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Can You Die From Diabetes Insipidus

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is a condition that results from insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct amount of water. Normally, the antidiuretic hormone controls the kidneys' output of urine. It is secreted by the hypothalamus (a small gland located at the base of the brain), stored in the pituitary gland, and then released into the bloodstream. ADH is secreted to decrease the amount of urine output so that dehydration does not occur. Diabetes insipidus, however, causes excessive production of very diluted urine and excessive thirst. The disease is categorized into groups: Central diabetes insipidus. An insufficient production or secretion of ADH; can be a result of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland caused by head injuries, genetic disorders, and other diseases. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A lack of kidney response to normal levels of ADH: can be caused by drugs or chronic disorders, such as kidney failure, sickle cell disease, or polycystic kidney disease. What causes diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus can be caused by several conditions, including the following: Malfunctioning hypothalamus (that produces too little ADH) Malfunctioning pituitary gland (that fails to release ADH into the bloodstream) Damage to hypothalamus or pituitary gland during surgery Brain injury Tumor Blockage in the arteries leading to the brain Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord) Sarcoidosis (a rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues throughout the body) Family heredity What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus? The following are the most common symptoms of diabetes insipidus. However, eac Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

Most people have heard of the two main types of diabetes. But did you know the name has nothing to do with high blood sugar? It's a general term for any condition that causes your body to make a lot of urine. And that’s just what, diabetes insipidus does. This condition makes you extra thirsty. As a result, you pee -- a lot. Your body makes a substance called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It’s produced in a part of your brain called the hypothalamus and stored in your pituitary gland. It tells your kidneys to hold onto water, which makes your urine more concentrated. When you’re thirsty or slightly dehydrated, ADH levels rise. Your kidneys reabsorb more water and put out concentrated urine. If you’ve had plenty to drink, ADH levels fall and what comes out is clear and dilute. When your body doesn’t make enough ADH, the condition is called central diabetes insipidus. If you make enough but your kidneys can't respond to it, you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In either form, the result is the same. Your kidneys can't retain water, so even if you’re dehydrated, they'll put out a lot of pale, or diluted urine. When your kidneys can’t conserve water, you’ll: Get really thirsty Pee a lot -- this is known as polyuria Some people get dehydrated. If you lose too much water, you could have: Lethargy Muscle pains Irritability If you have this condition, you’ll probably wind up at the doctor for help with your thirst and constant need for a bathroom. To diagnose you, the doctor will do a series of blood and urine tests that may take several hours. You’ll go without water the whole time, so you’ll get thirstier. Your doctor will measure the sodium in your blood and pee. He may give you an ADH substitute to see if your kidneys respond by concentrating your ur Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (ndi)

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (ndi)

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disorder that occurs when the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine. In most people, the body balances the fluids you drink with the amount of urine you excrete, or expel, from your body. However, people with NDI produce excessive amounts of urine. This is a condition known as polyuria and it causes insatiable thirst, or polydipsia. NDI occurs when the balance between fluid intake and urine excretion is disrupted. NDI can cause dehydration, among other complications, so it’s important to talk to a doctor if you’re experiencing symptoms. NDI can be fatal if you don’t get treatment for it. The earlier you receive the diagnosis, the better your outlook will be. NDI is unrelated to diabetes mellitus, which is more commonly known as diabetes. The symptoms of NDI vary with age. Infants are severely affected, but the symptoms can resemble many other disorders. As children age, the symptoms become more recognizable. If a diagnosis isn’t made, the symptoms can become severe enough to be life-threatening. You should visit your doctor as soon as possible if you’re experiencing symptoms of NDI. Symptoms in infants The symptoms in infants can include: excessive wet diapers vomiting recurring fevers that have no known cause constipation Symptoms in young children The symptoms in young children can include: bedwetting difficulties in toilet training a failure to thrive mental confusion due to dehydration Symptoms in older children Older children and teenagers can display symptoms that include: high urine output disturbed sleep and fatigue from urinating at night low body weight due to preferring water to food a failure to thrive Symptoms in adults The most common symptoms experienced by adults include: excessive thirst excessi Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body loses too much fluid through urination, causing a significant risk of dangerous dehydration as well as a range of illnesses and conditions. There are two forms of the disease: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and central diabetes insipidus (also known as neurogenic diabetes insipidus). A number of factors have been linked to the development of diabetes insipidus, which may also occur in pregnancy or with the use of certain medications. Establishing the cause of the problem can help determine the most appropriate treatment to support the regulation of water balance in the body. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that can be managed successfully. Contents of this article: What is diabetes insipidus? An uncommon condition, diabetes insipidus is a disorder affecting the regulation of body fluid levels. Two key symptoms resemble those of the more common forms of diabetes that affect blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2).1-5 People with diabetes insipidus produce excessive amounts of urine (polyuria), resulting in frequent urination and, in turn, thirst (polydipsia). However, the underlying cause of these two symptoms is quite different from the causes in types 1 and 2 diabetes. In diabetes mellitus, elevated blood sugar prompts the production of large volumes of urine to help remove the excess sugar from the body. In diabetes insipidus, it is the body's water balance system itself that is not working properly. Here are some key points about diabetes insipidus. More detail and supporting information is in the body of this article. Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body fails to properly control water balance, resulting in excessive urination. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by low or absent secretion of t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus - Central

