Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes, juvenile) is a condition in which the body stops making insulin. This causes the person's blood sugar to increase. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is attacked by the immune system and then it cannot produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas can produce insulin, but the body can't use it. Causes of type 1 diabetes are auto-immune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This can be caused by viruses and infections as well as other risk factors. In many cases, the cause is not known. Scientists are looking for cures for type 1 diabetes such as replacing the pancreas or some of its cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are family history, introducing certain foods too soon (fruit) or too late (oats/rice) to babies, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are skin infections, bladder or vaginal infections, and Sometimes, there are no significant symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests. The level of blood sugar is measured, and then levels of insulin and antibodies can be measured to confirm type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin and lifestyle changes. Specifically, meal planning to ensure carbohydrate intake matches insulin dosing. Complications of type 1 diabetes are kidney disease, eye problems, heart disease, and nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy) such as loss of feeling in the feet. Poor wound healing can also be a complication of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, however, keeping blood sugar at healthy levels may delay or prevent symptoms or complications. There is currently no cure, and most cases of type 1 diabetes have no known cause. The prognosis or life-expectancy for a person with Continue reading >>
Is The Herpes Virus Related To Type 1 Diabetes?
Is the Herpes Virus related to Type 1 Diabetes? Hi all! Im new to the forum as a writer, but have been lurking for quite some time! I see that so many are on here and get more answers than with other forums, or even just doing their own research. I was diagnosed Type 1 when I was 22. Ive been diabetic for 5 years now. I always wondered what brought on my diagnosis, and always chalked it up to being extremely stressed right before: I was planning my wedding by myself, and finishing up my Associates Degree, then my mother had a stroke, and some close friends left my life. Id say I was an emotional mess back then. Anyway, as a child I was always super thin. I was 3 months premature, had two holes in my heart (that luckily healed on their own), but otherwise was fairly healthy. One thing that has crossed my mind though is the herpes virus. When I was younger, I had chicken pox twice and shingles once. As an adult I got mono, and then an outbreak of fever blisters in my mouth a couple of times which I had to get medication for. I know that all are various forms of the Herpes virus. I have tried researching to see if Type 1 Diabetes is linked at all, but I cant remember finding anything definitive. Does anyone know if it is linked to T1D? Maybe I was always at risk for developing diabetes, or maybe it has nothing to do with it. I was just wondering if anyone has heard any correlation between the two? I understand that all infectons (mono, shingles, etc) are different types of the Herpes virus. I am hoping I dont have any other form of the virus rear its ugly head in my lifetime! Type 1 is certainly auto immune, although Ive never heard a link to any specific virus or bacteria. I was diagnosed just before high school. The cold/flu season right before, I had three long bouts w Continue reading >>
Ebv, Mono, Diabetes?
I may have posted here many years ago, but have become so frustrated after years of diligent investigating that I just learned to live with my symptoms. However, my health has taken a turn for the worse. I started seeing a CFS specialist at last, and while she said I should treat my symptom set as CFS, she couldn't give me an official diagnosis because I didn't exactly meet every criterion for a diagnosis. Anyway, her testing did provide me with a few clues as to what is wrong. She told me I should stay away from gluten, dairy, and fructose (which cause IBS and lead to other problems). This has helped somewhat. She also told me that my blood tests showed that my body was producing antibodies (I think) for mononucleosis, which I had when I when I was 17 (I am 40 now!). Anyway, I was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes (adult onset) a few years ago, too. But my main problem is this: I catch every sickness possible it seems, and it takes me weeks - sometimes months - to recover. And I suffer sometimes severe flu-like symptoms following even the lightest of physical exercise. Right now I have had laryngitis for a month (which makes my job as a substitute teacher pretty much impossible) and feel much like I did when I first developed my CFS like symptoms (which followed a bout of strep throat, and resulted in me having zero exercise tolerance, among other things). I am on my second round of antibiotics and feel no better - perhaps worse - than I did a month ago! It seems I have no immune system left. So I guess I am just wondering if anyone out there knows anything about chronic mono / EBV and if and how it can be treated, or how it relates to CFS? Or if anyone can help me connect the dots based on what little I've explained here? Any insights, leads, suggestions, or encourageme Continue reading >>
