Anemia Causes, Types, Symptoms & Treatment
Anemia describes the condition in which the number of red blood cells in the blood is low. For this reason, doctors sometimes describe someone with anemia as having a low blood count. A person who has anemia is called anemic . Blood is comprised of two parts: a liquid called the plasma and a cellular part. The cellular part contains several different cell types. One of the most important and the most numerous cell types are red blood cells. The other cell types are the white blood cells and platelets. Only red blood cells are discussed in this article. The purpose of the red blood cell is to deliver oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. Red blood cells are produced through a series of complex and specific steps. They are made in the bone marrow (inner part of the femur and pelvic bones that make most of the cells in the blood), and when all the proper steps in their maturation are complete, they are released into the blood stream. The hemoglobin molecule is the functional unit of the red blood cells and is a complex protein structure that is inside the red blood cells. Contrary to most cells in the human body , red blood cells do not have a nucleus (metabolic center of a cell). Even though the red blood cells (or RBCs) are made within the bone marrow, many other factors are involved in their production. For example, iron is a very important component of the hemoglobin molecule; erythropoietin, a molecule secreted by the kidneys, promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. The following are some key points summarizing anemia and red blood cells: Having the correct number of red blood cells and prevention of anemia requires cooperation among the kidneys, the bone marrow, and nutrients within the body. If the kidneys or bone marrow are not fu Continue reading >>
Diabetes Life Lines
Anemia is a condition where there is not enough red blood cells. With too few red blood cells not enough oxygen gets carried to organs. Being tired is a symptom of anemia, but not everyone who is tired has anemia. Diabetes does not cause anemia. Kidney disease can be caused by diabetes. In kidney disease there is increased risk for anemia. The kidneys secrete a hormone to stimulate red blood cell production in the bone marrow. In kidney disease enough of this hormone might not reach the bone marrow. Metformin is a common drug for those with type 2 diabetes. Metformin may lead to anemia by causing a malabsorption of vitamin B12. Red blood cells need vitamin B12 to develop correctly. You normally have vitamin B12 stored in your liver. So even if you have been taking metformin for years, and it has caused a malabsorption of the vitamin, you may not have a vitamin B12 deficiency or anemia. A simple blood test can check for anemia. Your doctor will look at your hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the size of your red blood cells. In vitamin B12 deficiency the red blood cells grow larger than normal, but are not functioning well. If you have been taking metformin for many years, ask your doctor your hemoglobin and hematocrit are normal, especially if you have been unusually tired. Or just ask your doctor if your blood is anemic. There are many causes for anemia besides kidney disease or vitamin B12 malabsorption. They can all be diagnosed by the blood tests your doctor may order. Treating anemia depends on the cause of the low red blood cells. The treatment will be different for people with kidney disease than for those who may have a vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 is found in all meats. That includes pork, beef, and seafood. There is also vitamin B12 in milk, cheese, poultr Continue reading >>
Anemia And Diabetes: What's The Connection And How Do I Manage It?
Of course, these are also symptoms of a variety of other conditions, ranging from heart attack to hangover! So how can you tell if your symptoms are being caused by anemia? Firstly, let me explain what anemia is, and how diabetes, or more strictly speaking kidney disease, can cause it. When diabetes affects your kidneys (known as diabetic nephropathy), they may not be able to produce enough erythropoietin, a hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. With anemia there are fewer red blood cells than normal. Red blood cells carry oxygen to your bodys cells so if there are fewer healthy red blood cells, there is less oxygen being transported. The lack of oxygen may be causing the symptoms listed above. Normally when you develop anemia your body tries to correct the situation by producing more erythropoietin, but with diabetic nephropathy as part of the equation this might not be possible, as your kidneys might not be able to do this efficiently. Anemia can also be caused by certain medications used to treat diabetes and related conditions. Thiazolidinediones as well as metformin (Glucophage) can increase the risk of developing anemia. In particular, metformin may interfere with vitamin B12 absorption, and some doctors advise diabetics taking this medication to take a multivitamin as well. So why do you need to worry about developing anemia? Well studies show that diabetics with anemia are more likely to develop eye disease and suffer a heart attack or stroke. It sounds grim, but luckily its very simple to find out if you have anemia and to treat it. Its time to visit the vampire your doctor will be able to arrange blood tests to check if you are anemic, and how low your red blood cell count is. Your healthcare provider should arrange a complete blood count l Continue reading >>
Anemia & Glucose