Diabetes Insipidus - Central

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water. Diabetes insipidus is a different disease than diabetes, though both share common symptoms excessive urination and thirst. Central diabetes insipidus is a form of DI that occurs when the body has a lower than normal amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is also called vasopressin. ADH is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland. This is a small gland at the base of the brain. ADH controls the amount of water excreted in urine. Without ADH, the kidneys do not work properly to keep enough water in the body. The result is a rapid loss of water from the body in the form of dilute urine. This results in the need to drink large amounts of water due to extreme thirst and to make up for excessive water loss in the urine (as much as 4 gallons or 15 liters a day). The reduced level of ADH may be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. This damage may be due to surgery, infection, inflammation, tumor, or injury to the brain. Sometimes the cause is unknown. In rare cases, central diabetes insipidus is caused by a genetic problem. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Symptoms The most common symptoms associated with diabetes insipidus (DI) are extreme thirst and excessive urination. Some patients may drink as much as a full glass of fluids every 10 to 20 minutes. As DI may start in the toddler age group, the excessive thirst and asking for fluids may be misinterpreted as “bad behavior” or habit and parents may be mistakenly told to withhold fluids to break the habit. It is important that these children are allowed open access to fluids until treatment is started. If unable to find fluids easily, some children have been known to drink directly from faucets, baths, pet dishes, swimming pools, and other unusual sources around the home. The extreme urination may continue throughout the day and the night, sometimes as often as every 15-20 minutes, and often includes bed-wetting. The urine is usually pale, without color. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus are very similar to those of diabetes mellitus, except that the urine does not contain high sugar levels. Diabetes insipidus can interfere with appetite and eating. In children, it can interfere with growth and weight gain. Signs of dehydration often appear, since the body is unable to keep enough of the water it takes in. Symptoms of dehydration include: Dry skin Dry mucous membranes (sticky mouth) /reduced tears Sunken appearance to eyes Sunken fontanelles (soft spot in the skull) in infants Fatigue/sleepiness Weight loss Headache Irritability Low body temperature Muscle pains Rapid heart rate Low blood pressure/shock Adults with untreated DI may be able to drink enough water to make up for the extreme loss of urine. However, there is a serious risk of dehydration and imbalances in the blood, such as salt and potassium. Most patients with diabetes insipidus have an abnormal appearance Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person's kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus—which includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes—are unrelated, although both conditions cause frequent urination and constant thirst. Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose, or blood sugar, resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys normally filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. How is fluid regulated in the body? A person's body regulates fluid by balancing liquid intake and removing extra fluid. Thirst usually controls a person’s rate of liquid intake, while urination removes most fluid, although people also lose fluid through sweating, breathing, or diarrhea. The hormone vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, con Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Print Overview Diabetes insipidus (die-uh-BEE-teze in-SIP-uh-dus) is an uncommon disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body. This imbalance leads to intense thirst even after drinking fluids (polydipsia), and excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they're not related. Diabetes mellitus — which can occur as type 1 or type 2 — is the more common form of diabetes. There's no cure for diabetes insipidus, but treatments are available to relieve your thirst and normalize your urine output. Symptoms The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: Extreme thirst Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine Depending on the severity of the condition, urine output can be as much as 16 quarts (about 15 liters) a day if you're drinking a lot of fluids. Normally, a healthy adult will urinate an average of less than 3 quarts (about 3 liters) a day. Other signs may include needing to get up at night to urinate (nocturia) and bed-wetting. Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms: Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying Trouble sleeping Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Delayed growth Weight loss When to see a doctor See your doctor immediately if you notice the two most common signs of diabetes insipidus: excessive urination and extreme thirst. Causes Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body can't regulate how it handles fluids. Normally, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate. When your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when your body water is decreased, suc Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About Diabetes Insipidus

