Post Traumatic Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (insulin-dependent): A Case Report
Post traumatic type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent): a case report 1Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, Hopital Militaire Moulay Ismail, Mekns 50000, Morocco &Corresponding author: Rabie Karrouri, Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, Hopital Militaire Moulay Ismail, Mekns 50000, Morocco Received 2014 Oct 18; Accepted 2014 Nov 19. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Most researchers have studied the influence of life stress as precipitating the onset of type 1 diabetes, but as the relationship between severe psychological trauma and diabetes has been a rarely studied subject in paediatric age group. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old Libyan boy, without personal or familial diabetes mellitus history, which is presented to Moroccan medico-surgical field hospital, installed in Tunisia for refugees of the Libyan revolution, for type 1 diabetes appeared immediately after severe psychological trauma. Keywords: Trauma, diabetes, stress, pathogenesis, children In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, trauma is described as the experience of intense fear, helplessness, horror, or disorganized and agitated behaviour in response to exposure to an event -directly or as a witness- that caused or threatened serious injury or violation of body integrity [ 1 ]. Type1-diabetes (T1D) or insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of pancreatic -cells in the islets of Langerhans resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglyca Continue reading >>
Risk Of Diabetes Type 1 'can Be Tripled By Childhood Stress'
Stressful life events in childhood such as family break-up, death or illness, can triple the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, research suggests. In a study, researchers found that children who experienced an event associated with “major stress” were almost three times more likely to develop the condition than those who had not. The Swedish study analysed more than 10,000 families with children aged between two and 14, who did not already have the condition. The aim was to pinpoint any family conflicts, unemployment problems, alteration of family structure, or intervention from social services. Subsequently, 58 children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown but it is usually preceded by the immune system attacking and killing beta cells in the pancreas, which produce insulin. Based on the results, the researchers, from Linkoping University, said they thought the stressful events could contribute to beta cell stress due to increased insulin resistance as well as increased insulin demand due to the physiological stress response, such as elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol. In the paper, published on Thursday in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), the authors write: “Consistent with several previous retrospective studies, this first prospective study concludes that the experience of a serious life event (reasonably indicating psychological stress) during the first 14 years of life may be a risk factor for developing type 1 diabetes. “The current study examined serious life events experienced at any time before diagnosis; further studies are thus needed to determine when in the autoimmune process psychological stress may contribute, and in association with which other Continue reading >>
Childhood Trauma Could Lead To Type 1 Diabetes
Childhood Trauma Could Lead to Type 1 Diabetes Childhood Trauma Could Lead to Type 1 Diabetes Every year, more than 15,000 children in the U.S. are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but health professionals and scientists don't have many answers about the causes and prevention methods for this autoimmune disease. Experts do believe that genetics and environmental triggers are factors in the development of type 1 diabetes , and that diet and exercise are not. A recent study suggests that experiencing traumatic life events during childhood can increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes later in life. Researchers in Sweden examined more than 10,000 children between the ages of 2 and 14 who had not been diagnosed with T1D. Parents filled out questionnaires that measured their assessment of serious life events (death or illness in the family, conflicts, and divorce), parenting stress, parental worries, and parental social support. Results indicated that kids who had experienced a serious life event during their first 14 years of life were nearly three times more likely to develop T1D than those who had not. The authors of the study concluded that a possible link between stress and diabetes is an imbalance in the immune system. This imbalance could cause an autoimmune reaction against beta cells that produce the insulin necessary to regulate blood sugar. Other possible links between serious life experiences and the development of T1D do exist, and more research is needed to pinpoint when this type of psychological stress alters the autoimmune system. "As experience of stressful life events cannot be avoided, children and their parents should get adequate support to cope with these events to avoid their consequences, which could include medical issues," recommended t Continue reading >>
Psychological Stress May Induce Diabetes-related Autoimmunity In Infancy
