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Can Omeprazole Cause Diabetes

If You Are Taking Acid Blockers Like Omeprazole (prilosec)

If You Are Taking Acid Blockers Like Omeprazole (prilosec)

If you are taking acid blockers like Omeprazole (Prilosec) If you are taking acid blockers like Omeprazole (Prilosec) and the even newer and more expensive Nexium, you could be in serious danger. Danger Will Robinson-Reflux Drugs cause anemia and neuropathy! I loved the show Lost in Space fromthe 60s. Especially when the simpleminded and devious Dr. Zachary Smith would get the space travelers in a jam and the robot would roll around flapping his mechanical arms saying Danger Will Robinson, danger Will Robinson.,to alert the head of the ill fated mission. There is danger in taking drugs. What seemed to be just another great new treatment for heartburn has a darker side. Newer proton pump inhibitors and H-2 blockers have drawbacks. We used to just take an antacid for indigestion like Tums and waite d for the pain to go away. Then they came out with H2 blockers like Tagament and for many this was the greatest thing since sliced bread. But they have to keep coming out with new drugs as the old ones go off patent and they cannot make the huge profits. Now with the newer Proton Pump Inhibitors like Omeprazole (Prilosec) and the even newer and more expensive Nexium, there is a problem. They cause vitamin B-12 deficiency leading to anemia and neuropathy (nerve pain) when taken over a two year period. The problem is that the newer proton pump inhibitors halt all acid pro duction from the stomach. You need stomach acid to extract B-12 from the food you eat. Blocking all acid formation causes B-12 deficiency and there could be many other long term side effects from these newer drugs. I dont like being a guinea pig and neither do you. When you have severe heartburn (GERD) they work like a charm; but you should transition back to good old Tums for your long term health. Better yet, Continue reading >>

Is It Safe To Take Supplements If You Have Diabetes?

Is It Safe To Take Supplements If You Have Diabetes?

You will find supplements for anything and everything these days. Even when you do not suffer from an ailment, supplements are suggested to keep you healthy and ailment-free. According to CDC, use of supplements is common among US adult population – over 50% adults used supplements during 2003-2006, with multivitamins/multiminerals being the most commonly used. So when you are a diabetic, especially if you have prediabetes and type-2 diabetes, you may find yourself confronting a large number of options for supplements that claim to support, reduce and even cure your diabetes. Diabetes is quite a frustrating disorder and you may find yourself tempted to try out these supplements one after another. But is it really safe to take supplements when you are a diabetic? Let us find out. But before that you need to understand what exactly supplements are. Defining Supplements As the name suggests, a supplement is anything that adds on to something. A dietary supplement is therefore something that one takes in addition to one’s diet to get proper nutrition. US Congress in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act defines dietary supplements as having the following characteristics: It is a product that is intended to supplement the diet; It contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals, herbs and other botanicals, amino acids, and other substances) or their constituents; It is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid; It is not represented for use as a conventional food or as sole item of a mean or a diet; and, It is labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement. Now let us look at some general benefits and risks of taking supplements. We will discuss these in context of diabetes later in the article. Benefit Continue reading >>

Beware: Statin Drugs Can Actually Cause Diabetes

Beware: Statin Drugs Can Actually Cause Diabetes

Statin drugs increase your likelihood of suffering exercise-related injury, according to a recent study, and the harmful effect increases with age Several recent studies have also concluded that statins can increase your risk of developing diabetes. One meta-analysis found that one out of every 498 people who are on a high-dose statin regimen will develop diabetes as a result of the drug, but the risk may be as high as one in 255 Statins provoke diabetes by raising your blood sugar- and insulin levels, and by robbing your body of certain valuable nutrients, such as vitamin D and CoQ10, which are both needed to maintain ideal blood glucose levels Like thalidomide, statin drugs are a class X drug with regard to pregnancy, meaning they are contraindicated and should NOT be taken by pregnant women If you’re on a statin drug, you MUST take CoQ10 to alleviate some of the most dangerous side effects By Dr. Mercola Tens of millions of Americans are taking cholesterol-lowering drugs - mostly statins - and some "experts" claim that many millions more should be taking them, including children as young as eight. I couldn't disagree more. Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, that is, they act by blocking the enzyme in your liver that is responsible for making cholesterol (HMG-CoA reductase). The enzyme that these drugs block is actually responsible for far more than making cholesterol. It also makes CoQ10 which is vital for your mitochondrial health. The fact that statin drugs cause side effects is well established - there are now 900 studies proving their adverse effects, which run the gamut from muscle problems to diabetes, to birth defects and increased cancer risk. Now you can add exercise-related muscle damage to the ever growing list of harmful side effects. Statins Can Continue reading >>

