Type 1 Diabetes, And Type 2 Diabetes With Insulin
Why and when do you need insulin? This is covered in more detail. Insulin is one of the most important of your body's hormones. Normally it is made in the pancreas, and is secreted into the blood stream. From the blood the insulin travels to muscles and other tissues. In the muscle cell it acts as a 'door opener' and lets glucose pass from the bloodstream into the muscle cell. The muscle cell stores the glucose for use later. Some glucose is used for energy, and excess glucose is converted to fat. Without insulin, your muscle has no energy stores to use, so you become very weak. In addition, because the sugar is not used up it reaches very high levels in the bloodstream. This can be very dangerous and needs treatment in hospital, and is called diabetic ketoacidosis. In the longer term high levels, over years, are poisonous to the body. Intensive control helps Jama 15 AJO 15 Insulin with food Detail In brief, the normal pancreas secretes half its insulin as a 'bolus' after eating. To replace this insulin you need a quick acting insulin. This dose of insulin has to match the amount of food you eat, and particularly the amount of carbohydrate.. Adjusting insulin for carbohydrate. Basal insulin requirement Detail The normal pancreas secretes the other half of the insulin gradually during the day and night, the so called 'basal' secretion. To replace this insulin, you need insulin a long acting insulin to work when you are not eating. You need much less insulin when you exercise, because exercise allows glucose to enter the muscle cell for immediate use (exercise acts 'like' insulin). Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetics have very little insulin remaining, and can get severe problems without insulin. See below. People who have type 2 diabetes and still need insulin sh Continue reading >>
- Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE)
- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes
- Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in the pancreas of subjects with type-2 diabetes and their lean and obese non-diabetic controls
Type 1 Diabetes
Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don't react to insulin This topic is about type 1 diabetes. Read more about type 2 diabetes Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear following birth. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. You should therefore visit your GP if you have symptoms, which include feeling thirsty, passing urine more often than usual and feeling tired all the time (see the list below for more diabetes symptoms). Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it's the most common type of childhood diabetes. This is why it's sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) doesn't produce any insulin – the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. This is why it's also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body's organs. In type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop l Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes – The Basics
Type 1 diabetes used to be called insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. Over the years this has become confusing as many people with type 2 diabetes eventually need insulin to manage their diabetes and as well, adults can also get type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes never turns into type 1 diabetes – they are very different diseases. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin because the cells that actually make the insulin have been destroyed by the body’s own immune system. The Islets of Langerhans is the area in which the endocrine,( hormone-producing) cells of the pancreas are grouped. Discovered in 1869 by the famous German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans, the islets of Langerhans constitute approximately 1 to 2% of the mass of the pancreas. There are about one million islets in a healthy adult human pancreas, which are distributed evenly throughout the organ; their combined mass is 1 to 1.5 grams. Insulin acts as a key to open the blood cells and release the glucose into the body where it is needed. This insulin must be replaced. People with Type 1 diabetes must have insulin every day to live. At this stage that means insulin injection via an insulin syringe or pen, or an insulin pump. Read more here at Diabetes Australia What age is it diagnosed? While Type 1 diabetes can and does occur at any age, it usually starts in childhood, the teen years and in young adults, with the peak age being 11 years old. It is most common under 40 years of age. People diagnosed as adults can find it tough going as it can be assumed they have type 2 diabetes due to their age. There is an adult onset autoimmune diabetes (LADA) which is basically type 1 diabetes in adults – it has a slow onset, not quick like the usual type 1 diabetes and is also ofte Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Faqs
Common questions about type 2 diabetes: How do you treat type 2 diabetes? When you have type 2 diabetes, you first need to eat a healthy diet, stay physically active and lose any extra weight. If these lifestyle changes cannot control your blood sugar, you also may need to take pills and other injected medication, including insulin. Eating a healthy diet, being physically active, and losing any extra weight is the first line of therapy. “Diet and exercise“ is the foundation of all diabetes management because it makes your body’s cells respond better to insulin (in other words, it decreases insulin resistance) and lowers blood sugar levels. If you cannot normalize or control the blood sugars with diet, weight loss and exercise, the next treatment phase is taking medicine either orally or by injection. Diabetes pills work in different ways – some lower insulin resistance, others slow the digestion of food or increase insulin levels in the blood stream. The non-insulin injected medications for type 2 diabetes have a complicated action but basically lower blood glucose after eating. Insulin therapy simply increases insulin in the circulation. Don’t be surprised if you have to use multiple medications to control the blood sugar. Multiple medications, also known as combination therapy is common in the treatment of diabetes! If one medication is not enough, you medical provider may give you two or three or more different types of pills. Insulin or other injected medications also may be prescribed. Or, depending on your medical condition, you may be treated only with insulin or injected medication therapy. Many people with type 2 diabetes have elevated blood fats (high triglycerides and cholesterol) and blood pressure, so you may be given medications for these problem Continue reading >>