OBJECTIVE— In retrospective studies, a number of disparate environmental factors (including experiences of serious life events) have been proposed as trigger mechanisms for type 1 diabetes or the autoimmune process behind the disease. Psychosocial stress in families may affect children negatively due to a link to hormonal levels and nervous signals that in turn influence both insulin sensitivity/insulin need and the immune system. Our aim was to investigate whether psychological stress, measured as psychosocial strain in families, is associated with diabetes-related autoimmunity during infancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— The first 4,400 consecutive 1-year-old children from a large prospective population-based project participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires at birth and at 1 year, including various measures of psychosocial stress (e.g., parenting stress) and sociodemographic background. Blood samples drawn from the children at 1 year were analyzed for type 1 diabetes–associated autoantibodies toward tyrosine phosphatase and GAD. Antibodies toward tetanus toxoid were used as non–diabetes-related control antibodies. RESULTS— Psychosocial factors, i.e., high parenting stress (odds ratio 1.8 [95% CI 1.2–2.9], P < 0.01), experiences of a serious life event (2.3 [1.3–4.0], P < 0.01), foreign origin of the mother (2.1 [1.3–3.3], P < 0.001), and low paternal education (1.6 [1.1–2.3], P < 0.01) were associated with diabetes-related autoimmunity in the child, independent of family history of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS— Psychological stress, measured as psychosocial strain in the family, seems to be involved in the induction, or progression, of diabetes-related autoimmunity in the child during the 1st year of life. Type 1 diabetes is a multifact Continue reading >>
Can Type 1 Diabetes Parents Have Ptsd? The Stress Of A Newly Diagnosed Child With Type 1 Diabetes
Support and education for parents of children with type 1 diabetes, Sylvia White Dietitian and Diabetes Educator Can Type 1 Diabetes Parents have PTSD? The Stress of a Newly Diagnosed Child with Type 1 Diabetes Can parents of children with diabetes actually have PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) or other effects from the trauma from a diagnosis? I understand if they do! Having a child diagnosed is very shocking, scary, and overwhelming. Plus, most of the feelings dont go away. There is always fear and worry due to the nature of the disease, dealing with low and high blood sugars, DKA, and the various medical decisions of dosing insulin parents have to make on a daily and sometimes hourly basis. Frequently at diagnosis, parents are confronted with the threatened death of their child in an ICU. Then parents have to deal with all theaspects of diabetes management, along with knowing the possibility of long term complications and possibility of death. Along with those, everyday they are confronted with giving their child injections and doing finger sticks which can be traumatic to both the parent and the child. According to the study literature, parents of children with diabetes have signs of moderate to high distress in the first months after diagnosis, which seems normal to me! Who wouldnt feel distress after a diagnosis! The Journal of Pediatric Psychology published a study in 2002 by Landolt, Ribi, Laimbacher, Vollgrath, Gnehm, and Sennhauser which studied the parents of newly diagnosed kids (ages 6.5 to 14) to see the traumatizing effect of a new diabetes diagnosis. The study was small (38 participants) but gave valuable information about the effects of a diagnosis. PTSD symptoms are listed in the DSM-V, which is a manual of psychiatric disorders that mental healt Continue reading >>
Childhood Trauma May Raise Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes
(Reuters Health) - Traumatic events during childhood may increase kids’ risk of developing type 1 diabetes, a Swedish study suggests. The researchers questioned more than 10,000 families and found that children who experienced an extremely stressful life event – like divorce, illness or death in the family – were about three times more likely to develop type 1 diabetes. The link doesn’t prove trauma causes diabetes, but it does raise the possibility that mental health care or stress reduction could play a role in prevention, researchers said. “We know that there are connections between the brain and immune system, and it is not surprising that psychological trauma can influence the immune balance and contribute to abnormal reactions” including the development of type 1 diabetes, study coauthor Dr. Johnny Ludvigsson, a pediatrics researcher at Linkoping University in Sweden, said by email. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas stops making insulin, a hormone that helps cells use sugar for energy. When the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, called beta cells, diabetes occurs. Thousands of people worldwide are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes each year. Millions have the more common form of the disease, known as type 2, which is linked to obesity and advanced age and does not involve destruction of beta cells. Ludvigsson and colleagues invited all families in southeast Sweden with babies born between October 1997 and September 1999 to complete questionnaires distributed during routine physicals and by mail. The researchers found that a serious traumatic event during the first 14 years of life increased the risk of type 1 diabetes, even after taking into account the family history for any form of di Continue reading >>
Did Trauma Cause My Diabetes?
