What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?
Diabetes means having too much sugar (glucose) in your blood. In Type 2 diabetes, sugars go up because the body’s cells aren’t using the hormone called insulin effectively. What causes this “insulin resistance?” The answers may surprise you. Mainstream medicine and media have a standard explanation for Type 2. You get it if you’re fat and lazy. As WebMD puts it, “While not everyone with Type 2 diabetes is overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity are two of the most common causes of this form of diabetes.” However, Type 2 diabetes is not primarily a disease of behavior. As I showed in my book Diabetes: Sugar-Coated Crisis, it is an environmental illness. Here are ten causes for Type 2: • Refined foods. Type 2 diabetes was unknown until the rise of agriculture. Hunters and gatherers don’t get it, but people who eat a lot of grains can. Sugars or low-fiber refined grains like white bread get glucose into our systems very fast. The lower intestine isn’t involved in digesting these refined foods, so it doesn’t produce some of the incretin hormones needed for proper insulin function. Eating refined starches and sugars occasionally doesn’t cause insulin resistance, but too much of them can. • Genetics. Type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic component: If one identical twin has Type 2 diabetes, the other twin has a 70–90% chance of developing it. If one parent has Type 2 diabetes, his or her children have about a 40% chance of developing it in adulthood. If both parents have it, their children have up to a 70% chance of getting it. But are these associations genetic? Or is it that families share the same risk factors such as poverty, bad food, a history of trauma, or physical inactivity? Or is it something else, such as the following? • Inte Continue reading >>
The Relationship Between Stress,trauma & Diabetes Type 2
The Relationship Between Stress,Trauma & Diabetes Type 2 Reduce stress to reduce the effects of diabetes. Source: By Mikael Hggstrm, used with permission. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Chronic stress alters the eco-system of the body, mind, and spirit like oil pollutes water. Stress and trauma affect the metabolism of the individual and the community. The ability to find and absorb the nourishment of food as well as the nourishment of friendship . In response to chronic stress, people feel depressed, helpless, anxious, irritable, and then they blame themselves for feeling that way. These feelings often lead to self- medication with sugar and carbohydrates, drugs, alcohol, sex and other activities. When people are in recovery from alcohol abuse they often turn to sugar (after all, alcohol is sugar), carbohydrates, and coffee as part of the withdrawal and maintenance process. However, this also taxes the liver considerably and makes one vulnerable to the development of diabetes type 2.Thus, alcohol addiction may also be understood as a physiological addiction to sugar. Stress contributes to anxiety and depression and leads to self-medication with drugs, alcohol, carbohydrates and sugar; in turn, these substances exacerbate stress and the cycle of self-medication continues until it is stopped. There are broadly 3 types of stress that exist along a spectrum: Eustress, stress, and traumatic stress. Eustress is a word coined by Dr. Hans Selye. Eustress refers to the stress that arises from a positive challenge, such as a new job, learning a new skill or (extreme) exercise. Whether stress has positive or negative effects in ones life depends to a great degree on the individual perception of the stressor and its meaning to their life. In normal stress, for example, re Continue reading >>
Trauma May Be An Important Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes: Dan’s Story & Symptoms
Have you ever wondered whether trauma is a cause of type 1 diabetes? Or a cause of your chronic illness, whatever it may be? Or why you can be your harshest critic and blame yourself for your chronic disease or symptom flares even though it’s not your fault for getting sick? Writer Dan Fleshler has been asking himself these questions for decades, as I learned in his Huffington Post article, “Did Trauma Cause My Diabetes?” Like so many of us, Dan experienced a stressful event before the onset of his chronic illness and he’s found very little support for his belief that trauma is a cause of type 1 diabetes. Trauma is often mistakenly dismissed as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the links aren’t readily available or easy to find. The research, however, is beginning to provide more in-depth explanations. Studies show an increased risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) from serious life events and adverse childhood experiences as well following stressful events in pregnancy, birth and infancy. I tell you about Dan’s onset story in this post and introduce research showing that serious life events such as the one that triggered the onset of his type 1 diabetes are three times more common in those who develop T1D. I’ll then describe how his symptoms support his insight that this seemingly ordinary, everyday event was truly traumatic. You can read my review of 25 years of trauma research in diabetes or download the pdf along with a list of serious life events that increase risk for type 1 diabetes (and other chronic illnesses) with your email (I don’t share your email with anyone). Dan talks about his experiences on his blog The Insulin Chronicles and in the New York Times. Relevance to ME/CFS and Other Chronic Illnesses Many of the characteristics of Dan’s Continue reading >>
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Associated With Type 2 Diabetes
Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with type 2 diabetes Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Centre for Environmental Health The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder is significantly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder is significantly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. This is the finding of scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen and the University Hospital Gieen and Marburg who worked with data from the population-based KORA cohort study. A sustained activation of the hormonal stress axis due to chronic stress symptoms is most likely a major causing mechanism. The scientists have published their results in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research. People suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a significant risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PTSD is a prolonged stress response syndrome whose symptoms develop in the aftermath of extremely stressful life events of exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature. A correlation between stress from mental illnesses and diabetes mellitus has already been under discussion for some time, but now Dr. Karoline Lukaschek from the Institute of Epidemiology II (EPI II) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen (HMGU) and Prof. Johannes Kruse from the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Gieen and Marburg, and their colleagues have been able to provide the first proof of a significant association between the two illnesses. To this end, they analyzed data from the population-based KORA cohort study in which the data were collected by means of a standardized survey of all participants and also a glucose tolera Continue reading >>
Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes
What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>
Is There A Link Between Diabetes And Physical Trauma?