5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2
When people hear that you have diabetes, they start to make assumptions that aren't always accurate. A lot of the confusion stems from the fact that there are two main types, yet many people don't understand how they're different. (Want to pick up some healthier habits? Sign up to get daily healthy living tips delivered straight to your inbox!) As someone with type 1 diabetes—I was diagnosed with it nearly 40 years ago—I'm all too familiar with the disease. I lived with it as a child, teen, and adult, and when I decided to have kids I had to figure out how to manage the condition while being pregnant. (I even wrote a book about it, Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby.) Having type 1 diabetes means I'm in the minority: Of the approximately 29 million Americans who have diabetes, only 1.25 million have type 1. Most have type 2, which is a totally different form. "Comparing type 1 to type 2 is like comparing apples to tractors," says Gary Scheiner, a Pennsylvania-based certified diabetes educator and author of Think Like a Pancreas. "The only thing they really have in common is that both involve an inability to control blood sugar levels." Here are 5 important distinctions. 1. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease; type 2 isn't. Diabetes happens when your body has trouble with insulin, a hormone that helps convert sugar from the food you eat into energy. When there isn’t enough insulin in your body, sugar builds up in the bloodstream and can make you sick. People with type 1 and type 2 both face this problem, but how they arrived there is quite different. If you have type 1, you don't make any insulin at all. That's because type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-making cells in your Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes
Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>
Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn Into Type 1 Diabetes?
Although certain studies indicate that type 2 diabetes can turn into type 1 diabetes with time, there are, however, other types of research which suggest that the same is not possible. In this article, we shall try to understand both aspects of the research and also throw some light on the Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults or the LADA which is also called type 1.5 diabetes. So, come and join in for the article “Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn into Type 1 Diabetes?” Is it Possible for Type 2 Diabetes to Get Converted into Type 1 Diabetes? Well, some of the recent research conducted by the researchers in different parts of the world has left a few experts to wonder whether type 2 diabetes patients can slowly progress into type 1 diabetes patients. In order to understand the same, we should first consider the following: Type 1 diabetes is known to be an autoimmune disorder in which the beta cells of the insulin-producing pancreas suffer damage. Hence, your body is unable to produce the much-needed hormone, insulin. In type 2 diabetes, however, the pancreatic beta cells continue to work and insulin is produced by the organ. However, due to various factors, the body fails to effectively utilize this insulin so produced. Besides, type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes because it is found in children, while type 2 is majorly contracted by the adults When you consider the above two factors, you will know that type 2 diabetes cannot turn into type 1 condition. However, if you research on the topic further, you will realize that experts have slowly started to term even type 2 diabetes as an autoimmune condition. Besides, according to a recent study conducted by the diabetes experts in Japan, the conversion of type 2 into type 1 is indeed a possibility. As per this stu Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes In Adults
For years, distinguishing between the various types of diabetes was pretty straightforward: “Juvenile diabetes,” an autoimmune disease, was diagnosed primarily in children and teenagers when their own body’s immune system destroyed the insulin-producing (beta) cells in their pancreas. “Adult-onset diabetes” occurred in adults and was generally associated with insulin resistance and often with overweight. And “gestational diabetes” occurred in pregnant women and disappeared once the pregnancy was over. In the past 25 years, however, determining what type of diabetes a person has has become more of a challenge. In large part, that’s because more and more children and teenagers are now being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes — the type that occurred predominantly in adults in generations past. Most of these children and teens are overweight. At the same time, it’s becoming clearer that Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age and sometimes occurs in people who are overweight. In addition, another type of diabetes, called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA, that shares some characteristics with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, has been recognized. Muddying the water further is the realization that diabetic ketoacidosis, an acute, life-threatening complication of diabetes that is caused by a lack of insulin, can occur in people with Type 2 diabetes — not just in people with Type 1, as was previously thought. And while gestational diabetes is still diagnosed only in pregnant women, it is sometimes discovered that what is thought to be gestational diabetes is really Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes that happens to start during pregnancy. The incidence of diabetes has increased so greatly around the world in the past 25 years that health organizations and med Continue reading >>
Is It Possible For Type 2 Diabetes To Turn Into Type 1?