390 Drugs That Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels

390 Drugs That Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels

Knowing the drugs that can affect blood glucose levels is essential in properly caring for your diabetes patients. Some medicines raise blood sugar in patients while others might lower their levels. However, not all drugs affect patients the same way. 390 Drugs that Can Affect Blood Glucose Levels is also available for purchase in ebook format. 390 Drugs that can affect blood glucose Level Table of Contents: Drugs that May Cause Hyper- or Hypoglycemia Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) (GENERIC NAME | BRAND NAME) Abacavir | (Ziagen®) Abacavir + lamivudine,zidovudine | (Trizivir®) Abacavir + dolutegravir + lamivudine | (Triumeq®) Abiraterone | (Zytiga®) Acetazolamide | (Diamox®) Acitretin | (Soriatane®) Aletinib | (Alecensa®) Albuterol | (Ventolin®, Proventil®) Albuterol + ipratropium | (Combivent®) Aliskiren + amlodipine + hydrochlorothiazide | (Amturnide®) Aliskiren + amlodipine | (Tekamlo®) Ammonium chloride Amphotericin B | (Amphocin®, Fungizone®) Amphotericin B lipid formulations IV | (Abelcet®) Amprenavir | (Agenerase®) Anidulafungin | (Eraxis®) Aripiprazole | (Abilify®) Arsenic trioxide | (Trisenox®) Asparaginase | (Elspar®, Erwinaze®) Atazanavir | (Reyataz ®) Atazanavir + cobistat | (Evotaz®) Atenolol + chlorthalidone | (Tenoretic®) Atorvastatin | (Lipitor®) Atovaquone | (Mepron®) Baclofen | (Lioresal®) Belatacept | (Nulojix®) Benazepril + hydrochlorothiazide | (Lotension®) Drugs That May Cause Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) – Continued (GENERIC NAME | BRAND NAME) Betamethasone topical | (Alphatrex®, Betatrex®, Beta-Val®, Diprolene®, Diprolene® AF, Diprolene® Lotion, Luxiq®, Maxivate®) Betamethasone +clotrimazole | (Lotrisone® topical) Betaxolol Betoptic® eyedrops, | (Kerlone® oral) Bexarotene | (Targ Continue reading >>

Metformin And Prilosec Drug Interactions - Drugs.com

Metformin And Prilosec Drug Interactions - Drugs.com

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider. Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Multum is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. Multum's information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Multum Information Services, Inc. does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. Copyright 2000-2018 Multum Information Services, Inc. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist. Some mixtures of medications can lead to serious and even fatal consequences. Continue reading >>

Side Effects Of Metformin Are More Serious Than You Think

Side Effects Of Metformin Are More Serious Than You Think

The Side Effects of Metformin can range from not so serious, to deadly, are the risks of Metformin and Glucophage side effects worth it? This page will give you information that might be able to help you decide that for yourself. Also known as Glucophage, this is an antidiabetic medicine most often used in those with Type 2 Diabetes who are also overweight. It’s also used extensively in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, a condition known as PCOS, which is often accompanied by higher blood sugar readings which often benefit from the blood sugar lowering effects of Metformin. While at first glance it seems that Side Effects of Metformin are rare, a closer look and a little math show that there are some serious problems that can occur when taking this drug, and others that can and should be prevented easily, but are usually not due to a medical community that simply does not use nutritional supplements in the prevention of even well-known, easily preventable Glucophage side effects. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency are well-known and well-studied side effects of Metformin. Despite the fact that there have been many studies confirming this problem over and over again in the medical literature, just like the Side Effects of Nitrous Oxide, few doctors warn their patients of this or recommend that they take simple, cheap over the counter Vitamin B12 Supplements in order to avoid this potentially devastating nutritional deficiency. In addition, the long term use of the ‘antacid’ drugs known as H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitors like Famotidine or Omeprazole, some of the most widely prescribed drugs, can increase this risk, as is mentioned in the Omeprazole Side Effects page. The Vitamin B12 Deficiency Symptoms range anywhere Continue reading >>