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Type 1 Diabetes Linked Strongly To Common Enterovirus
Type 1 diabetes linked strongly to common enterovirus By Kathleen Blanchard G+ Feb 4 2011 - 9:54am New evidence links type 1 diabetes to a cold related and common virus.The cause of type 1 or juvenile diabetes has been poorly understood, but long believed to be an autoimmune disorder. New evidence strongly links the disease to enterovirus infection that is extremely common. Past studies link virus and autoimmunity to diabetes Past research has linked enterovirus to type 1 diabetes, but strong evidence has been lacking. The increased rates of diabetes among children prompted a new study from Australian researchers who reviewed 24 studies and two abstracts involving 4,448 participants. In a phase I clinical trial, BCG vaccine was found to reverse diabetes by boosting TNF (tumor necrosis factor) in the bloodstream. TNF has been found to suppress autoimmunity and diabetes in mice, leading to the study for development of the vaccine for diabetes and supporting the current findings. A UK study, published March, 2009 also found enterovirus was present in the pancreas of 60 percent of children who died from type 1 diabetes. Forty percent of adults with type 2 diabetes studied also had the viral DNA on examination of pancreatic tissue in the former study. The findings showed children with enterovirus were 10 times more likely to have type 1 diabetes compared to non-diabetics. The enterovirus consists of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein. Though the virus is common, many infected individuals have no symptoms, according to information from the CDC. RNA from enterovirus found in children with type 1 diabetes There are 60 types of the cold related viruses that can cause infection. Manifestations include mild respiratory and flu like symptoms, primarily in children. Enterovirus can Continue reading >>
Can 'mono' Virus Up Odds For 7 Other Diseases?
MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Millions of young Americans have lived through the fatigue and discomfort of mononucleosis. Now, new research suggests, but doesn't prove, that the virus that causes the illness may be linked to an increased risk for seven other serious immune-system diseases. Those diseases include lupus; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis; juvenile idiopathic arthritis; inflammatory bowel disease; celiac disease; and type 1 diabetes. "Mono" is a contagious illness that occurs most often in teens and young adults. It's caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, one of the most common human viruses. "Epstein-Barr virus infects over 90 percent of adults, and the infection lasts for a lifetime," said study lead author Dr. John Harley. "The new results are building a strong case that this virus is also involved in causing a number of autoimmune diseases for at least some patients," added Harley. He is director of the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology. "It is the kind of circumstantial evidence that is comparable to a smoking gun," he added. And those seven diseases affect roughly 8 million Americans, Harley and his colleagues said. However, one expert said people who have had mono shouldn't panic. The findings "should not be a cause for alarm," said Dr. David Pisetsky, a professor of medicine at the Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, N.C. "In modern life everyone has been exposed and infected with Epstein-Barr," he noted. "And if 99 percent of people have been exposed to Epstein-Barr, and only 0.1 percent have lupus, it means there really must be other factors at play that affect risk," Pisetsky explained. "I really don't think it's a reason for undue concern," he added. Pisetsky is also on the sci Continue reading >>
The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection
A young child becomes very thirsty very often and seems tired all the time. A visit to the pediatrician determines she has type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes may seem sudden, and it can be, but the disease may actually have been triggered by common childhood viruses years earlier. Type 1 diabetes—also called diabetes mellitus—was previously called juvenile-onset diabetes because most people affected with this disease are diagnosed as children and young adults. It isn't the most common form of diabetes and only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. That doesn't make it any less serious—in fact, it can be a life-threatening disease. When we eat something, our body converts carbohydrates and starches in the food into sugar (glucose), which is then processed by our bodies to either be used or stored for later. People with type 1 diabetes have trouble keeping their blood sugar level even: It spikes when they eat something and goes very low if they don't. That's because their pancreas doesn't make insulin, the hormone that in a healthy human moves glucose from the blood into cells where it can be used for energy, keeping it from spiking after eating. Type 1 diabetics must constantly monitor their blood sugar and take insulin to keep their levels within a normal range to keep this process running. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease where the body forms antibodies to itself and attacks parts of its own body. In this case, antibodies are formed to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Experts believe type 1 diabetes may be caused by a genetic risk factors and environmental factors, including viruses. A viral link to type 1 diabetes is one of the findings in a new study led by Hanna Honkanen and Heikki Hyöty in th Continue reading >>