What caused killer t-cells to attack the beta cells in my pancreas, preventing them from producing insulin, making my blood sugar skyrocket and triggering my Type 1 diabetes? That was in 1962. No one has come up with a convincing explanation yet. Scientists aren’t even close to figuring out the interactions between the environment, genes, the immune system and who-knows-what-else that result in Type 1 (T1) or Type 2 (T2) diabetes. If you travel around the Internet, it appears that the entire world is one big “risk factor” for these conditions. Suspects identified by researchers that might play a role in T1D include the smoked mutton consumed by Icelanders between Christmas and New Year’s, various viruses, respiratory infections in early childhood, early exposure to cow’s milk, psoriasis, the timing of infants’ first solid foods, low levels of Vitamin D, and many more. Risk factors for T2D, besides the well-known ones like obesity, could include not enough sleep and phthalates in soaps, lotions, plastics and toys. But the culprit that interests me the most doesn’t get much attention in the research labs: trauma and major stress. When I was a kid, the conventional wisdom was that traumatic events — loss of a loved one, accidents — played an important role in diabetes onset. This appeared to be substantiated by a number of population studies in the ensuing decades, but the evidence hasn’t impressed major players in diabetes research. In a long summary of biochemical and environmental risk factors for T1D, the NIH barely touches upon the matter, gives it a few throwaway lines: Although investigations of stress and IDDM [insulin dependent diabetes] have, in general, reported positive associations, most studies have been retrospective and suffered from met Continue reading >>
The first longitudinal (long-term) study of stress and type 1 diabetes found that experiencing a stressful event during childhood was associated with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes later in life (Nygren et al. 2015). A large study from Denmark found that if a child experienced the death of an immediate family member after age 11, they were more likely to develop type 1 diabetes (Virk et al. 2015). Sepa and Ludvigsson (2006) reviewed earlier studies concerning psychological stress and type 1 diabetes. They found that 9 of 10 studies found associations between stress and type 1 diabetes. Additionally, one large study found an association between stress and type 1-related autoimmunity at early ages in life in the general population. They conclude that psychological stress can accelerate the appearance of type 1 diabetes, and may also contribute to the induction or progression of type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity, but more research is needed. The mechanisms for these effects are not known, but may involve stressing the insulin-producing beta cells, or direct influence on the immune system; psychological stress can also increase insulin resistance. Psychological stress in children is linked to changes in the immune system, as well as effects on beta cells (Carlsson et al. 2014). Major life events have also been associated with the onset of type 1 diabetes, possibly due to increased levels of stress hormones, which are also increased in conditions involving inflammation (such as type 1 diabetes) (Dahlquist 2006). A study from Israel found that that trauma of war was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. Children living in regions that were attacked during the Second Lebanon War had a higher risk of type 1 in the four years after the war, Continue reading >>
Early Trauma ‘triples’ Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes
A traumatic event during childhood can triple the risk of subsequently developing Type 1 diabetes, researchers have concluded. A new study from Sweden published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) showed ‘serious life events’ in childhood, such as death or illness in the family, divorce or separation, a new child or adult in the family or conflicts in the family increase the chances of getting the condition. The causes of Type 1 diabetes are unknown but it is usually preceded by the body’s own immune system attacking and killing the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As well as genetic predisposition, several environmental factors such as viral infection, dietary habits in infancy, birthweight and early weight gain, as well as chronic stress, have been proposed as risk factors. Since the incidence of Type 1 diabetes among young children is increasing in most countries in the world, environmental factors are now being examined even more seriously. The study aimed to examine whether psychological stress in terms of experiences of ‘serious life events’, along with parental perception of parenting stress and lack of social support, during the child’s first 14 years of life, was a risk factor for developing Type 1 diabetes. The study invited all families with babies born between October 1997 and September 1999 in southeast Sweden to participate, with 10,495 families participating in at least one of four data collections carried out when the children were between 2 and 14 years. To be included in the study, the child must not have been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when participating for the first time. A total of 58 children were subsequently diagnosed with the condition. The authors found that childh Continue reading >>
Can Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