Everything You Should Know About Diabetes Insipidus

What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare condition that occurs when your kidneys are not able to conserve water. DI is not related to diabetes mellitus, which is often referred to simply as diabetes. That means you can have DI without having diabetes. In fact, the condition can occur in anyone. DI results in extreme thirst and frequent urination of dilute and odorless urine. There are several types of DI, and they can often be successfully treated. Keep reading to learn more about this condition. The main symptoms of DI are excessive thirst, which can cause an uncontrollable craving for water, and excessive urine volume. A healthy adult will typically urinate less than 3 quarts of urine a day. People with DI may eliminate up to 16 quarts of urine a day. You may need to get up during the night to urinate frequently, or you may experience bed-wetting. Possible symptoms in young children and infants include: fussiness and irritability unusually wet diapers or bed-wetting, or excessive urine output excessive thirst dehydration high fever dry skin delayed growth Adults can experience some of the above symptoms, plus confusion, dizziness, or sluggishness. DI can also lead to severe dehydration, which can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death if not treated. You should contact your doctor immediately if you or your child is experiencing these symptoms. To understand diabetes insipidus, it helps to understand how your body normally uses and regulates fluids. Fluids make up as much as 60 percent of your overall body mass. Maintaining the proper amount of fluid in your body is key to your overall health. Consuming water and food throughout the day helps provide fluid to your body. Urinating, breathing, and sweating help to eliminate fluid from your b Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

What are the types of diabetes insipidus? Central Diabetes Insipidus The most common form of serious diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus, results from damage to the pituitary gland, which disrupts the normal storage and release of ADH. Damage to the pituitary gland can be caused by different diseases as well as by head injuries, neurosurgery, or genetic disorders. To treat the ADH deficiency that results from any kind of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary, a synthetic hormone called desmopressin can be taken by an injection, a nasal spray, or a pill. While taking desmopressin, a person should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. The drug prevents water excretion, and water can build up now that the kidneys are making less urine and are less responsive to changes in body fluids. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results when the kidneys are unable to respond to ADH. The kidneys' ability to respond to ADH can be impaired by drugs-like lithium, for example-and by chronic disorders including polycystic kidney disease, sickle cell disease, kidney failure, partial blockage of the ureters, and inherited genetic disorders. Sometimes the cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is never discovered. Desmopressin will not work for this form of diabetes insipidus. Instead, a person with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may be given hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or indomethacin. HCTZ is sometimes combined with another drug called amiloride. The combination of HCTZ and amiloride is sold under the brand name Moduretic. Again, with this combination of drugs, one should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. Dipsogenic Diabetes insipidus Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect in or damage to the thirst Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

