetes was diagnosed at age <40 years (3.08 [1.96–4.84]). CONCLUSIONS HFI prevalence is higher among Canadians with diabetes and is associated with an increased likelihood of unhealthy behaviors, psychological distress, and poorer physical health. More than 2 million Canadians have diabetes, and the rising prevalence is alarming (1). Continue reading >>

Diabetes Facts All

Diabetes Facts All

1. The National DiabetesManagement Strategy:Diabetes Facts and FiguresBy using these slides, you agree to theterms on the next slide.The development of these slides was made possiblethrough financial support by Mahboob ali khan . 2. Terms of Use• By using this web site and/or these slides and/or requesting and receiving the information on thissite, you are accepting these terms of use.• These slides and the related information on the The National Diabetes Management Strategywebsite synthesize publicly available information in a convenient format. This information isintended for use by policymakers, managers, media, planners, clinicians and researchers.• All information provided on this site and in these slides is publicly available from the originalsources. All information is attributed to the original source. All information in these slides iscopyrighted by other parties. As a visitor to this site, you are granted a limited license to use theinformation contained within for non-commercial use only, provided the information is notmodified and all copyright and other proprietary notices are retained.• The National Diabetes Management Strategy and The University of Western Ontario resides inOntario, Canada and this site and any transactions which you enter into through this site aregoverned by the laws of Ontario, Canada and the federal laws of Canada applicable therein.• The faculty and staff of The National Diabetes Management Strategy The University of WesternOntario shall not be liable for any damages, claims, liabilities, costs or obligations arising from theuse or misuse of the material contained on this web site, whether such obligations arise incontract, negligence, equity or statute law. The National Diabetes Management Strategy and TheUniversity of Wes Continue reading >>

Economic Tsunami: The Cost Of Diabetes In Canada

Economic Tsunami: The Cost Of Diabetes In Canada

Creator: Diabetes Canada Date: 2000-2010 URL: Annotation: Diabetes Canada (formerly Canadian Diabetes Association) released a national report on the "Economic Tsunami, the Cost of Diabetes in Canada report in December 2009. The report introduced the Canadian Diabetes Cost Model, a tool developed by the Centre for Spatial Economics to identify current prevalence rates and financial costs for diabetes in Canada, and projected rates for 2020." Visit the Diabetes Canada website for provincial reports on the cost of diabetes. Continue reading >>

The Cost Of Diabetes In Canada Over 10 Years: Applying Attributable Health Care Costs To A Diabetes Incidence Prediction Model

The Cost Of Diabetes In Canada Over 10 Years: Applying Attributable Health Care Costs To A Diabetes Incidence Prediction Model

Go to: Methods Diabetes risk and incidence To estimate the predicted risk and number of new diabetes cases within the next 10 years, we used the Diabetes Population Risk Tool version 2.0. DPoRT 2.0 is an updated iteration of DPoRT, a predictive algorithm developed to calculate future population risk and incidence of physician- diagnosed diabetes in those aged 20 years and over. DPoRT was derived using national survey data individually linked to a chart-validated diabetes registry. This cohort was then used to create sex-specific survival models using baseline risk factors from the survey for diabetes incidence. Specifically, we assessed the probability of physician-diagnosed diabetes from the interview date until censoring for death or end of follow-up. The model was developed in the Ontario cohort and predictions from the model were validated against actual observed diabetes incidence in two external cohorts in Ontario and Manitoba. Variables used within its two sex-specific models include a combination of hypertension, ethnicity, education, immigrant status, body mass index, smoking status, heart disease and income. Full details on the model specification and validation can be found elsewhere. 7 The regression model can run on nationally available population health surveys and has been updated (DPoRT 2.0) and used to established prevention targets for diabetes.8 For this study, we used DPoRT 2.0 to generate incidence predictions based on the recent 2011 and 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The CCHS collects information on the demographics, health status and determinants of health of the Canadian population. It is a nationally representative survey that uses a crosssectional study design and is administered on an ongoing basis, with annual data reporting. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Statistics In Canada