Anemia refers to a range of problems with your red blood cells. You may have heard it called "tired" blood because one of the major symptoms of anemia is fatigue. Your glucose, or blood sugar, can indirectly contribute to anemia in a few ways. One of the most common pathways is through your kidneys. Excessive glucose can clamp down on the production of a kidney hormone that triggers the production of red blood cells. If you're worried that you are anemic, talk with your health care provider about ways to treat and prevent the recurrence of the problem. Video of the Day Although there are about 400 different types of anemia, the condition generally means you have a lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells, or you have a lower than normal amount of hemoglobin inside your red blood cells. Hemoglobin is a protein that helps deliver oxygen to the tissues within your body. About two-thirds of all the iron in your body is found in hemoglobin, making iron deficiency one of the major causes of anemia, according to the Cleveland Clinic. About one-third of the global population suffers from iron-deficiency anemia. Glucose is more commonly known as blood sugar. It is a major source of energy and fuel for your cells. Your body creates blood sugar after breaking down nutrients from some of your digested food. In blood tests, it's normal to get a reading up to 100 mg/dL of glucose, says MedlinePlus. Serious illnesses, including prediabetes and diabetes, are diagnosed when you have too much glucose in your blood. Too much glucose in your blood means not enough energy is being supplied to your cells. Complications of excessive glucose can impair the functioning of your heart and kidneys, nerves and eyes. Problems with glucose do not cause anemia, but diabetics tend to have a Continue reading >>
A Casecontrol Study Of Prevalence Of Anemia Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
Anemia is defined as a reduction in the hemoglobin concentration of blood, which consequently reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells such that they are unable to meet the bodys physiological needs. Several reports have indicated that anemia mostly occurs in patients with diabetes with renal insufficiency while limited studies have reported the incidence of anemia in people with diabetes prior to evidence of renal impairment. Other studies have also identified anemia as a risk factor for the need for renal replacement therapy in diabetes. Understanding the pathogenesis of anemia associated with diabetes may lead to the development of interventions to optimize outcomes in these patients. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of anemia among patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 100 (50 with type 2 diabetes and 50 controls) participants were recruited for our study. Participants blood samples were analyzed for fasting blood glucose, full blood count and renal function tests among others. The prevalence of anemia was then determined statistically. A high incidence of anemia was observed in the cases. Of the patients with diabetes, 84.8% had a hemoglobin concentration that was significantly less (males 11.161.83 and females 10.411.49) than the controls (males 14.251.78 and females 12.531.14). Renal insufficiency determined by serum creatinine level of >1.5mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate <60ml/minute/1.73m2, and erythropoietin levels was also observed to be high in the cases (54.0%; with mean creatinine concentration of 3.431.73 and erythropoietin 6.351.28 mIU/mL). A significantly increased fasting blood glucose, urea, sodium, potassium, and calcium ions were observed in the cases (7.991.30, 5.191.99, 140.906.98, 4.8 Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Anemia
If you have diabetes, you’ll need to have your blood checked regularly for anemia. It’s common for people with diabetes to also end up with this blood condition. It happens when your body’s red blood cells can’t deliver as much oxygen as your body needs. If you spot anemia early on, you can better manage the issues causing it. Usually, it happens because you don’t have enough red blood cells. That can make you more likely to get certain diabetes complications, like eye and nerve damage. And it can worsen kidney, heart, and artery disease, which are more common in people with diabetes. Diabetes often leads to kidney damage, and failing kidneys can cause anemia. Healthy kidneys know when your body needs new red blood cells. They release a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), which signals your bone marrow to make more. Damaged kidneys don’t send out enough EPO to keep up with your needs. Often, people don’t realize they have kidney disease until it’s very far along. But if you test positive for anemia, it can be an early sign of a problem with your kidneys. People with diabetes are more likely to have inflamed blood vessels. This can keep bone marrow from getting the signal they need to make more red blood cells. And some medications used to treat diabetes can drop your levels of the protein hemoglobin, which you need to carry oxygen through your blood. These drugs include ACE inhibitors, fibrates, metformin, and thiazolidinediones. If you take one of these, talk to your doctor about your risk for anemia. If you have kidney dialysis, you may have blood loss, and that can also cause anemia. When your brain and other organs don’t get enough oxygen, you feel tired and weak. Other signs you may have anemia include: Shortness of breath Dizziness Headache Pale Continue reading >>
What Your Doctor Doesn't Know About Glucose Testing.
