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Can Type 2 Diabetes Cause Hypertension?

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

People with diabetes are more likely to also have high blood pressure or hypertension. High blood pressure can increase the risk of diabetes complications such as diabetic eye and kidney problems. Managing blood pressure will be a part of a person's overall diabetes care plan. Diabetes and high blood pressure complications Having diabetes increases your risk of developing high blood pressure and other cardiovascular problems, because diabetes adversely affects the arteries, predisposing them to atherosclerosis - narrowing of the arteries. Atherosclerosis can cause high blood pressure, which if not treated, can lead to further blood vessel damage, and stroke, heart failure, heart attack, and kidney failure. Compared with people with normal blood pressure readings, men and women with hypertension have an increased risk of: Strokes Peripheral vascular disease (narrowing of the arteries in the legs and feet) Heart failure Even high yet normal blood pressure or pre-hypertension (defined as 120-139/ 80-89 millimetres of mercury or mmHg) has an impact on your health. Studies show that people with normal yet high range blood pressure readings, over a 10-year period of follow up time, had a two to three-fold increased risk of heart disease. What should blood pressure be if you have diabetes? Blood pressure readings vary, but in general if someone has diabetes their blood pressure should be less than 130/80 mmHg. The first number is the "systolic pressure" or the pressure in the arteries when your heart beats and fills the arteries with blood. The second number is the "diastolic pressure" or the pressure in the arteries when your heart rests between beats, filling itself with blood for the next contraction. Having normal blood pressure is as important in managing diabetes as havi Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension: An Update

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension: An Update

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: An update We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: An update Guido Lastra, Sofia Syed, [...], and James R. Sowers Hypertension (HTN) is present in more than 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and contributes significantly to both micro and macrovascular disease in DM ( 1 - 4 ) ( Fig 1 ). Indeed, the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is four-fold higher in patients with both DM and HTN as compared to the normotensive non-diabetic controls ( 4 , 5 ). To this point, a meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies involving 698,782 individuals found that DM is responsible for approximately a two-fold increased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke and deaths from cardiovascular cause, including heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, sudden death, hypertensive disease, and aortic aneurysms ( 6 ). These data suggest that about 10% of vascular deaths in industrialized countries can be attributed to DM, and this burden will further increase as the incidence of diabetes continues to rise ( 6 ). In the Framingham Heart Study, DM was found to be associated with a 2-4 fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, and death ( 7 ). Furthermore, a more recent analysis of the Framingham data showed that the population with HTN at the time of DM diagnosis had higher rates of mortal Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Hypertension In Adults With Diabetes

Treatment Of Hypertension In Adults With Diabetes

Hypertension (defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) is an extremely common comorbid condition in diabetes, affecting ∼20–60% of patients with diabetes, depending on obesity, ethnicity, and age. In type 2 diabetes, hypertension is often present as part of the metabolic syndrome of insulin resistance also including central obesity and dyslipidemia. In type 1 diabetes, hypertension may reflect the onset of diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension substantially increases the risk of both macrovascular and microvascular complications, including stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and possibly neuropathy. In recent years, adequate data from well-designed randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of aggressive treatment of hypertension in reducing both types of diabetes complications. These recommendations are intended to apply to nonpregnant adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Target audience These recommendations are intended for the use of health care professionals who care for patients with diabetes and hypertension, including specialist and primary care physicians, nurses and nurse practitioners, physicians’ assistants, educators, dietitians, and others. These recommendations are based on the American Diabetes Association Technical Review “Treatment of Diabetes in Adult Patients with Hypertension” (1). A technical review is a systematic review of the medical literature that has been peer-reviewed by the American Diabetes Association’s Professional Practice Committee. Evidence review: hypertension as a risk factor for complications of diabetes Diabetes increases the risk of coronary events twofold in men and fourfold in women. Part of this increase is due to the frequency of associa Continue reading >>

High And Low Blood Pressure Symptoms

High And Low Blood Pressure Symptoms

Tweet Blood pressure control is important whether you have diabetes or not. However, having high blood pressure is a key risk factor in developing heart disease, stroke and other complications of diabetes. Diabetes and high blood pressure are often associated, and many people with diabetes take medication to lower their blood pressure. What is blood pressure? Blood pressure means the pressure of blood in your arteries as it is being pumped by the heart. Targets for people with type 1 diabetes The targets for people with type 1 diabetes is to have a resting blood pressure level below 135/85 mmHg. If you have signs of kidney disease or metabolic syndrome your blood pressure level should be below 130/80 mmHg. Targets for people with type 2 diabetes The target blood pressure targets for type 2 diabetes: Below 140/80 mmHg Or below 130/80 mmHg if you have kidney disease, retinopathy or have cerebrovascular disease (including stroke) What are the symptoms of high blood pressure? Most diabetics with high blood pressure have no symptoms. However, very high blood pressure or rapidly rising blood pressure can cause: Headaches Vision problems Nose bleeds Trouble breathing Fits Black-outs What are the symptoms of low blood pressure? Similar to high blood pressure, the symptoms of low pressure may not always be apparent. If you do get symptoms, they may be identified as any of the following: Feeling dizzy, light headed or fainting Blurred vision A rapid or irregular heartbeat Feeling nauseous Confusion What do blood pressure numbers mean? Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury, as two figures, for example 124/80 mmHg. The first number (124 in this case) is known as systolic pressure - pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts. The second number (80 here) is dias Continue reading >>