Effect Of Omeprazole On Metformin

Effect Of Omeprazole On Metformin

In this study, investigators hypothesized that the plasma concentration of metformin and its glucose-lowering action would be affected by omeprazole, probably by altering the expression or function of OCTs in the liver, its primary target organ, as well as in the kidney. Metformin is the most widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This insulin-sensitizing agent has well known beneficial effects not only on glycemic control, but also on the cardiovascular system. The antihyperglycemic effect of metformin is mainly based on suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which suppresses glucagon-stimulated glucose production and causes an increase in glucose uptake in muscle and in hepatic cells. Metformin is actively transported across membranes. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is responsible for uptake of metformin in hepatocytes, which is an essential step in reducing hepatic glucose production. , which is closely associated with its pharmacological action/adverse reactions. However, metformin alone is thought to be insufficient for achieving good metabolic control. Thus, treatment in addition to metformin is often required. Sitagliptin attenuates metformin-mediated AMPK phosphorylation through inhibition of organic cation transporters PPIs are frequently used in metformin-treated patients with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly seen in patients with type 2 diabetes and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the drugs of best choice in treatment of GERD. These data support the hypothesis that proton pump inhibitors can be used to treat type II diabetes. Moreover, PPIs itself appears to has significant glucose-lowering effects in an Continue reading >>

Can Omeprazole Cause Diabetes?

Can Omeprazole Cause Diabetes?

Omaperazole 20mg has caused sudden increase in fasting blood sugar I have been having acid reflux and doctor advised me Omperazole 20mg daily. My fasting blood sugar was less than 95 after taking omaperazole 20mg for 2 months i found Blood sugar fasting shooting to 150. I am hypertensive but not diabetic and have no family history of diabetes. I was just thought that this Omaperzole may be the real culprit . I don't take alcohol nor my food habitat has changed during these 2-3 months. I would like to know if anyone have had similar problem if yes any research into this topic. I know drug company don't reveal full side effect. I have taken off this drug from today. If my hypothesis is right than this may become an issue because of indiscriminate prescription of omaperazole Instead of Omeprazole for GERD, etc..try 1oz Apple Cider Vinegar...I know it sounds like BS....But it works...Problem is NOT too much acid, but too little...and Proton Pump Inhibitors and other acid suppressing drugs are designed to KEEP YOU taking the drug...try tapering off alternating prilosec one day, Apple Cider Vinegar the next day...you may need to adjust how you wean, based on rebound reflux...but I tell you, youll be glad you did one day.. I have bee n diabetic for 11 years & was taking Omeprazole well before this ( 40 mg daily. Down to 20 mg daily now) , am on. Insulin, both long acting and rapid acting, and do not believe this gerd treatment has any effect whatsoever on my blood sugars , which are well controlled. I am type 2 diabetic and take medication for my sugar levels I have been on omaprazole 20 mg for nearly 3 weeks and could not understand my sugar levels being so high at each reading I know it has been xmas but my diet has not been much different than usual I have only just realis Continue reading >>

Prilosec And Metformin Caused Vitamin Deficiency

Prilosec And Metformin Caused Vitamin Deficiency

Prilosec and metformin caused vitamin deficiency By Joe Graedon, M.S., and Teresa Graedon, Ph.D. Published 11:19am, Friday, January 3, 2014 Q: My best friend has been having increasing difficulty this year with numbness and tingling in her feet and a loss of balance. Her doctor chalked it up to her age (79). When she fell in her bathroom and hit her head, she landed in the ICU, where a neurologist diagnosed her with vitamin B-12 deficiency. She has been getting injections of vitamin B-12, and although she can see some improvement, she still has poor balance. She had been taking Prilosec (omeprazole) for heartburn and metformin for Type 2 diabetes. Apparently both drugs can trigger this deficiency. Why don't doctors pay attention to the side effects of the drugs they prescribe? A: Your friend is the victim of a double whammy. Vitamin B-12 deficiency long has been recognized as a serious complication of the diabetes drug metformin. A recent study showed that acid-suppressing drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole (Prevacid) and esomeprazole (Nexium) also can lead to vitamin B-12 deficiency (JAMA, Dec. 11, 2013). Low levels of this vitamin may cause irreversible nerve damage. Symptoms include numbness, tingling or pain in toes, feet or fingers, trouble walking, memory problems and confusion, depression or burning tongue. Other symptoms can include loss of appetite, constipation and anemia. People taking any of these medications should have vitamin B-12 levels tested at least once a year. Q: What can I do for a very itchy scalp? I have tried blue dandruff shampoo, but it didn't help. A: Some people report that soaking the scalp in milk of magnesia or amber Listerine before shampooing helps calm the itch. Dandruff shampoos can help this condition, but they may work best if Continue reading >>