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Is there a link between diabetes and physical trauma? Hi, I wonder if anyone can help? I have recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. I am 37 and otherwise very fit and healthy. I have always had an active lifestyle and have eaten a good diet, never been overweight. I have recently read an article on why skinny people get diabetes, and two subjects caught my eye: 1. type 1.5 diabetes is more common in lean diabetic people and can be misdiagnosed as type 2, is this true and how can I find out if I am type 1.5? I have been on medication now for three weeks and my sugar levels are still between 14 and 32, so I am wondering if I am getting the wrong treatment? 2. Four years ago I had a nasty accident which caused great trauma to my right hand. Not long after that I started getting ichy genetals which I now understand can be a symptom of diabetes. I went to the doctors on and off over the years about these symptoms and was given various creams with little success. Recently I was given a cream which sorted the problem, but then I started developing the classic symptoms of diabetes ( thurst and excessive use of the toilet), which prompted me to get tested. My question is, do you think I could have had diabetes all this time? and is there a strong link between developing diabetes and the trauma to my hand. Any opinions or links to useful articles would be greatly appreciated! Thanks! Continue reading >>
#5 Stress, Trauma And Type 1 Diabetes: Top 7 Reasons We (mistakenly) Dismiss Links
Can stress or trauma cause type 1 diabetes? Or trigger onset? Answers are rarely found despite observed links between stress, trauma and type 1 diabetes (T1D) for over 2000 years. I received an email from Teri in Illinois with this very question while writing this post, I just read your post [about how trauma is making sense of your chronic illness]. I do not know how I found you, but am so grateful. My Son was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes in 2011 at 13 years old. Previous to his diagnosis he had a few situations which made me question over the years, what in the world was going on with him. He also was diagnosed with anxiety at age 4 and I was given information on ADHD/ADD and needed to bring him for testing at that time for an early intervention program, which he did not test “low” enough for. At the time he was diagnosed, I looked directly at the endocrinologist and asked if this diagnosis could have had anything to do with stress. She said no. Every endo since this time has said no, even though we know full well cortisol levels and stress have affected his blood sugar levels all along and certainly do to this day. Thank you for confirming there are studies out there for one. But even more so, thank you for sharing your story and putting it in black and white for us. We have known this for years, but it is hard to feel as if you are the only ones who do. Research in T1D and disciplines as diverse as neurophysiology, nervous system development, brain plasticity, epigenetics, child development, attachment, and traumatic stress suggest the answers to Teri’s second question is Yes, trauma can trigger onset of T1D and Yes, trauma contributes to the cause and development of T1D. This article is part of my discovery series presenting research I never knew as an MD. Continue reading >>
The Link Between Mental Trauma And Diabetes
TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. Women with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a two-fold increased risk for type 2 diabetes, according to a new study. “When we are under stress we are more likely to get sick, but women with PTSD are in this extreme stress response a lot of the time,” says study author Karestan Koenen, an epidemiology professor at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. The new study, published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry, looked at 49,739 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study II to assess the link between PTSD symptoms and type 2 diabetes over 22 years. They found that women with the most symptoms had double the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and that the association increased based on the number of symptoms women experienced. “It’s so important that people understand PTSD isn’t just in veterans. Most PTSD is just in regular people in the community,” says Koenen. One of the most surprising findings in the study was that using antidepressants and having a higher body mass index (BMI) accounted for about half of the increased risk for type 2 diabetes in women with PTSD. Past research has linked PTSD to having a higher BMI, with some research suggesting that elevated stress response could result in cravings for highly caloric food and lead to weight gain. The antidepressant link is the most unexpected. An obvious explanation for the link is that some antidepressants cause weight gain, but the researchers argue weight gain isn’t caused by all antidepressants and therefore cannot account for all of the effect. “It’s probably one of the most interesting findings and I don’t have a good explanation for it,” says Koenen. The researchers say it’s possible that extreme stres Continue reading >>
Did Trauma Cause My Diabetes?