Blood sugar management is important for preventing everything from hypoglycemia to full blown diabetes. However, monitoring blood glucose is rarely as straightforward as it seems. In this article we’ll discuss the current gold standard for measuring a person’s blood sugar. We’ll share some problems with the most popular tests. And we’ll review the best ways to interpret your results. (Even if your doctor doesn’t know how). [Note: We’ve also prepared an audio recording of this article for you to listen to. So, if you’d rather listen to the piece, click here.] ++ Homeostasis is a fancy scientific word for “body balance”. Essentially, our bodies must keep internal levels of thousands of chemicals in check. Or else health can go awry. One of the most important homeostatic systems in our body is our blood sugar management system. When blood sugar is kept at a healthy range, we feel healthy, strong, energetic. On the other hand, unbalanced blood sugars put us at risk for problems ranging from reactive hypoglycemia to insulin resistance to full blown diabetes. But estimating blood sugar levels can be tricky. First, these levels change throughout the day, and with meals and exercise. So, unless you’re monitoring blood sugar levels continuously, every second of every day, it’s hard to get a complete picture of your glucose health. Second, the convenient glucose meters that many Type 1 diabetics use only give us a snapshot instead of a movie. They don’t show us how patients regulate blood sugars over time. And that may be the most important information of all when it comes to disease prevention. That’s why doctors and scientists have become obsessed with finding a test that measures blood glucose balance across days, weeks, or months. In other words, a t Continue reading >>
Helping patients understand and identify anemia's underlying cause can promote adherence to treatment. Anemia is a condition that develops when your blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen to your organs. Anemia is considered to be the most prevalent blood condition in the United States. It affects an estimated 3.5 million Americans. Although many cases are mild and easily treated, anemia can range from mild to severe. Some forms of anemia are long term and even life threatening if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. According to the National Institutes of Healths National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, there are more than 400 types of anemia. In general, the causes of these types of anemia can be divided into 3 groups: Anemia caused by decreased or faulty red blood cell production Anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells Anyone can develop anemia, but there are many factors that may increase your risk for developing anemia, including: A diet lacking in iron, vitamin B12 , and folate A history of intestinal disorders (for example, Crohns disease and celiac disease) that affect the absorption of nutrients Chronic conditions such as cancer, renal, or liver failure may increase ones risk of developing anemia, because these conditions may cause a decrease in red blood cells A family history of an inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia A history of certain infections, blood diseases, and autoimmune disorders Taking certain medications that affect red blood cell production and lead to anemia Iron deficiency anemia is caused by having a shortage of iron in the body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin, which is a protein molecule in the red blood cells. Without enough iron, the Continue reading >>
Pernicious Anemia And Vitamin B-12 Deficiency
Pernicious anemia is defined as a type of vitamin B12 deficiency that results from impaired uptake of vitamin B-12 due to the lack of a substance known as intrinsic factor (IF) produced by the stomach lining. Pernicious anemia is a condition caused by too little vitamin B12 in the body. It is one form of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. Vitamin B12 helps the body make healthy red blood cells and helps keep nerve cells healthy. It is found in animal foods, including meat, fish, eggs, milk, and other dairy products. The most common cause of pernicious anemia is the loss of stomach cells that make intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor helps the body absorb vitamin B12 in the intestine. The loss of parietal cells may be due to destruction by the body's own immune system. Pernicious anemia can cause permanent damage to nerves and other organs if it goes on for a long time without being treated. It also raises the risk for developing stomach cancer. Common signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, seen in pernicious anemia are: Feeling tired and weak Tingling and numbness in hands and feet A bright red, smooth tongue Pernicious anemia is diagnosed using family history and medical history, a physical exam, and diagnostic tests and procedures. Pernicious anemia is easy to treat with vitamin B12 pills or shots as well as diet changes. Life-long treatment is needed. Complications caused by untreated pernicious anemia may be reversible with treatment. Doctors don't know how to prevent pernicious anemia that is caused by the immune system destroying stomach cells. Eating foods high in vitamin B12 and folic acid can help prevent vitamin B12 deficiency caused by a poor diet. Continue reading >>
Anemia In The Older Adult: 10 Common Causes & What To Ask
Have you ever been told that an older relative has anemia? Or perhaps you noticed the red blood cell count flagged as “low” in the bloodwork report? Anemia means having a red blood cell count that is lower than normal, and it’s very common in seniors. About 10% of independently living people over age 65 have anemia. And anemia becomes even more common as people get older. But many older adults and families hardly understand anemia. This isn’t surprising: anemia is associated with a dizzying array of underlying health conditions, and can represent anything from a life-threatening emergency to a mild chronic problem that barely makes the primary care doctor blink. Still, it worries me that seniors and families don’t know more about anemia. If you or your relative has this condition, it’s important to understand what’s going on and what the follow-up plan is. (I’ve so often discovered that a patient didn’t know he or she had had anemia!) Misunderstanding anemia can also lead to unnecessary worrying, or perhaps even inappropriate treatment with iron supplements. And since anemia is often caused by some other problem in the body, not understanding anemia often means that people don’t understand something else that is important regarding their health. Fortunately, you don’t have to be a doctor to have a decent understanding of the basics of anemia. This post will help you understand: How anemia is detected and diagnosed in aging adults. Symptoms of anemia. The most common causes of anemia, and tests often used to check for them. What to ask the doctor. How to get better follow-up, if you or your relative is diagnosed with anemia. Defining and detecting anemia Anemia means having a lower-than-normal count of red blood cells circulating in the blood. Red b Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Anemia: Are They Related?