Side-effects Of Prilosec

Side-effects Of Prilosec

Prilosec, Prevacid, Aciphex and Protonix belong to a class of drugs known as Proton Pump Inhibitors. These drugs are strong neutralizer of HCL, normally produced in the stomach. These drugs provide relief of symptoms such as heartburn and stomach pain. Long term use of Prilosec and similar drugs can cause Calcium malabsorption, Osteoporosis and increased risk of C.difficile colitis, which is a serious intestinal infection, manifesting as ch.diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, gas, abdominal cramping. Therefore, I advise my patients to use Prilosec and similar products with caution and usually for short term. In stead of just keep taking these drugs, one has to look at the causes of over-production of HCL in the stomach and its reflux into the esophagus. Stress is the main reason for the overproduction of HCL and Caffeine use is the main reason for the reflux of HCL from stomach into the esophagus. For Vitamin D, I recommend Sublingual Vitamin D3 for everyone because this route is more physiological, and particularly, in anyone with any gastrointestinal issues. These drugs also reduces the effectiveness of Plavix, which is a blood thinner and is often used to prevent a heart attack. Continue reading >>

Will You Have Hypoglycemia With Omeprazole - From Fda Reports - Ehealthme

Will You Have Hypoglycemia With Omeprazole - From Fda Reports - Ehealthme

A study for a 21 year old man who takes Strattera NOTE: The study is based on active ingredients and brand name. Other drugs that have the same active ingredients (e.g. generic drugs) are NOT considered. WARNING: Please DO NOT STOP MEDICATIONS without first consulting a physician since doing so could be hazardous to your health. DISCLAIMER: All material available on eHealthMe.com is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. All information is observation-only, and has not been supported by scientific studies or clinical trials unless otherwise stated. Different individuals may respond to medication in different ways. Every effort has been made to ensure that all information is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. The use of the eHealthMe site and its content is at your own risk. You may report adverse side effects to the FDA at or 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088). If you use this eHealthMe study on publication, please acknowledge it with a citation: study title, URL, accessed date. Continue reading >>

Omeprazole To Reduce Stomach Acid Losec, Mepradec, Prilosec

Omeprazole To Reduce Stomach Acid Losec, Mepradec, Prilosec

Healing or prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; Helicobacter pylori infection; Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; acid-related dyspepsia; reduction of gastric acid during surgery Combination brands include: Yosprala (omeprazole with aspirin); Zegerid (omeprazole with sodium bicarbonate) Capsules, tablets, dispersible tablets, and injection Acid is produced naturally in your stomach to help you digest food and to kill bacteria. This acid is irritant so your body produces a natural mucous barrier which protects the lining of your stomach. In some people, this barrier can break down allowing the acid to damage the stomach, causing inflammation, ulcers and other conditions. Other people can have a problem with the muscular band at the top of the stomach that keeps the stomach tightly closed. This may allow the acid to escape and irritate the oesophagus, causing heartburn. This is often referred to as ' acid reflux '. Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole stop cells in the lining of the stomach from producing too much acid. This can help to prevent ulcers from forming, or assist the healing process where damage has already occurred. By decreasing the amount of acid, they can also help to reduce the symptoms of acid reflux disease, such as heartburn. Omeprazole is also given as one part of a treatment to get rid of Helicobacter pylori , a bacterium found in the stomach, which can cause ulcers. Omeprazole is available on prescription. You can also buy short courses of omeprazole at a pharmacy for the treatment of reflux symptoms (such as heartburn) in adults. Some medicines are not suitable for people with certain conditions, and sometimes a medicine may only be used if extra care is taken. For these reasons, before you start taking omepra Continue reading >>

Improved Diabetes Control And Pancreatic Function In A Type 2 Diabetic After Omeprazole Administration

Improved Diabetes Control And Pancreatic Function In A Type 2 Diabetic After Omeprazole Administration