During the day, your kidneys filter all your blood many times. Normally, most of the water is reabsorbed, and only a small amount of concentrated urine is excreted. DI occurs when the kidneys cannot concentrate the urine normally, and a large amount of dilute urine is excreted. The amount of water excreted in the urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is also called vasopressin. ADH is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland. This is a small gland just below the base of the brain. DI caused by a lack of ADH is called central diabetes insipidus. When DI is caused by a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Nephrogenic means related to the kidney. Central DI can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of: Head injury Infection Loss of blood supply to the pituitary gland Surgery Nephrogenic DI involves a defect in the kidneys. As a result, the kidneys do not respond to ADH. Like central DI, nephrogenic DI is very rare. Nephrogenic DI may be caused by: Certain drugs, such as lithium Genetic problems Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which your ability to control the balance of water within your body is not working properly. Your kidneys are not able to retain water and this causes you to pass large amounts of urine. Because of this, you become more thirsty and want to drink more. There are two different types of diabetes insipidus: cranial and nephrogenic. Cranial diabetes insipidus may only be a short-term problem in some cases. Treatment includes drinking plenty of fluids so that you do not become lacking in fluid in the body (dehydrated). Treatment with medicines may also be needed for both types of diabetes insipidus. A note about thirst and water balance in your body Getting the balance right between how much water your body takes in and how much water your body passes out is very important. This is because a large proportion (about 70%) of your body is actually water. Also, water levels in your body help to control the levels of some important salts, particularly sodium and potassium. Your body normally controls (regulates) water balance in two main ways: By making you feel thirsty and so encouraging you to drink and take more water in. Through the action of a chemical (hormone) called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which controls the amount of water passed out in your urine. ADH is also known as vasopressin. It is made in a part of your brain called the hypothalamus. It is then transported to another part of your brain, the pituitary gland, from where it is released into your bloodstream. After its release, ADH has an effect on your kidneys. It causes your kidneys to pass out less water in your urine (your urine becomes more concentrated). So, if your body is lacking in fluid (dehydrated), your thirst sensation will be triggered, encouraging you to drink. As Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of urine. It is caused by the lack of sufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Treatment options include vasopressin replacement. On this page: Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of vast amounts of urine. It is caused by insufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Without enough vasopressin, too much water is lost from the body in urine, which prompts the affected person to drink large amounts of fluids in an attempt to maintain their fluid levels. In severe cases, a person may pass up to 30 litres of urine per day. Without treatment, diabetes insipidus can cause dehydration and, eventually, coma due to concentration of salts in the blood, particularly sodium. The name of this condition is a little misleading, since diabetes insipidus has nothing to do with diabetes mellitus (a condition characterised by high blood sugar levels), apart from the symptoms of thirst and passing large volumes of urine. The word diabetes means 'to go through' - describing the excessive urination. Insipidus means the urine is tasteless, whereas mellitus suggests it is sweet from its sugar content. This terminology dates back to a time when physicians literally dipped a finger in the patient's urine and tested its taste. Not a diagnostic method much in use today! Symptoms The symptoms of diabetes insipidus include: Extreme thirst that can't be quenched (polydipsia) Excessive amounts of urine (polyuria) Colourless urine instead of pale yellow Waking frequently through the night to urinate Dry skin Constipation Weak muscles Bedwetting. Too much water is lost in Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Overview Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition where you produce a large amount of urine and often feel thirsty. Diabetes insipidus isn't related to diabetes mellitus (usually just known as diabetes), but it does share some of the same signs and symptoms. The two main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: passing large amounts of urine, even at night (polyuria) In very severe cases of diabetes insipidus, up to 20 litres of urine can be passed in a day. Read more about the symptoms of diabetes insipidus. When to seek medical advice You should always see your GP if you're feeling thirsty all the time. Although it may not be diabetes insipidus, it should be investigated. Also see your GP if you're: passing more urine than normal – most healthy adults pass urine four to seven times in a 24 hour period passing small amounts of urine at frequent intervals – sometimes, this can occur along with the feeling that you need to pass urine immediately Children tend to urinate more frequently because they have smaller bladders. However, seek medical advice if your child urinates more than 10 times a day. Your GP will be able to carry out a number of tests to help determine what's causing the problem. Read more about diagnosing diabetes insipidus. What causes diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). AVP plays a key role in regulating the amount of fluid in the body. It's produced by specialist nerve cells in a part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. AVP passes from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland where it's stored until needed. The pituitary gland releases AVP when the amount of water in the body becomes too low. It helps retain water in the body by reducing the amount Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus has several causes. In some people, a part of the brain (called the hypothalamus) doesn’t make enough ADH. ADH helps your body balance water in the urine and blood. In other cases, the pituitary gland (responsible for releasing ADH into the body) doesn’t release enough of the hormone. Damage to either the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland can cause diabetes insipidus. This can occur after a head injury, during brain surgery, or when a tumor grows on the glands. Abnormalities in the kidneys can also cause diabetes insipidus. If the kidneys are abnormal, it can affect the way they process ADH. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by some medicines, such as lithium. About 30% of the time, doctors can’t find the cause. To check for diabetes insipidus, your doctor may order a urine test. This will show how much water is in your urine. It can rule out type 1 or type 2 diabetes (if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, there will be excess sugar in your urine). Your doctor might do a blood test to check for high sodium levels. This is another indication of diabetes insipidus. Your doctor may also order a water deprivation test. During this test, you aren’t allowed to drink any liquids. The staff will weigh you and check your urine and blood every hour for several hours. The results of this test may show that you have diabetes insipidus. If so, you will probably need more tests. Your doctor will likely order pictures of your brain using an MRI (magnetic resonance image) scan. The scans can show problems or tumors in the brain that could be causing your diabetes insipidus. If your symptoms are mild, you might not need treatment. However, your doctor will want to check on you more often. You should make sure you always have something to drink. This will ens Continue reading >>

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