What caused killer t-cells to attack the beta cells in my pancreas, preventing them from producing insulin, making my blood sugar skyrocket and triggering my Type 1 diabetes? That was in 1962. No one has come up with a convincing explanation yet. Scientists aren’t even close to figuring out the interactions between the environment, genes, the immune system and who-knows-what-else that result in Type 1 (T1) or Type 2 (T2) diabetes. If you travel around the Internet, it appears that the entire world is one big “risk factor” for these conditions. Suspects identified by researchers that might play a role in T1D include the smoked mutton consumed by Icelanders between Christmas and New Year’s, various viruses, respiratory infections in early childhood, early exposure to cow’s milk, psoriasis, the timing of infants’ first solid foods, low levels of Vitamin D, and many more. Risk factors for T2D, besides the well-known ones like obesity, could include not enough sleep and phthalates in soaps, lotions, plastics and toys. But the culprit that interests me the most doesn’t get much attention in the research labs: trauma and major stress. When I was a kid, the conventional wisdom was that traumatic events — loss of a loved one, accidents — played an important role in diabetes onset. This appeared to be substantiated by a number of population studies in the ensuing decades, but the evidence hasn’t impressed major players in diabetes research. In a long summary of biochemical and environmental risk factors for T1D, the NIH barely touches upon the matter, gives it a few throwaway lines: Although investigations of stress and IDDM [insulin dependent diabetes] have, in general, reported positive associations, most studies have been retrospective and suffered from met Continue reading >>
Risk Of Diabetes Type 1 'can Be Tripled By Childhood Stress'
Stressful life events in childhood such as family break-up, death or illness, can triple the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, research suggests. In a study, researchers found that children who experienced an event associated with “major stress” were almost three times more likely to develop the condition than those who had not. The Swedish study analysed more than 10,000 families with children aged between two and 14, who did not already have the condition. The aim was to pinpoint any family conflicts, unemployment problems, alteration of family structure, or intervention from social services. Subsequently, 58 children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown but it is usually preceded by the immune system attacking and killing beta cells in the pancreas, which produce insulin. Based on the results, the researchers, from Linkoping University, said they thought the stressful events could contribute to beta cell stress due to increased insulin resistance as well as increased insulin demand due to the physiological stress response, such as elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol. In the paper, published on Thursday in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), the authors write: “Consistent with several previous retrospective studies, this first prospective study concludes that the experience of a serious life event (reasonably indicating psychological stress) during the first 14 years of life may be a risk factor for developing type 1 diabetes. “The current study examined serious life events experienced at any time before diagnosis; further studies are thus needed to determine when in the autoimmune process psychological stress may contribute, and in association with which other Continue reading >>
Does Emotional Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? A Review From The European Depression In Diabetes (edid) Research Consortium
Specialty: Psychiatry, Epidemiology, Endocrinology Institution: Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University Address: Tilburg, Netherlands Author: Nina Kupper Specialty: Psychology, Biology Institution: Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University Address: Tilburg, Netherlands Author: Marcel C Adriaanse Specialty: Epidemiology, Psychology Institution: Section of Prevention and Public Health, Department of Health Sciences and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Amsterdam Address: Amsterdam, 1081 HV, Netherlands Abstract: According to the World Health Organization, approximately 220 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes not only have a chronic disease to cope with, they are also at increased risk for coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The exact causes of type 2 diabetes are still not clear. Since the 17th century, it has been suggested that emotional stress plays a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. So far, review studies have mainly focused on depression as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet, chronic emotional stress is an established risk factor for the development of depression. The present review provides an overview of mainly prospective epidemiological studies that have investigated the associations between different forms of emotional stress and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results of longitudinal studies suggest that not only depression but also general emotional stress and anxiety, sleeping problems, anger, and hostility are associated with an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Conf Continue reading >>
Ask Joslin: Could Trauma Have Caused My Diabetes?