New Look At Viruses In Type 1 Diabetes | Ilar Journal | Oxford Academic
Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Genetic factors are believed to be a major component for the development of type 1diabetes, but the concordance rate for the development of diabetes in identical twins is only about 40%, suggesting that non-genetic factors play an important role in the expression of the disease. Viruses are one environmental factor that is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. To date, 14 different viruses have been reported to be associated with the development of type 1 diabetes in humans and animal models. Viruses may be involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in at least two distinct ways: by inducing beta cell-specific autoimmunity, with or without infection of the beta cells, (e.g. Kilham rat virus) and by cytolytic infection and destruction of the beta cells (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus in mice). With respect to virus-mediated autoimmunity, retrovirus, reovirus, Kilham rat virus, bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus, mumps virus, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are discussed. With respect to the destruction of beta cells by cytolytic infection, encephalomyocarditis virus, mengovirus and Coxsackie B viruses are discussed. In addition, a review of transgenic animal models for virus-induced autoimmune diabetes is included, particularly with regard to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, influenza viral proteins and the Epstein-Barr viral receptor. Finally, the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by infection of viruses such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is discussed. Continue reading >>
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Could Your Child Have Diabetes?
More than 15,000 children are diagnosed with type 1 every year. Make sure you know the telltale signs -- they're all too easy to dismiss. When Chloe Powell started begging for one more drink of water every night, her father, Charles, thought his then 7-year-old was using a common bedtime stall tactic. "I was irritated that she wouldn't go to sleep," admits Dr. Powell, who's a family physician in Dallas. With all she was drinking, he wasn't surprised when she began wetting the bed. But when Chloe couldn't make it through a conversation without having to use the bathroom, he became concerned. "I figured she had a urinary-tract infection, and she'd take some antibiotics and feel better," says Dr. Powell. He wasn't at all prepared for what his daughter's urine test showed: a dangerously high level of sugar that was a clear indicator of type 1 diabetes. In an instant, Chloe, now 10, went from being a kid who never thought twice about the foods she ate or the energy she burned to one who'd face a lifetime of carbohydrate counting, finger pricks, and insulin injections. A Disease on the Rise Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body's immune system to mistakenly destroy healthy cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin. (Type 2, on the other hand, occurs when the body doesn't respond to the insulin that's being made.) Insulin ensures that sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream gets into the body's cells where it's needed for energy; without insulin, sugar builds up in the blood, which can be deadly. It's important to begin insulin therapy as soon as possible because high blood-sugar levels can cause permanent vision and nerve problems as well as damage to blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Since the 198 Continue reading >>
Monogenic Diabetes: Not Your Typical Diabetes
Monogenic Diabetes: Not Your Typical Diabetes While its probably common knowledge that diabetes tends to run in some families, many people may not realize that multiple genes can increase the risk for developing Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. As a result, doctors refer to Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes as polygenic because more than one often several genes likely contribute to a persons risk for developing the condition, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). But a mutation in a single gene also can cause diabetes. Known as monogenic diabetes, this form accounts for an estimated 1% to 5% of all cases of diabetes and, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), most commonly affects infants, children, and young adults. However, research suggests that at least 80% of all cases of monogenic diabetes go unnoticed. Although monogenic diabetes tends to be fairly uncommon, it may cause serious health problems if left