Managing Hypertension In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Managing Hypertension In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Managing Hypertension in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Am J Health Syst Pharm.2006;63(12):1140-1149. Purpose: Current guideline recommendations for effective strategies to optimize the treatment of patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are reviewed. Summary: Current estimates indicate that 20 million people in the United States have diabetes, 90-95% of whom have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and end-stage renal disease. Hypertension is an extremely common comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The coexistence of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes is particularly destructive because of the strong linkage of the two conditions with CVD, stroke, progression of renal disease, and diabetic nephropathy. Current guidelines, including those issued by the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, the National Kidney Foundation, and the American Diabetes Association, provide evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, studies indicate that guidelines are not widely followed. Therefore, the beneficial effects of appropriate hypertension treatment observed in clinical trials are often not recognized in clinical practice. Pharmacists are ideally positioned to help improve guideline implementation and patient outcome. Conclusion: Pharmacists must become more vigilant about following current guidelines for the treatment of patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strategies such as patient education and medication assessment can help to optimiz Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Hypertension

Type 2 Diabetes And Hypertension

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition that’s often present in people with type 2 diabetes. It’s unknown why there’s such a significant correlation between the two diseases. It’s believed that obesity, a diet high in fat and sodium, and inactivity contribute to both conditions. Hypertension is known as a “silent killer” because it has no obvious symptoms and many people are unaware that they have it. A 2013 survey by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) found that fewer than half of people at risk for heart disease or type 2 diabetes reported discussing biomarkers, including blood pressure, with their care providers. If you have hypertension, it means that your blood is pumping through your heart and blood vessels with too much force. Over time, consistently high blood pressure tires the heart muscle and can enlarge it. In 2008, 67 percent of adults aged 20 and over with self-reported diabetes had blood pressure rates of greater than 140/90. In the general population and in people with diabetes, a blood pressure reading of less than or equal to 140/90 is considered normal. What does this mean? The first number (140) is called the systolic pressure. It indicates the highest pressure exerted as blood pushes through your heart. The second number (90) is called the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure maintained by the arteries when the vessels are relaxed between heartbeats. Healthy people should get their blood pressure checked several times a year. People with diabetes need to be even more vigilant. If you have diabetes, you should have your pressure checked at least four times each year. If you have diabetes and high blood pressure, the ADA recommends that you self-monitor at home, record the readings, and share them with your doctor. Ac Continue reading >>

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

If you have diabetes you should aim to keep your blood pressure well controlled. Having high blood pressure (hypertension) is one of several risk factors that can increase your chance of developing heart disease, a stroke and some other complications. Treatment includes a change in lifestyle risk factors where these can be improved. Many people with diabetes need to take medication to lower their blood pressure. How common is high blood pressure in people with diabetes? In the UK, about half of all people aged over 65, and about 1 in 4 of all middle-aged adults, have high blood pressure (hypertension). It is less common in younger adults. High blood pressure is more common in people with diabetes. Around 3 in 10 people with type 1 diabetes and around 8 in 10 people with type 2 diabetes develop high blood pressure at some stage. People with diabetes are more at risk of developing high blood pressure if they: Are of African-Caribbean origin. Are from the Indian sub-continent. Have a family history of high blood pressure. Have certain lifestyle factors - for example, those who: Are overweight. Eat a lot of salt. Do not eat much fruit and vegetables. Do not take much exercise. Drink a lot of alcohol. What is high blood pressure? This is not as simple to answer as it may seem. In general, the higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk to health. Depending on various factors, the level at which blood pressure is said to be high (hypertension) can vary from person to person. The cut-off point for blood pressure that is said to be high is 140/80 mm Hg or above for people with diabetes and 130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes and complications (for example, kidney disease). These are lower than the cut-off point for people who do not have diabetes. Note: high blood pressure Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure: Does It Lead To Diabetes?

High Blood Pressure: Does It Lead To Diabetes?