Type 2 diabetes can’t turn into type 1 diabetes, since the two conditions have different causes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when the insulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas are completely destroyed, so the body can’t produce any insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, the islet cells are still working. However, the body is resistant to insulin. In other words, the body no longer uses insulin efficiently. Type 1 diabetes is far less common than type 2. It used to be called juvenile diabetes because the condition is typically diagnosed in early childhood. Type 2 diabetes is more commonly diagnosed in adults, though we’re now seeing more and more children being diagnosed with this disease. It’s more commonly seen in those who are overweight or obese. It’s possible for someone with type 2 diabetes to be misdiagnosed. They may have many of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, but actually have another condition that may be more closely related to type 1 diabetes. This condition is called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Researchers estimate that between 4 and 14 percent of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes might actually have LADA. Many physicians are still unfamiliar with the condition and will assume a person has type 2 diabetes because of their age and symptoms. In general, a misdiagnosis is possible because: both LADA and type 2 diabetes typically develop in adults the initial symptoms of LADA — such as excessive thirst, blurred vision, and high blood sugar — mimic those of type 2 diabetes doctors don’t typically run tests for LADA when diagnosing diabetes initially, the pancreas in people with LADA still produces some insulin diet, exercise, and oral drugs usually used to treat type 2 diabetes work well in people with LADA Continue reading >>
Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?
If your child or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering how the disease differs from type 2 diabetes — the form people tend to know more about. What causes type 1 versus type 2 diabetes? Are the symptoms the same? And how is each treated? Here to clear up the confusion with an overview of key differences — and similarities — between these two types of diabetes are experts Julie Settles, M.S.N., A.C.N.P.-B.C., C.E.N., a clinical research scientist at Lilly Diabetes, and Rosemary Briars, N.D., P.N.P.-B.C., C.D.E., C.C.D.C., clinical director and program co-director of the Chicago Children’s Diabetes Center at La Rabida Children’s Hospital. Causes Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, as it’s formally known in medical terms, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person develops high blood glucose (blood sugar). The underlying health factors causing the high blood sugar will determine whether someone is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which “the body’s immune system starts to make antibodies that are targeted directly at the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islet cells),” explains Briars. Over time, the immune system “gradually destroys the islet cells, so insulin is no longer made and the person has to take insulin every day, from then on,” she says. As for why this happens, Settles notes, “The immune system normally fights off viruses and bacteria that we do not want in our body, but when it causes diabetes, it is because something has gone wrong and now the body attacks its own cells.” Triggering this autoimmune response is a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that researchers are still trying to fully understand. O Continue reading >>
Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn Into Type 1 ? – Diagnosis Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Some people asking about can type 2 diabetes turn into type 1? This is the form of fear of type 2 diabetes sufferer because they find any similar symptoms and conditions with type 1 diabetes. As medical term, type 2 diabetes is actually cannot turn into type 1 diabetes, similar treatment of insulin injection, similar complication or even similar symptoms do not mean that you will get type 2 diabetes. Why does it cannot turn? It is because they have different classification. The basic and the main problem of both type is high blood sugar level, but the manifestation causes can be different. For the detail, here we go check the difference of both types. The Difference of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes There are lots of people think that can type 1 diabetes turn into type 2 diabetes, this tough is reasonable since the symptoms of both types are similar. However, if you have better understanding about both types will give you advantages in the further healing process. Here we go the differences of both types. First, type 1 and type 2 diabetes are attacking different age. Based on specific data, type 1 diabetes are more suffered by children, diabetes type 2 is found in adult. In this case that has to know that the main cause of diabetes is insulin production in the body by pancreas cell that cause high blood sugar level. Type 1 diabetes is cause of disruption of insulin production in the body because beta pancreas cell is damaged, so the body cannot produce insulin properly. The diabetes sufferer must be doing insulin injection to control the blood glucose in the body. Type 2 diabetes is more likely to be caused by impaired insulin function. The body still produces the insulin, but it cannot work properly in changing the blood glucose to be energy. This is caused of unhealthy li Continue reading >>
Types Of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>
Does Type 2 Turn Into Type 1?
Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. Hello! My father was dx'd with type 2 diabetes in his early 40s. started out on met but with time started insulin. He's now 58 and not overweight...6'4 tall and about 199lbs but still needs insulin and meds to control his D. He has a stellar diet and walks daily (living in Boston helps)! He can't lose any more weight and he already is doing everything else right so is he now a type 1 diabetic since he needs insulin and probably can't come off it? His sister has been a type 2 for 20 more years than him takes met and insulin and is overweight. Her doc (at joslin in boston) says if she lost weight she can come off insulin. So, to me she is a type 2 still even thought she's had it for so long...40 years now. She has no complications but my father has neuropathy in his feet. He's also suffered from a few small strokes. He is a smoker though.... So my question is...can type 2 turn into type 1? Since diabetes is different in everyone is this an eventuality for some of us? Also, since my father and Aunt are siblings why is the disease so different in them? I was/is Type-2 for over a dozen years - and now my pancreas just isn't producing enough insulin. Type 2 simply means that you are insulin resistant, I am now an "Insulin depleted Type-2" or "Insulin dependant Type-2".. So I take insulin AND metformin. There are genetic components that can affect insulin production - but then so can medications.. According to my endo - I am slowly loosing insulin BETA cells (I believe they are called) - but the loss was accelerated by use of medications that is supposed to stimulate the pancreas to produce more ins Continue reading >>
Can Type 2 Diabetes Change To Type 1 Diabetes?
Although diabetes is common, many people who have been diagnosed do not completely understand how it develops or whether it is hereditary. Additionally, the fact that diabetes is broken down into two types creates more confusion for people. However, it is important to realize that type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes have many major differences, and one type cannot lead to the other. How Does Type 1 Diabetes Develop? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. A person must inherit a predisposition to the disease, and something in his or her environment will trigger it, such as a virus. In most cases, people inherit risk factors from both parents. Only 5 percent of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. Type 1 diabetes develops when antibodies destroy the cells in the pancreas that produce and secrete insulin. Usually the body produces these antibodies to defend itself from foreign bodies, but sometimes these same antibodies turn on a person's own body. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the antibodies target the pancreatic cells, resulting in a lack of insulin production in the pancreas. This lack of insulin production is one of the main differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These antibodies can usually be identified through blood tests . Individuals who have this type of diabetes require insulin therapy. How Does Type 2 Diabetes Develop? Type 2 diabetes is the more common type of diabetes. Research shows that 90 percent of diabetics have type 2 diabetes. Adults who develop diabetes almost always develop this type. Type 2 diabetes is usually caused by the combination of genetic abnormalities, obesity, poor eating habits and other lifestyle factors. Before people develop type 2 d Continue reading >>
Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes
In the normal digestive process, your body breaks down much of the food you eat into glucose, a simple sugar that's stored in your body and used for energy. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose in your blood by helping liver, muscle, and fat cells absorb the sugar. Diabetes is a disease that develops when your pancreas doesn't make enough insulin, or your body doesn't use insulin properly — resulting in high blood glucose levels, which can cause a range of health issues. There are several types of diabetes: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body produces little to no insulin. It’s considered an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system erroneously attacks and destroys the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. Type 1 — previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile-onset diabetes (because it often develops at a young age) — accounts for about 5 percent of all diabetes diagnoses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Type 2 diabetes develops when liver, muscle, and fat cells don't respond properly to insulin and become "insulin resistant." Glucose doesn't enter the cells as efficiently as before, and instead builds up in the bloodstream. In type 2, the pancreas responds to these increased blood glucose levels by producing more insulin. Eventually, however, it can no longer make enough insulin to handle spikes in glucose levels — such as what happens after meals. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, according to the CDC. Type 1 Diabetes Prevalence In 2012, an estimated 29.1 million people in the United States — 9.3 percent of the population — had diabetes, according to Continue reading >>