The idea that stress can cause type 2 diabetes is not new but recent media coverage of Dave Dowdeswell from the UK who, along with his doctors, believe the only explanation for his diabetes is extreme stress, has prompted discussion around this idea as another possible explanation for why many fit and otherwise healthy people can develop type 2 diabetes. At 44 Mr Dowdeswell, a keen windsurfer and diver, was not overweight and had no family history of diabetes. However, in the 12 months prior to his diagnosis of type 2 diabetes he had experienced a series of traumatic life events. His doctors believe the extreme stress he lived through could have been the trigger for diabetes. One theory is that the stress hormone cortisol may alter the body’s sensitivity to insulin. While scientists are not in agreement over whether this means stress itself is a direct cause of diabetes or just a risk factor, there are some compelling arguments and research is continuing in this area. A recent contribution to the debate comes from research funded by the Department of Defense in the US that find links between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and an increase in type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The study is still in its preliminary stages and other factors are being investigated as to why some people develop PTSD in the first place (such as stress response genetics) but initial findings make a definite link between war-related stress and depression on poor general health outcomes. In 2013 a 35 year prospective follow-up study of 7,500 middle-aged men in Sweden found a strong link between stress and diabetes risk. Levels of stress were graded by the participants and it was found that men who reported permanent stress had a 45% Continue reading >>
Stress: How It Affects Diabetes And How To Decrease It
Diabetes management is a lifelong process. This can add stress to your daily life. Stress can be a major barrier to effective glucose control. Stress hormones in your body may directly affect glucose levels. If you’re experiencing stress or feeling threatened, your body reacts. This is called the fight-or-flight response. This response elevates your hormone levels and causes your nerve cells to fire. During this response, your body releases adrenaline and cortisol into your bloodstream and your respiratory rates increase. Your body directs blood to the muscles and limbs, allowing you to fight the situation. Your body may not be able to process the glucose released by your firing nerve cells if you have diabetes. If you can’t convert the glucose into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream. This causes your blood glucose levels to rise. Constant stress from long-term problems with blood glucose can also wear you down mentally and physically. This may make managing your diabetes difficult. Stress can affect people differently. The type of stress that you experience can also have an impact on your body’s physical response. When people with type 2 diabetes are under mental stress, they generally experience an increase in their blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes may have a more varied response. This means that they can experience either an increase or a decrease in their blood glucose levels. When you’re under physical stress, your blood sugar can also increase. This can happen when you’re sick or injured. This can affect people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Keeping track of additional information, such as the date and what you were doing at the time you were stressed, may help you determine specific triggers. For example, are you more stressed on Continue reading >>
Is There A Link Between Diabetes And Physical Trauma?
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Is there a link between diabetes and physical trauma? Hi, I wonder if anyone can help? I have recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. I am 37 and otherwise very fit and healthy. I have always had an active lifestyle and have eaten a good diet, never been overweight. I have recently read an article on why skinny people get diabetes, and two subjects caught my eye: 1. type 1.5 diabetes is more common in lean diabetic people and can be misdiagnosed as type 2, is this true and how can I find out if I am type 1.5? I have been on medication now for three weeks and my sugar levels are still between 14 and 32, so I am wondering if I am getting the wrong treatment? 2. Four years ago I had a nasty accident which caused great trauma to my right hand. Not long after that I started getting ichy genetals which I now understand can be a symptom of diabetes. I went to the doctors on and off over the years about these symptoms and was given various creams with little success. Recently I was given a cream which sorted the problem, but then I started developing the classic symptoms of diabetes ( thurst and excessive use of the toilet), which prompted me to get tested. My question is, do you think I could have had diabetes all this time? and is there a strong link between developing diabetes and the trauma to my hand. Any opinions or links to useful articles would be greatly appreciated! Thanks! Continue reading >>
Traumatic Life Events During Childhood Affect Diabetes Risk | Time