"Study gives strongest link yet between blood pressure and diabetes," says The Guardian. At first glance these might be considered two unconnected conditions, but research over the years has led to diabetes being classified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Researchers looked at data on more than 4 million people in the UK who were free of any vascular disease or diabetes. They then analysed these people's medical records for around seven years and recorded new cases of diabetes and changes in blood pressure. People with high blood pressure were found to have around a 50% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The researchers then backed up their findings by looking at previous research and found a risk of more than 70%. While these types of studies can't prove increased blood pressure causes diabetes, they lend weight to the advice to take steps to lower your blood pressure if it's high to reduce your risk of diabetes. Read our advice on how to look after your heart and circulation. Where did the story come from? The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Oxford and was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research. It was published in the peer-reviewed Journal of the American College of Cardiology. This story has been reported widely in the media. Both The Guardian and The Independent have responsibly provided quotes from one of the researchers, who explained the findings tell us a link exists, but we don't know whether high blood pressure is a cause of diabetes or whether it's a risk factor. What kind of research was this? This was a large cohort study and systematic review with meta-analysis to determine whether there is an association between blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. While the cohort study cannot prove cau Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure (hypertension)

High Blood Pressure (hypertension)

Tweet High blood pressure, or hypertension, is common in people with diabetes. Reports from 2012 show that high blood pressure affects 50% of people with diabetes. Blood pressure is important as it is linked with a higher risk of diabetes complications. The symptoms of blood pressure may not show unless blood pressure becomes very high and so it is important that your blood pressure level is checked each year. Target blood pressure levels The first number in a blood pressure reading is known as the systolic reading, which is the pressure of your blood when your heart beats. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dietary sugar. The good news is for very many people with type 2 diabetes this is all they have to do to stay well. If you can keep your blood sugar lower by avoiding dietary sugar, likely you will never need long-term medication. Type 2 diabetes was formerly known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes due to its occurrence mainly in people over 40. However, type 2 diabetes is now becoming more common in young adults, teens and children and accounts for roughly 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. How serious is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hypertension: What Is The Relationship?

Diabetes And Hypertension: What Is The Relationship?

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, often affects people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association reports that from 2000 to 2012, 71 percent of adults with diabetes had a blood pressure of greater or equal to 140/90 or were taking medications to help normalize blood pressure. What are hypertension and diabetes Many people with diabetes also have hypertension, or high blood pressure. Having these conditions together can make them both worse. What is hypertension? Known the "silent killer," hypertension usually has no signs or symptoms and many people are not aware they have it. High blood pressure increases a person's risk of stroke and heart attack. It often occurs with diabetes. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and can be assessed using a blood pressure monitor. Two numbers will be produced. The first refers to the systolic blood pressure, or the highest level of the blood pressure during a heartbeat. The second, the diastolic blood pressure, points to the lowest level. Any blood pressure reading of less than or equal to 119/79 is considered normal. A reading between 120 and 139 for systolic pressure and between 80 and 89 for diastolic pressure is considered prehypertension. This is a sign of possible hypertension if a person does not take preventive steps. A doctor will diagnose a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher as high blood pressure. People can control hypertension with healthy lifestyle habits. These can include exercise and a low-fat, low-sodium diet. If necessary, a person with hypertension may reduce their blood pressure using medication. What is diabetes? Diabetes occurs when blood sugar increases because the body cannot use the glucose properly. This happens when there a problem with insulin Continue reading >>

Hypertension And Diabetes

Hypertension And Diabetes

This activity is intended for internists, family physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, medical students, and cardiologists. The goal of this activity is to understand the association between hypertension and race and the implications for treatment. Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to: Describe the most recent data from the national surveys (NHANES) on hypertension prevalence, treatment and control, recognizing the impact of racial differences. Apply data from new clinical trials in hypertension to clinical practice. Construct management plans that adhere to the new clinical guidelines (JNC7, ISHIB, etc) on hypertension management. Recognize the importance of hypertension, especially systolic, as a cardiovascular risk factor. Treat hypertension patients with comorbid diabetes to goal using mono- and combination therapy. As an organization accredited by the ACCME, Medscape requires everyone who is in a position to control the content of an education activity to disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The ACCME defines "relevant financial relationships" as "financial relationships in any amount, occurring within the past 12 months, that create a conflict of interest." Medscape encourages Authors to identify investigational products or off-label uses of products regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, at first mention and where appropriate in the content. Disclosure: Melissa E. Clarke, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Medscape designates this educational activity for a maximum of 0.75 Category 1 credit Continue reading >>

Hypertension In People With Type 2 Diabetes

Hypertension In People With Type 2 Diabetes

Hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes Lhypertension chez les diabtiques de type 2 Norm R.C. Campbell, MD FRCPC, Richard E. Gilbert, MD PhD, [...], and Stewart B. Harris, MD To summarize the evidence for the need to improve pharmacologic management of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes and to provide expert advice on how blood pressure (BP) treatment can be improved in primary care. Studies were obtained by performing a systematic review of the literature on hypertension and diabetes, from which management recommendations were developed, reviewed, and voted on by a group of experts selected by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program and the Canadian Diabetes Association; authors expert opinions on optimal pharmacologic management were also considered during this process. The pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with diabetes is complex, involving a range of biological and environmental factors and genetic predisposition; as a result, hypertension in people with diabetes incurs higher associated risks and adverse events. Mortality and morbidity are heightened in diabetes patients who do not achieve BP control (ie, a target value of less than 130/80 mm Hg). Large randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have shown that reducing BP pharmacologically is single-handedly the most effec Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hypertension: Is There A Common Metabolic Pathway?