Can a traumatic experience or a hospital stay be the cause of my diabetes? The possibility of trauma inducing diabetes has been a topic of interest since Dr. Joslin was practicing medicine in the 1940s. To quote Dr. Joslin from his paper, “The Relation of Trauma to Diabetes,” published in the Annals of Surgery in 1943, “The thesis that trauma de novo can cause diabetes has steadily lost support.” The accumulation of knowledge about diabetes and its origins since that time has only substantiated the fact that, barring a direct substantial insult to the pancreas, diabetes does not arise spontaneously as a result of a traumatic injury. Many people are diagnosed with diabetes after a hospital stay for either a traumatic injury or a heart attack (which in itself is a type of trauma to the body). This can make it appear that there is a causal relationship between the traumatic event and the development of diabetes. However, as they say, correlation is not necessarily causation. The experience simply unmasked a condition that was already present. In reality, people who present with persistent hyperglycemia after a traumatic injury have an underlying defect in glucose metabolism that is laid bare by the metabolic demands of the body’s response to injury. In the case of trauma, the body produces a cascade of hormones that flood the blood stream. Many of these hormones cause the liver to release glucose to provide energy as the body tries to heal itself. Even people who don’t have diabetes may experience a rise in blood glucose above the usual limits that the body tries to preserve. However, their pancreases will quickly take over to produce enough insulin to restore euglycemia. This isn’t the case in people who already barely meet normal metabolic demands. So while Continue reading >>
Can Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
The idea that stress can cause type 2 diabetes is not new but recent media coverage of Dave Dowdeswell from the UK who, along with his doctors, believe the only explanation for his diabetes is extreme stress, has prompted discussion around this idea as another possible explanation for why many fit and otherwise healthy people can develop type 2 diabetes. At 44 Mr Dowdeswell, a keen windsurfer and diver, was not overweight and had no family history of diabetes. However, in the 12 months prior to his diagnosis of type 2 diabetes he had experienced a series of traumatic life events. His doctors believe the extreme stress he lived through could have been the trigger for diabetes. One theory is that the stress hormone cortisol may alter the body’s sensitivity to insulin. While scientists are not in agreement over whether this means stress itself is a direct cause of diabetes or just a risk factor, there are some compelling arguments and research is continuing in this area. A recent contribution to the debate comes from research funded by the Department of Defense in the US that find links between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and an increase in type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The study is still in its preliminary stages and other factors are being investigated as to why some people develop PTSD in the first place (such as stress response genetics) but initial findings make a definite link between war-related stress and depression on poor general health outcomes. In 2013 a 35 year prospective follow-up study of 7,500 middle-aged men in Sweden found a strong link between stress and diabetes risk. Levels of stress were graded by the participants and it was found that men who reported permanent stress had a 45% Continue reading >>
Early Trauma ‘triples’ Risk Of Type 1 Diabetes
A traumatic event during childhood can triple the risk of subsequently developing Type 1 diabetes, researchers have concluded. A new study from Sweden published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) showed ‘serious life events’ in childhood, such as death or illness in the family, divorce or separation, a new child or adult in the family or conflicts in the family increase the chances of getting the condition. The causes of Type 1 diabetes are unknown but it is usually preceded by the body’s own immune system attacking and killing the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As well as genetic predisposition, several environmental factors such as viral infection, dietary habits in infancy, birthweight and early weight gain, as well as chronic stress, have been proposed as risk factors. Since the incidence of Type 1 diabetes among young children is increasing in most countries in the world, environmental factors are now being examined even more seriously. The study aimed to examine whether psychological stress in terms of experiences of ‘serious life events’, along with parental perception of parenting stress and lack of social support, during the child’s first 14 years of life, was a risk factor for developing Type 1 diabetes. The study invited all families with babies born between October 1997 and September 1999 in southeast Sweden to participate, with 10,495 families participating in at least one of four data collections carried out when the children were between 2 and 14 years. To be included in the study, the child must not have been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when participating for the first time. A total of 58 children were subsequently diagnosed with the condition. The authors found that childh Continue reading >>
The first longitudinal (long-term) study of stress and type 1 diabetes found that experiencing a stressful event during childhood was associated with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes later in life (Nygren et al. 2015). A large study from Denmark found that if a child experienced the death of an immediate family member after age 11, they were more likely to develop type 1 diabetes (Virk et al. 2015). Sepa and Ludvigsson (2006) reviewed earlier studies concerning psychological stress and type 1 diabetes. They found that 9 of 10 studies found associations between stress and type 1 diabetes. Additionally, one large study found an association between stress and type 1-related autoimmunity at early ages in life in the general population. They conclude that psychological stress can accelerate the appearance of type 1 diabetes, and may also contribute to the induction or progression of type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity, but more research is needed. The mechanisms for these effects are not known, but may involve stressing the insulin-producing beta cells, or direct influence on the immune system; psychological stress can also increase insulin resistance. Psychological stress in children is linked to changes in the immune system, as well as effects on beta cells (Carlsson et al. 2014). Major life events have also been associated with the onset of type 1 diabetes, possibly due to increased levels of stress hormones, which are also increased in conditions involving inflammation (such as type 1 diabetes) (Dahlquist 2006). A study from Israel found that that trauma of war was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. Children living in regions that were attacked during the Second Lebanon War had a higher risk of type 1 in the four years after the war, Continue reading >>