untreated. Quite often, the condition either goes undiagnosed or is misdiagnosed as Type 1 diabetes, which could be problematic if someone with the condition does not receive proper treatment. The term monogenic diabetes doesnt just describe a single form of diabetes or manifestation of insulin resistance . The phrase is used to describe a large variety of rare but potentially serious diabetic disorders caused by a single abnormality that can occur in a variety of genes. To date, researchers have identified nearly 30 different genes that can cause the disorder. Like Type 1, monogenic diabetes is found most commonly in younger people according to diabetesgenes.org , most receive a diagnosis before their 25th birthday. However, unlike Type 1, some forms of monogenic diabetes either may not require treatment and/or can be treated with drug Continue reading >>
Health And Wellness Portal | Children's Hospital Vanderbilt | Diabetes And Other Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders | Infectious Mononucleosis (mono) In Teens And Young Adults
Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono) in Teens and Young Adults Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono) in Teens and Young Adults What is infectious mononucleosis in teens and young adults? Infectious mononucleosis isa contagious illness. Its common in teens and young adults. It isalsoknown as mononucleosis, mono,glandular fever, orthe kissing disease. What causes mono in a teen or young adult? Mono isoften caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It may also be caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV).Bothviruses are members of the herpes simplex virus family. Mono is most often spread by contact with infected spit (saliva). But it can also be spread through blood or other body fluids. It's hard to keep it from spreading because even people with no symptoms can carry the virus in their saliva and infect other people. What are the symptoms of mono in a teen or young adult? Most healthy people whoget the CMV virus have few or no symptoms. Some may develop symptoms.EBV causes symptoms more often. Symptoms of mono can take between 4 to 6 weeks to appear. They can last for weeks or months. They usually dont last beyond 4 months. Tiredness and trouble thinking may last for months longer. The most common symptoms of mono include: Swollen lymph glands in the neck, armpits, and groin Long periods of tirednessand muscle aches Sore throat because of enlarged tonsils (tonsillitis). This can make it hard to swallow. Mild liver damage that can cause short-term yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) Once a child gets mono, the virussays inactive in the bodyfor lifebut rarely develops symptoms of mono. The symptoms of mono can be like other health conditions. Make sure yourchild sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis. How is mono diagnosed in a teen or young adult? The healthcare provider wi Continue reading >>
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Subclinical Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes typically presents with acute osmotic symptoms or diabetic decompensation. It is seldom diagnosed solely as the result of a blood test. Go to: CASE HISTORY A woman of 23 consulted her general practitioner because of 'flu-like symptoms, sore throat and lethargy. There was a strong family history of type 1 diabetes (including a brother and a first cousin) and her mother had checked her blood glucose with a meter. The reading was 13.4 mmol/L 2 hours after food. On examination her temperature was 37.4°C and she had mild tender submandibular lymphadenopathy and tonsillar erythema. She was slim, with a body mass index of 23. She had never experienced any osmotic or other symptoms suggestive of diabetes. In the fasting state, urine was negative for glucose and ketones and plasma glucose was 5.9 mmol/L. Further blood tests showed a normal full blood count, including differential, and normal renal, liver and thyroid function. A monospot test was positive, and infectious mononucleosis was thought the likely cause of her symptoms. She was advised to rest, and to test her blood sugar occasionally, fasting and 2 hours after meals. Postprandial hyperglycaemia continued with blood sugars on her meter ranging from 9 to 14 mmol/L. Urine remained negative for ketones and glucose. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) pointed to diabetes and she was referred to the hospital diabetes clinic. Blood sugars continued at 4-7 mmol/L before meals and up to 14 mmol/L postprandially. She was now symptom-free, having recovered from her bout of infectious mononucleosis. There was no evidence of diabetic complications. Glycated haemoglobin indicated good control at 6.7%. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 antibody (GAD65) and islet cell antibody (ICA) markers for type 1 diabetes were str Continue reading >>
Surviving Type 1 While Fighting A Mystery Illness