Someone’s anemic if they have an abnormally low amount of red blood cells – and when there are too few red blood cells, body organs don’t get the oxygen they need. This not only strains and damages organs, but it also decreases a person’s quality of life by causing fatigue, weakness, and headaches. Red blood cells can transport oxygen because they’re full of a complex molecule called hemoglobin, which can grab, hold, and release oxygen as needed in different part of the body. A doctor may an anemic person as having “too little hemoglobin” or “a low hematocrit”. The first statement refers to the amount of concentration of hemoglobin molecules in your blood, and the second refers to the concentration of red blood cells in your blood. If that sounds redundant, you’re right! They’re both describing the same thing. That’s why it’s best to pay attention to one or the other (not both) to avoid confusion. Types of anemia There are quite a few different types of anemia (over 400 to be exact!). The most common ones are summarized below. It is very important to know the type of anemia and the cause. Without knowing the cause, you cannot treat the disease! Iron Deficiency. This is the most common type. It is caused by lack of absorption, intake, or by blood loss. Aplastic. This occurs when the body stops making new red blood cells. It is rare, but very serious. Hemolytic. This type happens when red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be produced. Vitamin Deficiency. Poor nutrition, or impaired vitamin absorption causes this type. Pernicious. With this, the B-12 intake is okay, but the body cannot process it correctly. Fragile Red Cell. Some people inherit abnormal red blood cells that die earlier than normal, like in sickle cell or thalassemia. Continue reading >>
Glycosylated Hemoglobin (hba1c) And Anemia
HbA1c is characterized and defined as hemoglobin that is irreversibly glycated at the N-terminal valine of the ß-chain HbA1c is an index used in the management of patients with diabetes HbA1c measurements rely on a predictable effect of glucose concentration on hemoglobin (Hb) over a normal red blood cell (RBC) life span - however any condition that alters RBC survival may invalidate HbA1c as an accurate measure of glycaemic control risk of misdiagnosis in those with iron-deficiency anemia and increased red blood cell turnover (e.g., haemolytic anemia or major blood loss) (1) iron-deficiency anemia is associated with higher concentrations of HbA1c among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes despite similar levels of glycemia (1) iron replacement therapy can also result in a substantial drop in HbA1c in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (1) samples containing variant Hb cause erroneous results in measurement of HbA1c comparative analyses of HbA1c in samples containing Hb variants have shown that different test systems may give different results measurements of HbA1c percentages in subjects with Hb variants or high percentages of Hb derivatives may be affected differently in different methods decreased exposure time of Hb to circulating glucose concentrations will lead to truly decreased percentages for HbA1c, with erroneous interpretation when the condition is not recognized (2,3) for example with respect to sickle cell disease heterozygous HbS data from methods by HPLC and electrophoresis were variable, ranging from 'not detectable' to increased homozygous HbS will have a shortened red cell half-life will show decreased HbA1c percentages that do not relate to mean blood glucose content Please contact local laboratory service as to effect of haemoglobin variants Continue reading >>
Anaemia In Patients With Diabetes: Unrecognised, Undetected And Untreated?
Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the two most common causes of end-stage renal disease and significant proportions of patients with diabetes mellitus develop renal complications. Anaemia is a key indicator of renal disease yet most patients with diabetes are rarely tested for anaemia and are unaware of the link between anaemia and kidney disease. Patients and Methods: A pan-European study was undertaken to assess patients' level of awareness and understanding of anaemia and of the complications of diabetes mellitus, and to determine the impact of anaemia on quality of life. The study comprised a questionnaire-based interview with 1054 respondents from six countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy and the UK). Ages ranged from 18 to 85, the average duration of diabetes was 15 years and 69% of respondents had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results: Only 32% of respondents had been given information about anaemia, although 83% had heard of anaemia. Less than half were aware of being tested for anaemia and only 14% attributed anaemia to diabetes. Of 1054 respondents, 132 were known to be anaemic, one-fifth had received no treatment, 12 had received blood transfusions, five were receiving erythropoietin therapy and the remainder had been given iron and/or vitamin supplementation. Perceived state of health was worse in those with anaemia, 47% had either experienced periods of ill health or were feeling in poor health generally compared with only 28% of those without anaemia. Tiredness and lethargy were more marked in those with anaemia, 74% feeling tired and lethargic considerably more often or somewhat more often than others compared with only 52% of those without anaemia. With respect to complications of diabetes, respondents were most concerned about retinopath Continue reading >>
Anemia And Much Older Type 2 Diabetes Patients
Home / Conditions / Type 2 Diabetes / Anemia and Much Older Type 2 Diabetes Patients Anemia and Much Older Type 2 Diabetes Patients Anemia is higher in older type 2 diabetes patients The chances of an anemia diagnosis increase with age and it affects roughly about 10% of those 65 years of age or older. In diabetes patients, the probability of diagnosing anemia could be two to threefold higher and furthermore, from previous studies, anemia has been shown to have a direct relationship with renal insufficiency. There are many factors that can lead to increasing the probability of getting anemia including decreasing renal function, inflammation, bone marrow suppression, and nutritional deficiencies. In this study, the researchers examined the prevalence and determinants of anemia among people age 85 years or older with a long duration of diabetes. A total of 115 patients, average age 83.6 years old with 51% older than 85 years of age, were recruited for this study. About 50% of patients were male and ethnicity was 108 White, 5 Asian, and 2 Black. Anemia was prevalent in 59% of the older patients (>75 years of age) diagnosed as diabetes outpatients. The 80% of anemia was normocytic; anemia was microcytic in 17%, and macrocytic in 3% of patients. Patients with anemia were significantly older (84.6 vs. 82.1 years, P = 0.01), had a longer duration of diabetes (17.7 vs. 13.5 years, P = 0.03), and had lower eGFRs (47.8 vs. 58.1ml/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.01) than patients without anemia. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, three of the five potential determinants significantly predicted anemia: older age 85 years (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.17.8, P = 0.001), longer duration of diabetes > 15 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3to 6.2, P = 0.01), and CKD (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.57.6, P = 0.002), where Continue reading >>
- Understanding 30-day re-admission after hospitalisation of older patients for diabetes: identifying those at greatest risk
- Just A Single Powerful Kitchen Spice Fix Obesity, Insomnia, Anemia, Diabetes, Acidity, Intestinal Worms, Detox Liver And…
- How to eat Okra(Lady’s Fingers) To Treat Diabetes, Asthma, Anemia And Failing Eyesight
Celiac Disease And Anemia
The Gluten Intolerance Group of North America Anemia is a condition that results from either a decrease in the size or number of red blood cells, or in the amount of hemoglobin, which is the red pigment in red blood cells. What effects does anemia have on our bodies? Think of red blood cells as ships that deliver oxygen to all our organs, and hemoglobin as the crates on the ship that hold the oxygen. If there is a shortage of red blood cells (ships) or hemoglobin (crates), oxygen cannot be adequately delivered to our organs. Every part of our body needs oxygen to convert the food we eat to energy and heat. This function is vital to life and is why anemia can leave you feeling tired and weak. The most common causes of anemia are a lack of either iron, folate, or vitamin B12 in the body. Each of these nutrients is involved in the creation and healthy development of red blood cells. A shortage of iron can cause anemia because iron is an essential component of hemoglobin and is necessary for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Symptoms you may experience: Fatigue, weakness, irritability, pale skin, headaches, brittle nails, decreased appetite, increased susceptibility to infections, and a decreased attention span in kids. A shortage of folate can cause anemia because folate plays an essential role in the formation of red blood cells, and therefore in the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Symptoms you may feel: Ringing in the ears, cracked lips, sore tongue, irregular heartbeat and symptoms similar to those of iron-deficiency anemia. A lack of vitamin B12 can cause anemia because this vitamin is also essential for the formation and growth of red blood cells. In people with celiac disease, vitamin B12 deficiency is usually due to damage to the lower part of the s Continue reading >>