Diabetes And Hypertension: Is There A Common Metabolic Pathway?

Go to: Etiology Genetics Genome scans involving thousands of subjects and controls have revealed a large number of genes with small effects, as opposed to a small number of genes with large effects anticipated originally [5, 6]. Genetic variants in the gene encoding angiotensinogen, adrenomedullin, apolipoprotein, and α-adducin have been reported to be associated with common conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, dysglycemia, or metabolic syndrome [7–10]. In Hong Kong studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), SNPs that predict the development of diabetes were found also to predict the development of hypertension [11–14]. In genome scans in Hong Kong Chinese individuals, the region associated with diabetes was also associated with the metabolic syndrome, which includes hypertension as a component [15, 16]. A recent study at Columbia University on somatic gene conversion and deletion suggested that multitudes of common SNPs are involved [17•]. Besides the genetic aspect, another very important aspect for the onset of diabetes and hypertension is environmental. Environmental factors include the period in utero and lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. Gestational diabetes, fetal malnutrition, and high birth weight are three factors that may predispose the fetus to cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood [18, 19•, 20]. High intake of sodium, alcohol, and unsaturated fat, smoking, lack of physical activity, and mental stress are examples of an unhealthy lifestyle. It is now realized that insulin resistance, which predicts type 2 diabetes, also has a role in the development of hypertension [21]. Indeed, hypertension and diabetes substantially share common pathways such as obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and ment Continue reading >>

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure (hypertension) can lead to many complications of diabetes, including diabetic eye disease and kidney disease, or make them worse. Most people with diabetes will eventually have high blood pressure, along with other heart and circulation problems. Diabetes damages arteries and makes them targets for hardening, called atherosclerosis. That can cause high blood pressure, which if not treated, can lead to trouble including blood vessel damage, heart attack, and kidney failure. Compared to those with normal blood pressure readings, people with hypertension more often have: Peripheral vascular disease, hardening of the arteries in the legs and feet Even blood pressure that's at the higher end of normal (120/80 to 129/80), called elevated, impacts your health. Studies show that you have a two to three times greater chance of getting heart disease over 10 years. Readings vary, but most people with diabetes should have a blood pressure of no more than 130/80. The first, or top, number is the "systolic pressure," or the pressure in your arteries when your heart squeezes and fills the vessels with blood. The second, or bottom, number is the "diastolic pressure," or the pressure in your arteries when your heart rests between beats, filling itself with blood for the next contraction. When it comes to preventing diabetes complications, normal blood pressure is as important as good control of your blood sugar levels. Usually, high blood pressure has no symptoms. That's why you need to check your blood pressure regularly. Your doctor will probably measure it at every visit, and you may need to check it at home, too. Many of the things you do for your diabetes will also help with high blood pressure: Control your blood sugar. Don't drink a lot of alcohol. Limit how m Continue reading >>

Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus

Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus

Login or register to view PDF. Order reprints There has been an increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the past 40 years, both in the US and worldwide. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes in 2000 was approximately 2.8% and is estimated to grow to 4.4% by 2030. This translates to a projected rise of diabetes from 171 million in 2000 to well over 350 million in 2030. 1 The epidemic of diabetes will continue to rise as there is growing prevalence of obesity in children, which predisposes to diabetes.2 There is considerable evidence for an increased prevalence of hypertension in diabetic persons.3 In a large prospective cohort study that included 12,550 adults, the development of type 2 diabetes was almost 2.5 times as likely in persons with hypertension than in their normotensive counterparts.3,4 Similarly, evidence points to increased prevalence of hypertension in diabetic persons.3,5 Moreover, each pathophysiological disease entity serves to exacerbate the other.3,6 Both hypertension and diabetes predisposes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal disease.7,8 Subjects with diabetes are at about 60% increased risk of early mortality.8,9 The age-adjusted relative risk of death due to cardiovascular events in persons with type 2 diabetes is three-fold higher than in the general population. The presence of hypertension in diabetic patients substantially increases the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, nephropathy and retinopathy.5,10,11 Indeed, when hypertension coexists with diabetes, the risk of CVD is increased by 75%, which further contributes to the overall morbidity and mortality of an already high-risk population.5,12 Generally, hypertension in type 2 diabetic persons clusters with other CVD risk factors such as microalbuminur Continue reading >>

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