Surviving Type 1 While Fighting a Mystery Illness The Type 1 diabetes world was never a new world to me, and not because I was diagnosed as an infant. With my mom having been diagnosed with Type 1 at the age of 8, I grew up around syringes, test strips and carb counting. I even used to love eating her glucose tabs when she wasnt looking. In my early years we started attending JDRF events and I remember walking around feeling so proud that my mom was a fighter of this condition that we were all gathered together to raise money to cure. Though truthfully, I didnt understand the seriousness of it. My mom always handled her Type 1 with such grace and control that I dont think I ever knew the implications of the fight she was dealing with every day. So when I was diagnosed at the age of 12, my first thought was, Thats okay, Im like my mom now. I slowly became one with Type 1. By the age of 19, I felt like a seasoned veteran. I was at the beginning of college and it was time to start the best years of my life. Unfortunately, they never quite happened, as I had to drop out. You hear stories about people who get sick with mystery illnesses but you never think youll become one of them. Slowly but surely, I became one. One symptom would pop up after another. At first it was just frustrating fatigue that left me struggling to take public transit. Doctors, of course, questioned whether my blood sugars were in control. Then came the muscle weakness. Seemingly easy things like washing my hair in the shower or holding a shopping bag became a taxing struggle and climbing a small set of stairs became like climbing Mount Everest. Id have stroke-like episodes of half my body going numb. My coordination had worsened and my constant tremor had become more prominent. I became dependent on a Continue reading >>
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Possible Transient Benefits Of Epstein Barr Virus Infection In Three Subjects With Established Type 1 Diabetes
Received date: September 28, 2013; Accepted date: November 13, 2013; Published date: November 18, 2013 Citation: Khtreiber WM, Leung SL, Wang L, Hsu E, Reinhold PE III, et al. (2013) Possible Transient Benefits of Epstein Barr Virus Infection in Three Subjects with Established Type 1 Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab 4:309. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000309 Copyright: 2013 Khtreiber WM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a novel immunotherapy for type I diabetes because it selectively kills insulin autoreactive T-cells, which enables recovery of insulin production by pancreatic islet cells. The TNF inducer Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) also has therapeutic value by activating innate immunity that beneficially modifies the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the same manner as TNF. Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection is also an inducer of TNF. This observational study was undertaken to determine whether EBV has the same beneficial effects as BCG in a recent clinical trial. We describe three cases of long-term diabetic subjects with active mononucleosis that were followed for 15 weeks to determine the impact of EBV infection on established T1D. In comparison to non-EBVinfected long-term diabetics, EBV transiently diminished the autoimmune response in two of three cases. EBV infection triggered rapid increase of circulating insulin-B autoreactive T-cells whose striking loss of CD8 marker indicated that the cells were injured or apoptotic. EBV infection also caused a transient surge in the secretion of C-peptide, a marker for pancreatic insulin secre Continue reading >>
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Cold Virus May Trigger Type 1 Diabetes
The finding could help explain a dramatic rise in diabetes incidence among very young children, and could even lead to better ways to prevent and treat the disease, researchers say. The analysis of 26 studies published today in the journal BMJ Online First revealed that children with type 1 diabetes are almost 10 times more likely to show signs of enterovirus infection than children without the disease. Enteroviruses are the second leading viral cause of cold-like symptoms in children, after rhinoviruses. Researchers have long believed that genetic predisposition, the immune system, and environmental triggers interact to cause type 1 diabetes, a disease that affects nearly one in 400 children and adolescents in the U.S., according to the American Diabetes Association. Enteroviruses have been on the radar as a possible disease trigger for decades. While some studies have found evidence of a link, others have not. The newly published analysis was the first to combine results from molecular enterovirus-diabetes studies, and the findings were clear, says researcher Maria E. Craig, PhD, of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. “We saw a very strong association between enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes," Craig tells WebMD. “Obviously studies like the ones we looked at cannot prove cause and effect, but the findings make a strong case for this association.” Since enteroviruses are made up of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins, the studies included in the analysis measured RNA or protein in the blood, stool, or tissues of type 1 diabetic or pre-diabetic patients and compared them with people who did not have the disease. Children with type 1 diabetes were 9.8 times more likely to be infected with enterovirus than children without the disease and Continue reading >>
Positive For Mono - Experience With Type 1 & Mono, Anyone?