Diabetes Statistics In Canada

Key Statistics[1] 2015 2025 Estimated diabetes prevalence (n/%) 3.4 million/9.3% 5 million/12.1% Estimated prediabetes prevalence in Canada (n/%) (age 20+) 5.7 million/22.1% 6.4 million/23.2% Estimated diabetes prevalence increase (%) 44% from 2015-2025 Estimated diabetes cost increase (%) 25% from 2015-2025 Impact of diabetes Diabetes complications are associated with premature death. It is estimated that one of ten deaths in Canadian adults was attributable to diabetes in 2008/09.[2] People with diabetes are over three times more likely to be hospitalized with cardiovascular disease, 12 times more likely to be hospitalized with end-stage renal disease and over 20 times more likely to be hospitalized for a non-traumatic lower limb amputation compared to the general population.[3] Thirty per cent of people with diabetes have clinically relevant depressive symptoms; individuals with depression have an approximately 60% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.3 Foot ulceration affects an estimated 15-25% of people with diabetes. One-third of amputations in 2011-2012 were performed on people reporting a diabetic foot wound.[4] Some populations are at higher risk of type 2 diabetes, such as those of South Asian, Asian, African, Hispanic or Aboriginal descent, those who are overweight, older or have low income. Diabetes rates are 3-5 times higher in First Nations, a situation compounded by barriers to care for Aboriginal people.3 Fifty-seven percent of Canadians with diabetes reported they cannot adhere to prescribed treatment due to the high out-of-pocket cost of needed medications, devices and supplies. The average cost for these supports is >3% of income or >$1,500.[5] As a result of stigma or fear of stigma, 37% of Canadians with type 2 diabetes surveyed by the Cana Continue reading >>

Managing Type 1 Diabetes In School: Recommendations For Policy And Practice

Managing Type 1 Diabetes In School: Recommendations For Policy And Practice

Principal author(s) Sarah E Lawrence MD, Elizabeth A Cummings MD, Danièle Pacaud MD, Andrew Lynk MD, Daniel L Metzger MD Paediatr Child Health 2015;20(1):35-39. Abstract Diabetes requiring insulin is increasingly common and likely to impact students in most, if not all, schools. Diabetes and its complications have major personal, social and economic impact, and improved diabetes control reduces the risk of both short- and long-term complications. Evidence shows that more intensive management of diabetes – through frequent blood glucose monitoring, insulin administration with injections and/or insulin pumps, and careful attention to diet and exercise – leads to better control. Since children spend 30 to 35 hours per week at school, effectively managing their diabetes while there is integral to their short- and long-term health. The Canadian Paediatric Society and the Canadian Pediatric Endocrine Group recommend that minimum standards for supervision and care be established across Canada to support children and youth with type 1 diabetes in schools. These recommendations are derived from evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, with input from diabetes care providers from across Canada, and are consistent with the Canadian Diabetes Association’s Guidelines for the Care of Students Living with Diabetes at School. Key Words: Education; Policy; Type 1 diabetes Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

ABOUT T1D Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin, a hormone that enables people to get energy from food. It occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, called beta cells. While its causes are not yet entirely understood, scientists believe that both genetic factors and environmental triggers are involved. Its onset has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle. There is nothing you can do to prevent T1D, and—at present—nothing you can do to get rid of it. AFFECTS CHILDREN AND ADULTS T1D strikes both children and adults at any age. It comes on suddenly, causes dependence on injected or pumped insulin for life, and carries the constant threat of devastating complications. NEEDS CONSTANT ATTENTION Living with T1D is a constant challenge. People with the disease must carefully balance insulin doses (either by injections multiple times a day or continuous infusion through a pump) with eating and daily activities throughout the day and night. They must also test their blood sugar by pricking their fingers for blood six or more times a day. Despite this constant attention, people with T1D still run the risk of dangerous high or low blood sugar levels, both of which can be life-threatening. People with T1D overcome these challenges on a daily basis. NOT CURED BY INSULIN While insulin injections or infusion allow a person with T1D to stay alive, they do not cure the disease, nor do they necessarily prevent the possibility of the disease’s serious effects, which may include: kidney failure, blindness, nerve damage, amputations, heart attack, stroke, and pregnancy complications. PERSEVERANCE AND HOPE Although T1D is a serious and difficult disease, treatment Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevalence (per 1,000 inhabitants) of diabetes worldwide in 2000 - world average was 2.8%. no data ≤ 7.5 7.5–15 15–22.5 22.5–30 30–37.5 37.5–45 45–52.5 52.5–60 60–67.5 67.5–75 75–82.5 ≥ 82.5 Disability-adjusted life year for diabetes mellitus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 No data <100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 600–700 700–800 800–900 900–1,000 1,000–1,500 >1,500 Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization (WHO).[1] Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly; previous 2013 estimates from the International Diabetes Federation put the number at 381 million people having diabetes.[2] The number is projected to almost double by 2030.[3] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 85-90% of all cases.[4][5] Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese.[1] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, occurring in low- and middle-income countries[1] including in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.[3] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the Western pattern diet).[1][3] The risk of getting type 2 diabetes has been widely found to be associat Continue reading >>