Type 2 diabetes tends to get more attention than type 1, mainly because the risk factors for type 2obesity, for instanceare thought to be more in our control. Type 1 is believed to be primarily a genetic disease, triggered by an unfortunate DNA configuration that signals the bodys immune system to destroy insulin-producing beta cells. Now, in a report published in the journal Diabetologia, Dr. Johnny Ludvigsson, a pediatrician from Linkoping University in Sweden, and his colleagues say that life events, including traumatic experiences such as the death of a family member or a serious accident, can triple the risk that young children have of developing the disease. The researchers studied 10,495 families with children born between 1997 and 1999 and asked them to participate in at least one of four follow-up sessions when the children were between two and 14 years old. The parents filled out questionnaires about whether the children had experienced anything that might be considered a serious life event, including things like the death of a family member, a new sibling, divorce or a move. Parents were also asked about their own stress and whether they felt they had social support. Once the scientists adjusted for factors that also contribute to type 1 diabetes, such as BMI, mothers age and a history of diabetes in the family, children who experienced deaths and accidents in their early years showed a three-fold higher risk of developing diabetes than those who didnt live through these events. People may be worried and have feelings of guilt that not only did their child get diabetes, but that in a way they contribute to it, says Ludvigsson of the results. But parents should take some solace in the fact that after he adjusted for other factors that can contribute to type 1 Continue reading >>
- Debbie Wilson: The Journey Back from Traumatic Brain Injury and Dementia, with a Side of Disappearing Diabetes
- Maternal obesity as a risk factor for early childhood type 1 diabetes: a nationwide, prospective, population-based case–control study
- Risk of diabetes type 1 'can be tripled by childhood stress'
Trauma May Be An Important Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes: Dan’s Story & Symptoms
Have you ever wondered whether trauma is a cause of type 1 diabetes? Or a cause of your chronic illness, whatever it may be? Or why you can be your harshest critic and blame yourself for your chronic disease or symptom flares even though it’s not your fault for getting sick? Writer Dan Fleshler has been asking himself these questions for decades, as I learned in his Huffington Post article, “Did Trauma Cause My Diabetes?” Like so many of us, Dan experienced a stressful event before the onset of his chronic illness and he’s found very little support for his belief that trauma is a cause of type 1 diabetes. Trauma is often mistakenly dismissed as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the links aren’t readily available or easy to find. The research, however, is beginning to provide more in-depth explanations. Studies show an increased risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) from serious life events and adverse childhood experiences as well following stressful events in pregnancy, birth and infancy. I tell you about Dan’s onset story in this post and introduce research showing that serious life events such as the one that triggered the onset of his type 1 diabetes are three times more common in those who develop T1D. I’ll then describe how his symptoms support his insight that this seemingly ordinary, everyday event was truly traumatic. You can read my review of 25 years of trauma research in diabetes or download the pdf along with a list of serious life events that increase risk for type 1 diabetes (and other chronic illnesses) with your email (I don’t share your email with anyone). Dan talks about his experiences on his blog The Insulin Chronicles and in the New York Times. Relevance to ME/CFS and Other Chronic Illnesses Many of the characteristics of Dan’s Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes: Causes And Symptoms
While type 2 diabetes is often preventable, type 1 diabetes mellitus is not.1 Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys cells in the pancreas. Typically, the disease first appears in childhood or early adulthood. Type 1 diabetes used to be known as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but the disease can have an onset at any age.2 Type 1 diabetes makes up around 5% of all cases of diabetes.3,4 What is type 1 diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce any insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels.2,3 Insulin production becomes inadequate for the control of blood glucose levels due to the gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. This destruction progresses without notice over time until the mass of these cells decreases to the extent that the amount of insulin produced is insufficient.2 Type 1 diabetes typically appears in childhood or adolescence, but its onset is also possible in adulthood.2 When it develops later in life, type 1 diabetes can be mistaken initially for type 2 diabetes. Correctly diagnosed, it is known as latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood.2 Causes of type 1 diabetes The gradual destruction of beta cells in the pancreas that eventually results in the onset of type 1 diabetes is the result of autoimmune destruction. The immune system turning against the body's own cells is possibly triggered by an environmental factor exposed to people who have a genetic susceptibility.2 Although the mechanisms of type 1 diabetes etiology are unclear, they are thought to involve the interaction of multiple factors:2 Susceptibility genes - some of which are carried by over 90% of patients with type 1 diabetes. Some populations - Scandinavians and Sardinians, Continue reading >>