Copyright © 2012 I. N. Mefford et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract A 43-year-old man with type 2 diabetes, opposed to insulin use and poorly responsive to oral agents added sequentially over 6 years, was placed on 40 mg omeprazole twice daily. A linear decline in daily fasting blood glucose was observed over the first two-month treatment, and his hemoglobin A1c was reduced from 11.9% to 8.2%, then sustained at 8.1% after four months. Glucose, insulin, and C-peptide response to a 2-hour glucose tolerance test were consistently improved across this time period, and calculated beta-cell mass increased by 67%. We believe these responses are consistent with activation or neogenesis of pancreatic beta cells, possibly through a gastrin-mediated mechanism. 1. Introduction Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease characterized by both insulin resistance and increasing dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells, either through inactivation or apoptosis [1, 2]. Common treatments of type 2 diabetes may modify insulin sensitivity, increase insulin secretion, or in some cases either reduce beta-cell dysfunction or slow their degradation [3]. However, none of the current available agents are known to increase beta-cell population in humans. Meier et al. have demonstrated increased beta-cell activity in the human pancreas surrounding gastrinomas [4], and further studies have shown gastrin administration to induce pancreatic beta-cell neogenesis in animal models of diabetes [5, 6]. We previously observed in a retrospective analysis of our patient database a significant improvement in type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>

Omeprazole 40 Mg Precious Memories

Omeprazole 40 Mg Precious Memories

Rated 4/5 based on 263 customer reviews Product description: Prilosec is used for treating heartburn or irritation of the esophagus caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It may also be used for short-term treatment of ulcers of the stomach or small intestines. It may also be used with certain antibiotics to treat ulcers of the small intestines and to help prevent them from coming back. It may also be used to treat conditions that cause your body to make too much stomach acid (eg, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome). Prilosec is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). It works by decreasing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Prilosec as known as:Acichek,Acimax,Acimed,Acromon,Adprazole,Agastin,Agrixal,Airomet-aom,Alboz,Alcerelief,Alevior,Alsidol,Altosec,Anadir,Anasec,Antra,Antramups,Aprazole,Arpezol,Asec,Aspra,Audazol,Aulcer,Avizol,Aziatop,Belifax,Benformin,Biocid,Bioprazol,Brux,Buscogast,Bysec,Candazol,Ceprandal,Cizole,Cletus,Cosec,Coszol,Cozep,Criogel,Danlox,Demeprazol,Desec,Diocid,Diorium,Docomepra,Dolintol,Domer,Domperon-o,Domstal-rd,Dosate,Dotrome,Dudencer,Duogas,Durosec,Efome,Efrozin,Elcodrop,Elcofar,Elcontrol,Elgam,Elibactin,Elkostop,Elkotheran,Emage,Emeproton,Emez,Emidon-om,Emilok,Enpral,Epirazole,Erbolin,Eselan,Esopraz,Etiprazol,Eucid,Exter,Ezipol,Ezol,Fabrazol,Fendiprazol,Flusal,Fordex,Gamaprazol,Gasec,Gaspron,Gastec,Gaster,Gastracid,Gastral,Gastrimut,Gastrium,Gastrizol plus,Gastromax-ep,Gastronol,Gastronorm,Gastroplex,Gastroprazol,Gastrosef,Gastrostad,Gastrotem,Gastrozol,Gastrozole,Gertalgin,Getzome,Glaveral,Gomec,Grizol,Groprazol,Healer,Helicid,Helizol,Hovizol,Hycid,Hyposec,Ibax,Indurgan,Inhibita,Inhibitron,Inhiplex,Inhipump,Inpro,Ipirasa,Ipproton,Kerlofin,Klacid hp7,Klomeprax,Komezol,Kruxagon,Lanex,Lasectil,Lenar,Lexigor,Limnos,Locid,Locimez,Lodrec,Logas Continue reading >>

The Use Of Proton Pump Inhibitors Decreases The Risk Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Upper Gastrointestinal Disease

The Use Of Proton Pump Inhibitors Decreases The Risk Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Upper Gastrointestinal Disease

The use of proton pump inhibitors decreases the risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with upper gastrointestinal disease A population-based retrospective cohort study aDepartment of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei cSchool of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei eGraduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei fDepartment of Neurology, Cathy General Hospital, Sijhih Branch, New Taipei City dSchool of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei gDepartment of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. aDepartment of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei cSchool of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei dSchool of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei eGraduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei fDepartment of Neurology, Cathy General Hospital, Sijhih Branch, New Taipei City gDepartment of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Correspondence: Li-Hsuan Wang, School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wu-Hsing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (e-mail: )[email protected] Received 2016 Nov 5; Revised 2016 Jun 14; Accepted 2016 Jun 17. Copyright 2016 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. This is an open access art Continue reading >>

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