Chapter 3: Diabetes In Canada: Facts And Figures From A Public Health Perspective – Health System And Economic Impact

Chapter 3: Diabetes In Canada: Facts And Figures From A Public Health Perspective – Health System And Economic Impact

Chapter 3 – The health system and economic impact of diabetes Introduction In addition to the major impact of diabetes on individuals (Chapter 2), on a population level, treating and managing the disease and its complications also lead to an increased burden on the health care system and the national economy. Individuals with diabetes require a variety of health services, mainly to treat and manage their disease, but also for the diagnosis and treatment of associated complications. This chapter provides an overview of the burden of diabetes on the health care system and attempts to estimate the costs of diabetes in Canada. Health service utilization Diabetes management often involves the use of services from a range of health care providers, including family physicians, medical specialists, nutritionists, diabetes educators, and psychologists. In 2008/09, adults aged 20 to 49 years with diabetes saw a family physician about twice as often as those without diabetes (Figure 3-1), and a specialist two to three times more often (Figure 3-2). As expected, visits to specialists were even more frequent among children and youth (aged one to 19 years) with diagnosed diabetes. This group visited specialists four times as often as young people who did not have diabetes (Figure 3-2). This is likely a direct reflection of the specialized care recommended for children with diabetes (Chapter 5). The sex difference in the rate ratios, particularly in women of child-bearing age, is due to the fact that females without diabetes tend to visit family practitioners more often than males. Figure 3-1. Rate ratios of visits to family physicians among individuals aged one year and older, by age group, sex, and diabetes status, Canada†, 2008/09 Source: Public Health Agency of Canada (July 20 Continue reading >>

Analysis Of The Financial Cost Of Diabetes Mellitus In Four Cocoa Clinics Of Ghana

Analysis Of The Financial Cost Of Diabetes Mellitus In Four Cocoa Clinics Of Ghana

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases. The number of diabetes cases has been increasing worldwide with a corresponding increase in health care budgets. It has thus become a growing public health burden for patients, health care providers, and society [1–4]. Complications resulting from late diagnosis and late presentation, lack of access to essential medication and services, and poor management of diabetes have created a heavy socioeconomic burden for Africa. Financing health care is one of the building blocks of health systems [5]. External financial assistance is required in the average low-income country to improve access to quality basic health service. More than 75% of the health expenditure, however, comes from domestic sources [6]. Financing of public sector service has gone through several reforms, ranging from out-of-pocket (before independence) expenses to national health insurance (currently) in Ghana. The National Health Insurance Scheme is based on District Mutual Health Insurance Schemes operating in all 145 districts of the country. The National Health Insurance Scheme covers both the formal and informal sectors of the economy with the goal of providing universal health coverage for all Ghanaians. The national coverage as at December 31, 2009, stood at 62% at the time of this study [7–10]. The benefit package consists of basic health care and covers about 95% of the diseases in Ghana. Provider payment methods used by the District Mutual Health Insurance Schemes are the Diagnosis Related Groups for services only and Itemized Fee for Service to pay for medicines on the National Health Insurance Scheme drug list. Cost-of-illness evaluation of diabetes has been conducted over the past three decades in many countries [11 Continue reading >>

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